This study was designed to review all grossly detectable abnormalities and conditions (GDACs) encountered in poultry in Canadian abattoirs to determine which have potential to cause adverse health effects for the consumer. Review of the literature and consultation with scientists in the field of microbiology, epidemiology, poultry pathology, chemistry, and meat inspection served to generate an inventory of GDACs, and a decision tree containing algorithms was developed to identify GDACs potentially representing a health hazard to consumers. Through the use of the decision tree, GDACs were classified into different categories with regard to the risk they represent to humans. A number of GDACs were identified as being of potential concern from a food safety perspective, namely Erysipelas, fowl cholera, Campylobacteriosis, clostridial diseases, hepatitis/enteritis associated with Helicobacter, Listeriosis, Salmonella infections (nontyphoid infections, Salmonella arizonae, pullorum disease, and fowl typhoid), Staphylococcosis, and Toxoplasmosis. Further characterization--i.e., hazard characterization, exposure assessment, and risk characterization--is required to quantify or better characterize the probability that products derived from affected carcasses may affect the consumer as well as the resulting consequences. Risk assessment is a dynamic process. Results presented in this paper are based on available information and expert opinion. As new information is obtained, the inventory of GDACs and their classification may be modified.
Histamine fish poisoning is common and due to toxic concentrations of histamine often produced by Gram-negative bacteria in fin-fish products with a high content of the free amino acid histidine. The genus Morganella includes two species previously reported to cause incidents of histamine fish poisoning. Morganella morganii and Morganella psychrotolerans are both strong producer of histamine. However, little is known about the occurrence and critical stages for fish contamination with these bacteria. To elucidate contamination routes of Morganella, specific real-time quantitative PCR (RTi qPCR) methods for quantification of M. morganii and M. psychrotolerans have been developed. Selective primers amplified a 110 bp region of the vasD gene for M. psychrotolerans and a 171 bp region of the galactokinase gene for M. morganii. These primer-sets showed high specificity as demonstrated by using purified DNA from 23 other histamine producing bacteria and 26 isolates with no or limited histamine production. The efficiency of the qPCR reactions on artificially contaminated fish samples were 100.8% and 96.3% respectively. The limit of quantification (LOQ) without enrichment was 4 log CFU/g. A quantitative enrichment step with a selective medium was included and improved the sensitivity of the methods to a LOQ of below 50 CFU/g in seafood. RTi qPCR methods with or without enrichment were evaluated for enumeration of Morganella species in naturally contaminated fresh fish and lightly preserved seafood from Denmark. These new methods will contribute to a better understanding of the occurrence and histamine production by Morganella species in fish products, information that is essential to reduce the unacceptably high frequency of histamine fish poisoning.
Surface water is used for irrigation of food plants all over the World. Such water can be of variable hygienic quality, and can be contaminated from many different sources. The association of contaminated irrigation water with contamination of fresh produce is well established, and many outbreaks of foodborne disease associated with fresh produce consumption have been reported. The objective of the present study was to summarize the data on fecal indicators and selected bacterial pathogens to assess the level of fecal contamination of a Norwegian river used for irrigation in an area which has a high production level of various types of food commodities. Sources for fecal pollution of the river were identified. Measures implemented to reduce discharges from the wastewater sector and agriculture, and potential measures identified for future implementation are presented and discussed in relation to potential benefits and costs. It is important that the users of the water, independent of intended use, are aware of the hygienic quality and the potential interventions that may be applied. Our results suggest that contamination of surface water is a complex web of many factors and that several measures and interventions on different levels are needed to achieve a sound river and safe irrigation.
Experience gained in the hygienic training of those who are engaged at public catering enterprises and grocery stores in different regions of the Russian Federation is presented. Hygienic training courses have been set up in the State Sanitary and Epidemiological Surveillance centers. Programs for training workers at public catering enterprises and grocery stores have been approved by the board and the Russian Federation State Sanitary and Epidemiological Surveillance Committee and the Trade Committee of the Russian Federation.