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Assessment of PCBs in arctic foods and diets. A pilot study in Broughton Island, Northwest Territories, Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature1333
Source
Pages 159-162 in H. Linderholm et al., eds. Circumpolar Health 87. Proceedings of the Seventh International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Umeå, Sweden, 1987. Arctic Medical Research. 1988;47 Supp 1.
Publication Type
Article
Date
1988
  1 document  
Author
Kinloch, D.
Kuhnlein, H.
Author Affiliation
Department of National Health and Welfare (Canada)
Source
Pages 159-162 in H. Linderholm et al., eds. Circumpolar Health 87. Proceedings of the Seventh International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Umeå, Sweden, 1987. Arctic Medical Research. 1988;47 Supp 1.
Date
1988
Language
English
Geographic Location
Canada
Publication Type
Article
Digital File Format
Text - PDF
Physical Holding
Alaska Medical Library
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Arctic Regions
Broughton Island
Child
Child, Preschool
Diet, traditional
Female
Food contamination - analysis
Food Habits
Food Supply
Humans
Indians, North American
Infant
Infant feeding
Male
Middle Aged
Northwest Territories
Nutrition Surveys
PCB
Pilot Projects
Polychlorinated biphenyls - analysis
Pregnancy
Notes
From: Fortuine, Robert et al. 1993. The Health of the Inuit of North America: A Bibliography from the Earliest Times through 1990. University of Alaska Anchorage. Citation number 880.
PubMed ID
3152417 View in PubMed
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Determination of some specific isomers of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in fatty foods of the Canadian diet.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature230580
Source
Food Addit Contam. 1989 Jul-Sep;6(3):365-75
Publication Type
Article
Author
J. Mes
W H Newsome
H B Conacher
Author Affiliation
Department of National Health and Welfare, Health Protection Branch, Food Directorate, Ottawa, Canada.
Source
Food Addit Contam. 1989 Jul-Sep;6(3):365-75
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada
Dairy Products - analysis
Diet
Food contamination - analysis
Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
Humans
Isomerism
Meat - analysis
Polychlorinated biphenyls - analysis
Abstract
A total of 93 fatty food composites from the cities of Ottawa and Halifax (Canada) were analyzed for 34 selected isomers of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). All fatty foods contained some PCB isomers with the 2,3,4,2',4',5'- and 2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyls present in all samples, except in skim milk and some dehydrated soups. The overall lowest PCB residues of all food commodities were found in skim milk, lamb, margarine and soups. Among the dairy products the highest PCB isomer levels were found in cheese and butter. The sum of all PCB isomers in these two commodities gave residue levels on a wet basis of 2.0 and 3.4 ng/g respectively. In the meat, fish and poultry class the highest specific PCB isomer levels were found in fish, especially freshwater fish, which contained a total of 21.0 ng PCB/g fish. In addition 28 out of the 34 selected PCB isomers were present in freshwater fish. Residue levels in canned fish were the second highest of all food commodities. The observed total PCB residue levels were below the Canadian guidelines for fish, dairy products, poultry, eggs and beef. A comparison of the percentage distribution of PCB isomers in fatty foods and human milk was difficult to evaluate due to the large variation of the fatty food data. However out of 31 PCB isomers reported in fatty foods, 25 were also found in human milk, although not to the same extent.
PubMed ID
2498139 View in PubMed
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Endocrine disruption and differential gene expression in sentinel fish on St. Lawrence Island, Alaska: Health implications for indigenous residents.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature293036
Source
Environ Pollut. 2018 Mar; 234:279-287
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Mar-2018
Author
Frank A von Hippel
Pamela K Miller
David O Carpenter
Danielle Dillon
Lauren Smayda
Ioanna Katsiadaki
Tom A Titus
Peter Batzel
John H Postlethwait
C Loren Buck
Author Affiliation
Department of Biological Sciences & Center for Bioengineering Innovation, Northern Arizona University, 617 S. Beaver St., PO Box 5640, Flagstaff, AZ 86011, USA. Electronic address: frank.vonhippel@nau.edu.
Source
Environ Pollut. 2018 Mar; 234:279-287
Date
Mar-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Alaska
Animals
Arctic Regions
Endocrine Disruptors - analysis - metabolism - pharmacology
Environmental Restoration and Remediation
Female
Fish Proteins - genetics - metabolism
Food contamination - analysis
Food Safety
Fresh Water - analysis
Humans
Islands
Male
Polychlorinated biphenyls - analysis
Seafood - analysis
Smegmamorpha - genetics - growth & development - metabolism
Vitellogenins - genetics - metabolism
Water Pollutants, Chemical - analysis - metabolism - pharmacology
Abstract
People living a subsistence lifestyle in the Arctic are highly exposed to persistent organic pollutants, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Formerly Used Defense (FUD) sites are point sources of PCB pollution; the Arctic contains thousands of FUD sites, many co-located with indigenous villages. We investigated PCB profiles and biological effects in freshwater fish (Alaska blackfish [Dallia pectoralis] and ninespine stickleback [Pungitius pungitius]) living upstream and downstream of the Northeast Cape FUD site on St. Lawrence Island in the Bering Sea. Despite extensive site remediation, fish remained contaminated with PCBs. Vitellogenin concentrations in males indicated exposure to estrogenic contaminants, and some fish were hypothyroid. Downstream fish showed altered DNA methylation in gonads and altered gene expression related to DNA replication, response to DNA damage, and cell signaling. This study demonstrates that, even after site remediation, contaminants from Cold War FUD sites in remote regions of the Arctic remain a potential health threat to local residents - in this case, Yupik people who had no influence over site selection and use by the United States military.
Notes
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PubMed ID
29182972 View in PubMed
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Evaluation of the population distribution of dietary contaminant exposure in an Arctic population using Monte Carlo statistics.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature4874
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 1997 Mar;105(3):316-21
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-1997
Author
H M Chan
P R Berti
O. Receveur
H V Kuhnlein
Author Affiliation
Centre for Indigenous Peoples' Nutrition and Environment, McGill University, Ste-Anne-de-Bellevue, Quebec, Canada.
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 1997 Mar;105(3):316-21
Date
Mar-1997
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Arctic Regions
Chlordan - analysis
Demography
Diet
Female
Food Contamination - analysis - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Insecticides - analysis
Inuits
Male
Meat - analysis
Mercury - analysis
Monte Carlo Method
Polychlorinated biphenyls - analysis
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Sex Factors
Toxaphene - analysis
Abstract
Organochlorines and heavy metals have bioaccumulated in Arctic wildlife, which is an important food source for the Inuit. In this study, we have developed a statistical model to describe the population distribution of contaminant exposure and the usual intake of the high-end contaminant consumers. Monte Carlo methods are used to account for variations due to seasonal dietary pattern and contaminant concentrations. Distribution of the dietary intake of the contaminants of most concern-mercury, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), chlordane, and toxaphenes-are described. Over 50% of the residents had dietary exposure levels exceeding the tolerable daily intake or provisional tolerable daily intake for Hg, toxaphene, and chlordane (83, 91, and 71% for men and 73, 85, and 56% for women, respectively). The high-end consumers (i.e. the 95th centile) have intake levels 6 times higher than the provisional tolerable weekly intake of Hg, and over 20 times the tolerable daily intake of chlordane and toxaphene. Assessment of health risks of the relative high contaminant exposure in this community must also consider the nutritional, economical, cultural, and social importance of these traditional foods. A comprehensive risk management scheme has yet to be developed.
PubMed ID
9171993 View in PubMed
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Exposure and body burden of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and metals in a historically contaminated community.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature264582
Source
Environ Int. 2015 Mar;76:41-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2015
Author
Ingela Helmfrid
Samira Salihovic
Bert van Bavel
Gun Wingren
Marika Berglund
Source
Environ Int. 2015 Mar;76:41-8
Date
Mar-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Analysis of Variance
Animals
Body Burden
Cadmium - urine
Chromatography, Gas
Environmental Exposure - analysis - statistics & numerical data
Environmental pollution - analysis
Female
Fishes - metabolism
Food Contamination - analysis - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Male
Mass Spectrometry
Metals, Heavy - analysis
Middle Aged
Pesticides - analysis
Polychlorinated biphenyls - analysis
Sweden - epidemiology
Vegetables - chemistry
Abstract
There are many small villages where environmental contamination is substantial due to historical industrial activities. The aim of the present study was to investigate if long-term or current consumption of local foods, as reported in food frequency questionnaires, co-vary with measured concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and mercury (Hg) in blood, urine and hair from a population living in a historically contaminated village. Blood, urine and hair were provided by men (n=38) and women (n=57), who had participated in a previous case-control study in the contaminated area, and were analyzed for PCB, OCPs, Pb, Cd and Hg. A detailed food frequency questionnaire, used in the previous epidemiological study, was repeated, and up-dated information of life-style, exposure factors and other covariates was collected. Associations between reported consumption of local foods and exposure biomarkers were explored in relation to age, gender, life-style factors and other covariates. A large part of the population in the area reported consumption of local food, and thus, was potentially exposed to the contaminants. Despite the limited number of participants and other weaknesses described, it was possible to link reported consumption of different foods to biomarker concentrations. Reported consumption of local vegetables, forest berries and mushrooms co-varied with urinary Cd, indicating an influence from the contaminated area on the Cd exposure. We found no associations between PCB plasma concentrations with reported consumption of local fish, but with consumption of herring (non-local sea fish) which is typically high in PCB. Pesticide (HCB, p,p'-DDE, trans-nonachlor) exposure was mainly associated with agricultural work and having a private well the first five years of life, but we found no associations between pesticide concentrations in plasma and consumption of local vegetables or fish. Exposure to Hg was associated with consumption of fish, both local and non-local, and Pb exposure was associated with the consumption of game. Overall, the contaminant concentrations measured in blood, urine and hair varied substantially among study participants, but on average, the concentrations were similar to concentrations measured in other groups of the general Swedish population in the same age range. Larger studies are needed to evaluate health risks (and causality) associated with historical environmental contamination.
PubMed ID
25529270 View in PubMed
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Exposure to dioxin-like pollutants via different food commodities in Swedish children and young adults.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature92044
Source
Food Chem Toxicol. 2008 Nov;46(11):3360-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2008
Author
Bergkvist Charlotte
Oberg Mattias
Appelgren Malin
Becker Wulf
Aune Marie
Ankarberg Emma Halldin
Berglund Marika
Håkansson Helen
Author Affiliation
Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, P.O. Box 210, SE-171 77, Stockholm, Sweden.
Source
Food Chem Toxicol. 2008 Nov;46(11):3360-7
Date
Nov-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Benzofurans - analysis
Body Burden
Child
Child, Preschool
Dairy Products
Diet
Diet Records
Dioxins - administration & dosage - analysis - toxicity
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects - analysis
Environmental Pollutants - analysis
Female
Food analysis
Food contamination - analysis
Humans
Infant
Male
Meat
Polychlorinated biphenyls - analysis
Seafood
Sweden
Tetrachlorodibenzodioxin - analogs & derivatives - analysis
Young Adult
Abstract
The dietary intake of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and biphenyls (PCBs) in terms of toxic equivalents (TEQs) was investigated in Swedish children and young adults. Exposure was estimated from concentration data of six groups of individual food commodities (meat, fish, dairy products, egg, edible fats and other foodstuff) combined with food intake data from a 7-day record book obtained from 670 individuals aged 1-24 years. The results showed that Swedish boys and girls, up to the age of ten, had a median TEQ intake that exceeded the tolerable daily intake (TDI) of 2 pg TEQ/kg body weight. Children exceeding the TDI varied from almost all individuals among the youngest children to about 20% among young men and women. Dairy and fish products were the main sources of exposure for the average child, accounting for 59% of the total TEQ intake. The individuals most highly exposed were, on the other hand, characterized by a high consumption of fish. Since children constitute a vulnerable group, results obtained from the present study show that it is essential to perform age specific dietary intake assessments of pollutants and more carefully consider sensitive and/or highly exposed groups in the population in the risk management processes.
PubMed ID
18789370 View in PubMed
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Inuit foods and diet: a preliminary assessment of benefits and risks.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature4908
Source
Sci Total Environ. 1992 Jul 15;122(1-2):247-78
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-15-1992
Author
D. Kinloch
H. Kuhnlein
D C Muir
Author Affiliation
Department of Health, Government of the Northwest Territories, Yellowknife, Canada.
Source
Sci Total Environ. 1992 Jul 15;122(1-2):247-78
Date
Jul-15-1992
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Child
Child, Preschool
Diet Surveys
Female
Food contamination - analysis
Food Habits
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Inuits
Male
Middle Aged
Nutritional Requirements
Polychlorinated biphenyls - analysis
Risk factors
Abstract
Traditional Inuit foods are contaminated with chemical residues from industrial and other activities around the world. The intake of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated camphenes (PCCs) exceeds the 'tolerable daily intake' (TDI) for many consumers. The implications of long term contaminant intake, even for single contaminants, are not known and will be difficult or impossible to determine in the foreseeable future. Traditional foods form a substantial part of the Inuit diet and are a major source of energy and essential nutrients. Available alternative imported foods are nutritionally inferior and substitution may lead to nutritional deficiencies and associated risks to health and to the social and cultural life of Arctic communities.
PubMed ID
1514105 View in PubMed
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Isomer specific analysis of PCBs and organochlorine pesticides in Finnish diet samples and selected individual foodstuffs.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature216976
Source
Food Addit Contam. 1994 Nov-Dec;11(6):685-94
Publication Type
Article
Author
V. Hietaniemi
J. Kumpulainen
Author Affiliation
Agricultural Research Centre of Finland, Laboratory of Food Chemistry, Jokioinen, Finland.
Source
Food Addit Contam. 1994 Nov-Dec;11(6):685-94
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Diet
Finland
Food contamination - analysis
Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry - methods
Hospitals
Humans
Insecticides - analysis
Isomerism
Polychlorinated biphenyls - analysis
Abstract
Twenty organochlorine pesticide compounds (OCPs) and 20 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners known to be the most abundant or toxicologically significant were determined in samples of a representative Finnish diet and in individual foodstuffs. OCPs were isolated and cleaned-up by solvent extraction and concentrated sulphuric acid treatment according to the methods given by Moilanen et al. (1986) or Veierov and Aharonson (1980). Instrumental analysis was performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using selected ion monitoring. PCBs were determined by a congener-specific method. There were very low levels of most OCPs and PCB congeners in the present Finnish market basket, hospital diet, milk, cheese and egg samples. The average total PCB intake from the diets was approximately 2.3 micrograms/day per capita, which represents 3% of the highest tolerable intake proposed by the US Food and Drug Administration.
PubMed ID
7895873 View in PubMed
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Levels and patterns of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPS) in selected food items from Northwest Russia (1998-2002) and implications for dietary exposure.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature141467
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2010 Oct 15;408(22):5352-61
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-15-2010
Author
A. Polder
T N Savinova
A. Tkachev
K B Løken
J O Odland
J U Skaare
Author Affiliation
The Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, P.O. Box 8146 Dep., N-0033 Oslo, Norway. anuschka.polder@nvh.no
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2010 Oct 15;408(22):5352-61
Date
Oct-15-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
DDT - analysis
Dairy Products - analysis
Dichlorodiphenyl Dichloroethylene - analysis
Diet
Eggs - analysis
Environmental Exposure - analysis - statistics & numerical data
Environmental monitoring
Environmental Pollution - statistics & numerical data
Food analysis
Food Contamination - analysis - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Meat - analysis
Organic Chemicals - analysis
Polychlorinated biphenyls - analysis
Russia
Soil Pollutants - analysis
Abstract
Residues of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were analysed in 70 selected food items from Northwest Russia in 1998-2002. Levels of PCBs ranged from 0.2 to 16ng/g wet weight (ww) in dairy products and fats, 0.2 to 23ng/g ww in meat products, 0.5 to 16ng/g ww in eggs and 0.3 to 30ng/g ww in fish. High levels of DDT (16ng/g ww) were found in locally produced butter from Kola Peninsula, in pork fat from Arkhangels region (10 to 130ng/g ww) and in some fish samples from White Sea and Kargopol region (17 and 30ng/g ww). Findings of low DDE/DDT ratios in many of the studied food items indicated recent contamination to DDTs. Mean levels of sum TEQs(WHO1998) of dioxin-like mono-ortho PCBs: PCBs 105, 118, 156 and 157 (?mo-PCBs-TEQs(WHO1998)) were highest in dairy products, chicken eggs and fish, with levels of 0.292, 0.245 and 0.254pg/g ww, respectively. The estimated daily intake (EDI) for ?mo-PCBs-TEQs(WHO1998) was 0.74pg/kgbw/day and in the same range as in Sweden and Denmark. Fish, dairy products, eggs and meat were the main contributors to the EDI of ?mo-PCBs-TEQs(WHO1998). The EDIs of DDTs, HCHs and HCB were several times higher than in Sweden and Denmark. Consumption of meat and poultry were important sources for intake of DDTs and HCHs, respectively. Contamination of animal feed and agricultural practice were assumed the most important causes for the results in the present study. However, increased control on maximum residue levels in food and feed may have resulted in large changes on levels and patterns of POPs in food in the studied areas.
PubMed ID
20719362 View in PubMed
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20 records – page 1 of 2.