Retail fresh sushi is gaining popularity in Europe. This study was conducted to investigate the microbiological quality of selected samples of fresh sushi with a shelf life of 2 to 3 days offered as complete meals in Norwegian supermarkets. Analysis of aerobic plate counts in 58 sushi samples from three producers revealed large variations in microbiological quality, and 48% of the analyzed sushi boxes were rated as unsatisfactory (> 6.0 log CFU/g). Mesophilic Aeromonas spp. was detected in 71% of the samples. In a follow-up study, we collected products and raw materials directly from the production facility of one producer and observed a significant decrease (P
The objective of this study was to measure the concentrations of organotin compounds in the whole blood of Finnish male fishermen (n=133), their wives (n=94), and other family members (n=73), and to investigate their associations with background variables. The concentrations were generally low, less than the limit of quantification (LOQ) for the vast majority of compounds and samples. Of the organotin compounds (mono-, di-, and tributyltin, mono-, di-, and triphenyltin, and dioctyltin), only triphenyltin was detected in more than just a few samples (in 37 of 300 samples, LOQ=0.04 ng/ml). These were mainly the samples of fishermen (26/37) and their wives (10/37). For statistical analysis, concentrations of triphenyltin were divided into two categories, LOQ. Of the different background variables, age and fish consumption contributed the most to the triphenyltin concentrations. When age and fish consumption (g/day) were divided into three categories, odds ratios comparing the highest with the lowest category were 3.88 for age (95% CI 1.36-11.09) and 3.48 for fish consumption (1.36-8.94), respectively. Compared with females, males had an odds ratio of 1.51 of having the concentration of triphenyltin >LOQ (0.72-3.14). To the best of our knowledge, this study confirmed for the first time with human samples that fish consumption can be associated with triphenyltin concentration in whole blood.
The Canadian Total Diet Study is a national survey to determine the level of chemical contaminants in the Canadian food supply. Food samples were collected from Whitehorse, Yukon, supermarkets as part of the study in 1998. Whitehorse was chosen as a sampling centre, despite its small population (n = 19,000), to determine if residue levels were different in foods available in northern communities relative to levels observed in previous studies in the more populated south. Foods were prepared as for consumption before pesticide residue analysis. Residue levels observed in most foods were similar to levels observed in samples from previous surveys from southern Canadian cities. Malathion and DDE (1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene), a transformation product of DDT (1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl(ethane), were the two most frequently detected compounds (26.4 and 25.8%, respectively). The majority of pesticides, however, had a detection frequency of
The authors investigated the effect of amalgam fillings and fish consumption on urine mercury level (UHg), in children aged 4-8 years old inclusive. Using a sample of 60 children, we found that children with amalgam fillings had significantly higher UHg levels than children without amalgams (geometric mean=1.412microg Hg/g versus 0.436 microg Hg/g, respectively, P = 0.0001). Subjects with reported higher fish consumption also had significantly higher UHgs (P = 0.004). Univariate analyses provide evidence of an association between elevated UHg level and young age (P = 0.009), short height (P = 0.024), and low weight (P = 0.049) in children with amalgam chewing surfaces. We also found a negative correlation between urine mercury and age (-0.378), height (-0.418), and weight (-0.391). A multiple logistic regression model shows that the presence of amalgam fillings leads to increased odds of high UHg in children (OR=47.18), even after adjusting for high fish consumption (OR=8.66) and height (OR=11.36).
Very high concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) have been reported in fish from Lake Mjøsa in Norway. This study was performed to examine the serum concentrations of PBDE and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) in consumers of fish from this lake and to investigate possible relationships between serum concentrations, self-reported fish intake and calculated total dietary PBDE exposure. Serum concentrations of the sum of the seven PBDE (BDE-28, 47, 99, 100, 153, 154 and 183) were significantly higher than those of a reference group of Norwegians eating only food with background levels of contamination (medians: 18 ng/g lipids men, 8.4 ng/g lipids women). The median dietary intake of Sum 7 PBDE was 2549 ng/day (30 ng/kg body weight/day), the highest dietary intake of PBDE reported. The contribution from fish caught from the contaminated lake comprised 98.7% of the total dietary exposure. For men, serum levels of PBDE were strongly correlated with the calculated dietary exposure, except for BDE-209. This suggests that sources other than the diet are important for human BDE-209 exposure. The median serum HBCD concentration was 4.1 and 2.6 ng/g lipids for men and women, respectively, and was also found to be associated with consumption of fish from Lake Mjøsa.
Little information is available concerning the level of consumption and degree of contaminant exposure for North American women of childbearing age who eat sport fish. The authors reanalyzed a 1995-1996 study of Montreal-area (Canada) sport fishers. The authors focused on women sport fishers of childbearing age and male sport fishers who had spouses of childbearing age. The primary research involved an on-site questionnaire about fish consumption, with follow-up assessment of sport fishers estimated to have either the highest or lowest levels of fish-based contaminant exposure. Among the 1,654 interviewees were 100 women less than 45 yr of age who had eaten sport fish for an average of 11 yr; 45% ate fish less than once a month. From the follow-up subsample of high- and low-level consumers, the authors identified 17 women less than 45 yr of age and 25 males whose spouses who were less than 45 yr of age and who consumed similar quantities of sport fish. Among this group of 42, the high-exposure women differed from the low-exposure women with respect to their yearly consumption of freshwater fish, blood mercury levels (median = 6.4 vs. 1.4 microgram/l), and plasma polychlorinated biphenyl congener 99 (median = 10.5 vs. 5.9 microgram/kg plasma lipids). Few Montreal-area women of childbearing age consume local sport fish frequently or for extended periods. However, among the small proportion that consumes sport fish frequently or for extended periods, blood mercury concentrations approach levels of concern for fetal protection.
The lead and cadmium contents of the main fish species consumed in Finland were determined by ETAAS after wet digestion with HNO3. Analytical quality was controlled with blanks, reference materials and blind replicates. Mean and median lead contents of domestic fish species were
Food Research Division, Banting Research Centre 2203D, and Chemical Health Hazard Assessment Division, Banting Research Centre 2204D, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0L2, Canada. Sheryl_Tittlemier@hc-sc.gc.ca
Human exposure to perfluorinated compounds is a worldwide phenomenon; however, routes of human exposure to these compounds have not been well-characterized. Fifty-four solid food composite samples collected as part of the Canadian Total Diet Study (TDS) were analyzed for perfluorocarboxylates and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) using a methanol extraction liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method. Foods analyzed included fish and seafood, meat, poultry, frozen entrées, fast food, and microwave popcorn collected from 1992 to 2004 and prepared as for consumption. Nine composites contained detectable levels of perfluorinated compounds-four meat-containing, three fish and shellfish, one fast food, and one microwave popcorn. PFOS and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) were detected the most frequently; concentrations ranged from 0.5 to 4.5 ng/g. The average dietary intake of total perfluorocarboxylates and PFOS for Canadians was estimated to be 250 ng/day, using results from the 2004 TDS composites. A comparison with intakes of perfluorocarboxylates and PFOS via other routes (air, water, dust, treated carpeting, and apparel) suggested that diet is an important source of these compounds. There was a substantial margin of exposure between the toxicological points of reference and the magnitude of dietary intake of perfluorinated compounds for Canadians >/= 12 years old.
Concentrations of four naturally produced halogenated dimethyl bipyrroles (HDBPs) were quantitated in marine fish (n = 10), freshwater fish (n = 10), canned fish (n = 10), and shrimp composites (n = 10) collected from 1992 to 2002 for the Canadian Total Diet Study. Canned fish composites composed of epipelagic higher trophic level species contained the highest concentration of HDBPs (SigmaHDBP geometric mean +/- standard error = 880 +/- 690 pg/g of wet weight, n = 10), which was significantly higher than that found in the other three composites. There were no significant temporal trends of HDBP concentrations observed for any of the four composites. The estimated daily intake of HDBPs via consumption of fish and seafood was determined to be 53 pg/kg of body mass/day and 0.10 pg of TEQ/kg of body mass/day when transformed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin equivalents (TEQs). In the canned fish and shrimp composites collected in 1998, HDBPs accounted for approximately 98 and 19%, respectively, of the total quantitated TEQ (which included polychlorinated biphenyls, dioxins, and furans). The results of this study provide the first estimate of human exposure to naturally produced bioaccumulating organohalogens.