The aim of this study was to characterise the acceleration and sprint profiles of elite football match play in one Norwegian elite football team (Rosenborg FC). Fifteen professional players in five playing positions took part in the study (n = 101 observations). Player movement was recorded during every domestic home game of one full season (n = 15) by an automatic tracking system based on microwave technology. Each player performed 91 ± 21 accelerations per match, with a lower number in the second compared with the first half (47 ± 12 vs. 44 ± 12). Players in lateral positions accelerated more often compared to players in central positions (98.3 ± 20.5 vs. 85.3 ± 19.5, p
The present investigation reports 138 consecutive patients injured in sports, who needed treatment as in-patients in a one year period. More injuries were sustained in soccer than in other sports. The lower extremity was the site of most injuries, fractures and dislocations being the most common type of injury. At follow-up 50% of the patients complained of discomfort. The average stay in hospital after a sports injury requiring hospital care was 6 days. In 52% of the patients the duration of sports incapacity was at least six months and in seven per cent the sports incapacity after the sustained injury was permanent.
Cites: J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1983 Feb;65(2):193-76337161
American football is currently played in 14 European countries. It is a contact sport where injuries are inevitable. In this study, injuries causing more than one week of absence from game or practise were registered during the 1991 preseason and season. A total of 112 injuries was reported among 684 players. Knees were most vulnerable to injury (28.6%) followed by ankle injuries (16.7%). Operations were performed on 28 (25%) of the injured players. Catastrophic injuries can occur in this sport, but none has happened in Finland during the 12 years for which the sport has been practised. The skill level was not a contributing factor. The frequency of injuries and their profile closely resemble those in US-based studies so it is suggested that the precautions and preventive measures recommended in the USA should be applied and followed in Europe.
Cites: Sports Med. 1991 Aug;12(2):132-471947533
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To review head injury in football through historical, anatomic, and physiological analysis.
We obtained data from a thorough review of the literature.
The reported incidence of concussion among high school football players dropped from 19% in 1983 to 4% in 1999. During the 1997 Canadian Football League season, players with a previous loss of consciousness in football were 6.15 times more likely to experience a concussion than players without a previous loss of consciousness (P
The impact attenuating characteristics of a sample of 81 football helmets used in competitive high school programs were determined using a Hodgson-Wayne State University (WSU) headform and a modified National Operating Committee on Standards for Athletic Equipment (NOCSAE) test protocol. The helmets, classified by liner type as suspension (37), padded-suspension (22), and padded (22) had been in use for 6 to 8 years. Each was subjected to two consecutive right rear boss impacts from a drop height of 1.5 m, onto a rigid anvil covered with a 45 durometer hardness rubber pad. Analogue signals from a triaxial accelerometer located at the center of gravity of the headform were analogue to digital (A/D) converted at 6060.6 Hz and processed on a Hewlett Packard 9845B minicomputer to yield a resultant acceleration-time curve from which peak acceleration (gpeak) and the Gadd Severity Index (GSI) were determined. The mean gpeak was 205 g for helmets with suspension liners, 165 g for helmets with padded-suspension liners, and 156 g for helmets with padded liners. Twenty-four suspension helmets and five padded or padded-suspension helmets had GSI values greater than 1200. Using a criterion of GSI1500, the failure rate for suspension helmets was 19% compared to 2% for padded and padded-suspension helmets combined. If the criterion chosen was GSI1200, the failure rate for suspension helmets was 65% as opposed to 11% for the padded and padded-suspension helmets combined. Suspension helmets are decidedly inferior under impact conditions to the padded and padded-suspension helmets.
Managing an airway in an unconscious athlete is a lifesaving skill that may be made more difficult by the recent changes in protective equipment. Different airway maneuvers and techniques may be required to help ventilate an unconscious athlete who is wearing full protective equipment.
To assess the effectiveness of different airway maneuvers with football, ice hockey, and soccer players wearing full protective equipment.
University sports medicine clinic.
A total of 146 university varsity athletes, consisting of 62 football, 45 ice hockey, and 39 soccer players.
Athletes were assessed for different airway and physical characteristics. Three investigators then evaluated the effectiveness of different bag-valve-mask (BVM) ventilation techniques in supine athletes who were wearing protective equipment while inline cervical spine immobilization was maintained.
The effectiveness of 1-person BVM ventilation (1-BVM), 2-person BVM ventilation (2-BVM), and inline immobilization and ventilation (IIV) was judged by each investigator for each athlete using a 4-point rating scale.
All forms of ventilation were least difficult in soccer players and most difficult in football players. When compared with 1-BVM, both 2-BVM and IIV were deemed more effective by all investigators for all athletes. Interference from the helmet and stabilizer were common reasons for difficult ventilation in football and ice hockey players.
Sports medicine professionals should practice and be comfortable with different ventilation techniques for athletes wearing full equipment. The use of a new ventilation technique, termed inline immobilization and ventilation, may be beneficial, especially when the number of responders is limited.
The purpose of this study was to explore how an exclusive sample of women's national football team coaches described how they implement careful coaching while facing social and organizational pressure to win medals.
To consider coaches' negotiations, we drew on Noddings' concept of caring. Using an interpretive research paradigm, we conducted in-depth interviews with five Swedish women's national football team coaches. An abductive approach was used to simultaneously process the theoretical framework of "ethics of care" and the empirical data.
The coaches unanimously adopted a holistic perspective to coaching. The coaching strategies they described included promoting players' development, well-being, and sustainable elite performance; listening to the players' voices and engaging in dialogue; and creating a positive environment and promoting fair play.
These findings demonstrate that the women coaches, despite performance pressure, adopt caring coaching in the form of Noddings' pedagogical modelling, dialogue, and confirmation strategies, and provide an example of how coaches can adopt caring, holistic, and athlete-centred coaching while working at the highest level of competitive sport and achieving competitive success.
The objectives of this study were (1) to determine the incidence of brachial neuropraxia (stingers) among varsity football players during the 2010 season; (2) to determine if associations exist between sustaining a stinger and previous history of stingers, years played, equipment, age, body mass index (BMI), and conditioning; and (3) to provide descriptive statistics regarding stingers and position played, symptoms, activity during injury, mechanism of tackling, and reporting of stingers.
Canadian Atlantic University Sport football league.
Two hundred forty-four players.
Two written questionnaires.
Number of players experiencing stingers that occurred during the 2010 season.
The incidence was 26% (64 of 244). A multivariate analysis revealed that previous history of a stinger (P
This study examined the intermittent exercise performance and cardiovascular health profile in elite female football players in comparison to untrained young women, as well as a subgroup subjected to football training 2x1 h · week(-1) for 16 weeks. Twenty-seven Danish national team players (elite trained, ET) and 28 untrained women (UT) underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-scanning (DXA), comprehensive transthoracic echocardiography, treadmill and Yo-Yo Intermittent Endurance level 2 (IE2) testing. Eight women in UT were also tested after the football training period. Maximal oxygen uptake rate (VO2max), peak ventilation and peak lactate were 40, 18 and 51% higher (P
Maxillofacial and dental injuries were studied in registered players of American football, bandy, basketball, and handball in Finland between 1979 and 1985. In American football, where facial protection is complete and mandatory, maxillofacial and dental accidents accounted for only 1.4% of all accidents. In bandy, where facial protection was inadequate during the time of study (only the helmet and extraoral mouth protector were mandatory), the respective figure was 10.6%. The most frequent causes of injury were a blow from another player (in American football, basketball, and handball) or a blow from the stick (in bandy). In American football, the mean cost of treatment related to maxillofacial and dental injuries was only 60% of the mean total cost of all injuries. In contrast, the mean cost of treatment for maxillofacial and dental injuries in basketball and bandy was twice and three times as high, respectively, as that for all injuries. The need for adequate facial protection in contact sports is also discussed.