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318 records – page 1 of 32.

137 Cs concentrations in northern Alaskan Eskimos, 1962-79: effects of ecological, cultural and political factors.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature1022
Source
Health Physics. 42(4):433-447.
Publication Type
Article
Date
1982
Author
Hanson, WC
Author Affiliation
Battelle
Source
Health Physics. 42(4):433-447.
Date
1982
Language
English
Geographic Location
U.S.
Publication Type
Article
Physical Holding
Alaska Medical Library
Keywords
Ambler
Anaktuvuk Pass
Barrow
Cesium-137
Diet, traditional
Food chain
Kotzebue
Point Hope
Radioactive fallout
Seasonal periodicity
Abstract
Concentrations of worldwide fallout 137Cs were measured in the lichen-caribou-Eskimo food chain of northern Alaska during the period 1962-79. Pronounced inputs of fallout occurred after major nuclear weapons tests in the atmosphere and 137Cs was transmitted through the food chain to Eskimos with about a 2-yr delay due to environmental parameters. Caribou (Rangifer tarandus) meat sampled during spring harvest contained 4 times the 137Cs concentration of lichens obtained from their winter range. Calculated caribou meat ingestion rates of Anaktuvuk Pass Eskimos during winter ranged from approximately 1 kg/day in 1964 to 0.16 kg/day in 1977. Several environmental factors affected seasonal patterns and amounts of 137Cs transferred through the food chain. Maximum 137Cs concentrations of approximately 20 nCi/kg body weight in ESkimos occurred in 1964 and have now decreased to approximately 0.5 nCi/kg, largely because of cultural and political factors. Radiation doses from 137Cs body burdens during the study period ranged from 60 mrad/yr in 1962 to approximately 140 mrad/yr during the 1962-64 maxima and decreased to 8 mrad/yr in 1979.
Notes
From: Fortuine, Robert et al. 1993. The Health of the Inuit of North America: A Bibliography from the Earliest Times through 1990. University of Alaska Anchorage. Citation number 832.
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137Cs: seasonal patterns in native residents of three contrasting Alaskan villages.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature1023
Source
Health Physics. 21:585-591.
Publication Type
Article
Date
1971
Author
Hanson, W.C.
Author Affiliation
Battelle
Source
Health Physics. 21:585-591.
Date
1971
Language
English
Geographic Location
U.S.
Publication Type
Article
Physical Holding
Alaska Medical Library
Keywords
Arctic Village
Ambler
Anaktuvuk Pass
Cesium-137
Diet, traditional
Food chain
Radioactive fallout
Notes
From: Fortuine, Robert et al. 1993. The Health of the Inuit of North America: A Bibliography from the Earliest Times through 1990. University of Alaska Anchorage.
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Accumulation and trophic transfer of organotins in a marine food web from the Danish coastal waters.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature172406
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2005 Nov 1;350(1-3):72-85
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-1-2005
Author
Jakob Strand
Jens A Jacobsen
Author Affiliation
National Environmental Research Institute, Department of Marine Ecology, P.O. Box 358, Frederiksborgvej 399, 4000 Roskilde, Denmark. jak@dmu.dk
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2005 Nov 1;350(1-3):72-85
Date
Nov-1-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Birds
Denmark
Environmental monitoring
Fishes
Food chain
Fucus
Humans
Invertebrates
Male
Organotin Compounds - analysis
Phoca
Phocoena
Water Pollutants, Chemical - analysis
Zosteraceae
Abstract
The presence of organotin compounds, e.g., tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin (TPhT) including the di- and monosubstituted breakdown products, was studied in a representative marine food web in order to assess the accumulation potential at different trophic levels in Danish coastal waters. This included samples of two species of seaweed, four species of invertebrates, four species of fish, five species of birds and two species of mammals. All organisms were sampled away from harbour areas and the organotin concentrations found in this study can therefore be considered to reflect a general level in organisms living in Danish coastal waters. All the samples analysed contained organotin compounds. The highest hepatic concentrations of butyltins were found in flounder (60-259 ng g-1 wet weight [ww], as Sn), eider duck (12-202 ng g-1 ww) and harbour porpoise (134-2283 ng g-1 ww). The lowest concentrations were found in seaweed and a plant-feeding bird. TPhT or its degradation products were also found in most of the samples with the highest concentrations in flounder (9.8-74 ng g-1 ww), cod (23-28 ng g-1 ww) and great black-backed gull (19-24 ng g-1 ww). This indicates an input of TPhT in the region, probably from the use as antifouling agent. A high variance in accumulation potential was found between the species, even between species at the same trophic level, which probably reflects the species-specific differences in exposure routes and the capabilities to metabolise and eliminate the organotin compounds. This study gives evidence of the importance of biomagnification of butyltin in harbour porpoises and, to a lesser extent, in fish and birds.
PubMed ID
16227074 View in PubMed
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[Accumulation of radionuclides in food chains of the Yenisei River after the nuclear power plant shutdown at the mining-and-chemical enterprise].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature261756
Source
Radiats Biol Radioecol. 2014 Jul-Aug;54(4):405-14
Publication Type
Article
Author
T A Zotina
E A Trofimova
A D Karpov
A Ia Bolsunovskii
Source
Radiats Biol Radioecol. 2014 Jul-Aug;54(4):405-14
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Biota
Chemical Industry
Fishes - metabolism
Food chain
Industrial Waste - analysis
Mining
Muscle, Skeletal - radionuclide imaging
Nuclear Power Plants
Radiation Monitoring - methods
Radioisotopes - analysis - pharmacokinetics
Rivers - chemistry
Seasons
Siberia
Water Pollutants, Radioactive - analysis - pharmacokinetics
Abstract
Accumulation of artificial and natural radionuclides in the chains of food webs leading to non-predatory and piscivorous fish of the Yenisei River was investigated during one year before and three years after the shutdown of a nuclear power plant at the Mining-and-Chemical Combine (2009-2012). The activity of artificial radionuclides in the samples of biota ofthe Yenisei River (aquatic moss, gammarids, dace, grayling, pike) was estimated. The concentration of radionuclides with induced activity (51Cr, 54Mn, 58Co, 60Co, 65Zn, 141, 144Ce, 152, 154Eu, 239Np) decreased in the biomass of biota after the shutdown of the nuclear power plant; the concentration of 137Cs did not. Analysis of the accumulation factors (C(F)) allows us to expect the effective accumulation of 137Cs in the terminal level of the food web of the Yenisei River--pike (C(F) = 2.0-9.4), i.e. biomagnifications of radiocesium. Accumulation of artificial, radionuclides in non-predatory fish from gammarids was not effective (C(F)
PubMed ID
25775829 View in PubMed
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[Activities of proteinases in invertebrate animals--potential objects of fish nutrition. Effects of temperature, pH, and heavy metals]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature84976
Source
Zh Evol Biokhim Fiziol. 2007 Sep-Oct;43(5):404-9
Publication Type
Article
Author
Kuz'mina V V
Ushakova N V
Source
Zh Evol Biokhim Fiziol. 2007 Sep-Oct;43(5):404-9
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adaptation, Physiological
Animals
Cold Climate
Digestive Physiology
Digestive System - enzymology
Evolution
Fishes
Food chain
Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
Invertebrates - drug effects - enzymology - physiology
Metals, Heavy - toxicity
Peptide Hydrolases - metabolism
Phylogeny
Temperature
Water Pollutants, Chemical - toxicity
Abstract
Differences in the degree of separate and combined effects of temperature, pH, and heavy metals (zinc, copper) on the trypsin- and chymotrypsin-like proteinase activities have been established in the whole body of some invertebrate animals - potential objects of fish nutrition: pond snail Lymnaeae stagnalis, orb snail Planorbis purpura, zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha, oligochaetae Tubifex sp. and Lumbriculus sp. in total, chironomid larvae Chironimus sp. and Ch. riparus, as well as crustacean zooplankton. It has been shown that enzymes of the potential victim at a low temperature can compensate low activity of intestinal proteinases of fish bentho- and planktophages.
PubMed ID
18038636 View in PubMed
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Acute oil exposure reduces physiological process rates in Arctic phyto- and zooplankton.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature300168
Source
Ecotoxicology. 2019 Jan; 28(1):26-36
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Jan-2019
Author
Signe Lemcke
Johnna Holding
Eva Friis Møller
Jakob Thyrring
Kim Gustavson
Thomas Juul-Pedersen
Mikael K Sejr
Author Affiliation
Department of Bioscience, Arctic Research Centre, Aarhus University, 8000, Aarhus C, Denmark. signelemcke@gmail.com.
Source
Ecotoxicology. 2019 Jan; 28(1):26-36
Date
Jan-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Animals
Arctic Regions
Copepoda - drug effects - physiology
Feces - chemistry
Food chain
Petroleum Pollution - adverse effects
Photosynthesis - drug effects
Phytoplankton - drug effects - physiology
Water Pollutants, Chemical - adverse effects
Zooplankton - drug effects - physiology
Abstract
Arctic shipping and oil exploration are expected to increase, as sea ice extent is reduced. This enhances the risk for accidental oil spills throughout the Arctic, which emphasises the need to quantify potential consequences to the marine ecosystem and to evaluate risk and choose appropriate remediation methods. This study investigated the sensitivity of Arctic marine plankton to the water accommodated fraction (WAF) of heavy fuel oil. Arctic marine phytoplankton and copepods (Calanus finmarchicus) were exposed to three WAF concentrations corresponding to total hydrocarbon contents of 0.07?mg?l-1, 0.28?mg?l-1 and 0.55?mg?l-1. Additionally, the potential phototoxic effects of exposing the WAF to sunlight, including the UV spectrum, were tested. The study determined sub-lethal effects of WAF exposure on rates of key ecosystem processes: primary production of phytoplankton and grazing (faecal pellet production) of copepods. Both phytoplankton and copepods responded negatively to WAF exposure. Biomass specific primary production was reduced by 6, 52 and 73% and faecal pellet production by 18, 51 and 86% with increasing WAF concentrations compared to controls. The phototoxic effect reduced primary production in the two highest WAF concentration treatments by 71 and 91%, respectively. This experiment contributes to the limited knowledge of acute sub-lethal effects of potential oil spills to the Arctic pelagic food web.
PubMed ID
30460435 View in PubMed
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Age and accumulation of persistent organochlorines: a study of Arctic-breeding glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature4783
Source
Environ Toxicol Chem. 2003 Sep;22(9):2173-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2003
Author
Jan Ove Bustnes
Vidar Bakken
Janneche Utne Skaare
Kjell Einar Erikstad
Author Affiliation
Norwegian Institute for Nature Research, Division of Arctic Ecology, The Polar Environmental Center, N-9296 Tromsø, Norway. jan.o.bustnes@nina.no
Source
Environ Toxicol Chem. 2003 Sep;22(9):2173-9
Date
Sep-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Age Factors
Animals
Arctic Regions
Birds - physiology
Diet
Female
Food chain
Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated
Insecticides - pharmacokinetics - toxicity
Male
Reproduction
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Tissue Distribution
Water Pollutants, Chemical - pharmacokinetics - toxicity
Abstract
We studied the relationship between increasing age and blood concentrations of four persistent organochlorines (OCs), hexachlorbenzene (HCB), oxychlordane, p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), and 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorbiphenyl (PCB-153), in arctic-breeding glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus). We measured OC concentrations in 31 individuals of known age and took repeated blood samples of 64 individuals in different years, either one year apart or three or four years apart. The age of individuals was not related to the blood concentrations for any of the four compounds, and in birds whose values were measured repeatedly, there was no effect of the length of time (number of years) between sampling events on the relative change in OC concentration. This indicates that steady-state levels were reached before the age of first breeding. However, breeding area significantly influenced the changes in OC concentration between sampling events. In areas in which birds fed on prey from higher trophic levels, the OC concentrations showed large increases between sampling events; in areas in which birds fed at lower trophic levels, OC concentrations increased relatively little or not at all. This indicates that individual birds had different equilibrium concentrations, which are reached at different ages depending on the intake of OCs through the food. It also indicates that some individuals had not reached steady-state concentrations at the onset of reproduction. Changes in body condition and amount of blood lipids were of lesser importance than trophic level and influenced the concentrations of HCB and oxychlordane more strongly than DDE and PCB-153. In conclusion, this study indicates that steady-state concentrations of persistent OCs are reached early in life in most glaucous gulls, considering the long life span of the species.
PubMed ID
12959547 View in PubMed
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Age and seasonal variability of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in free-ranging East Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature80128
Source
Environ Pollut. 2007 Mar;146(1):166-73
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2007
Author
Dietz Rune
Rigét Frank F
Sonne Christian
Letcher Robert J
Backus Sean
Born Erik W
Kirkegaard Maja
Muir Derek C G
Author Affiliation
Department of Arctic Environment, National Environmental Research Institute, Frederiksborgvej 399, P.O. Box 358, DK-4000 Roskilde, Denmark. rdi@dmu.dk
Source
Environ Pollut. 2007 Mar;146(1):166-73
Date
Mar-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adipose Tissue - chemistry
Aging - physiology
Animals
Body Burden
Environmental Exposure
Environmental Pollutants - analysis
Female
Flame Retardants - analysis
Food chain
Greenland
Male
Polybrominated Biphenyls - analysis
Seasons
Ursidae - physiology
Abstract
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were analysed in adipose tissue from 92 East Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus) sampled during 1999-2001. Mean SigmaPBDE concentrations were 70 ng/g lipid weight (lw) (range: 22-192 ng/g lw) and showed no relationship with age or sex. Of the 32 analysed PBDE congeners; BDE47, BDE153, BDE99 and BDE100 dominated, and comprised 99.6% of the SigmaPBDE concentration. The SigmaPBDE concentration had a highly significant correlation with SigmaPCB, SigmaCHL, dieldrin, HCB and SigmaHCH concentrations. We found a seasonal pattern of median SigmaPBDE concentration with 1.2 to 1.8 times higher concentrations in March to July than the rest of the year. The seasonal variation also provides a clue to the seasonal exposure, bio-availability, toxic exposure and degradation. We suggest that future geographical PBDE data comparisons may not need corrections for sex or age, but such data sets should be corrected for seasonal variability, using the presented correctional trigonometric regression.
PubMed ID
17055135 View in PubMed
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Agriculture, fertilizers and life history of a coastal seabird.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature78042
Source
J Anim Ecol. 2007 May;76(3):515-25
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2007
Author
Møller A P
Flensted-Jensen E.
Mardal W.
Author Affiliation
Laboratoire de Parasitologie Evolutive, CNRS UMR 7103, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Bât A, 7ème étage, 7 quai St Bernard, Case 237, F-75252 Paris Cedex 05, France. amoller@snv.jussieu.fr
Source
J Anim Ecol. 2007 May;76(3):515-25
Date
May-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Agriculture
Animals
Charadriiformes - physiology
Clutch Size - drug effects - physiology
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Female
Fertilizers - adverse effects - analysis
Food chain
Longevity - drug effects - physiology
Male
Oviposition - drug effects - physiology
Predatory Behavior - physiology
Sexual Behavior, Animal - drug effects - physiology
Time Factors
Water Pollutants, Chemical - adverse effects - analysis
Abstract
1. Leakage of fertilizers from farmland has affected levels of nitrogen and phosphorus in many coastal areas, reducing limitation of primary productivity with consequences for timing and magnitude of the annual peak in phytoplankton and zooplankton. Such changes in nutrient availability may have affected temporal patterns of abundance of marine invertebrates and vertebrates that are the main prey of seabirds. 2. We investigated the extent to which changes in the use of fertilizers by farmers affected timing of breeding, clutch size, recruitment and longevity of a coastal seabird, the Arctic tern Sterna paradisaea Pont., in Denmark. 3. Timing of breeding advanced with the increase in use of fertilizers, with an effect as a consequence of a phenotypic response of individuals exposed to different levels of fertilizers. 4. Annual mean clutch size increased with the amount of fertilizer. While individual Arctic terns increased their clutch size with fertilizer level, there was no evidence of individual Arctic terns in different years changing their clutch size in response to changes in fertilizer use. 5. Annual recruitment rate, estimated as the proportion of young that were subsequently recovered as adults, was related to fertilizer use. 6. Mean longevity, estimated as the maximum age of adult individuals, decreased in response to fertilizer use. 7. These findings provide evidence of fertilizer use in agriculture having significant indirect effects on timing of reproduction, clutch size, recruitment and longevity of a seabird.
PubMed ID
17439468 View in PubMed
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The alternative prey hypothesis revisited: Still valid for willow ptarmigan population dynamics.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature296187
Source
PLoS One. 2018; 13(6):e0197289
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
2018
Author
Jo Inge Breisjøberget
Morten Odden
Per Wegge
Barbara Zimmermann
Harry Andreassen
Author Affiliation
Faculty of Applied Ecology and Agricultural Sciences, Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences, Campus Evenstad, Koppang, Norway.
Source
PLoS One. 2018; 13(6):e0197289
Date
2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Animals
Betula - growth & development
Climate change
Food chain
Foxes - physiology
Models, Biological
Norway
Population Dynamics
Rodentia - physiology
Salix - growth & development
Abstract
The alternative prey hypothesis predicts that the interaction between generalist predators and their main prey is a major driver of population dynamics of alternative prey species. In Fennoscandia, changes in climate and human land use are assumed to alter the dynamics of cyclic small rodents (main prey) and lead to increased densities and range expansion of an important generalist predator, the red fox Vulpes vulpes. In order to better understand the role of these potential changes in community structure on an alternative prey species, willow ptarmigan Lagopus lagopus, we analyzed nine years of population census data from SE Norway to investigate how community interactions affected their population dynamics. The ptarmigan populations showed no declining trend during the study period, and annual variations corresponded with marked periodic small rodent peaks and declines. Population growth and breeding success were highly correlated, and both demographic variables were influenced by an interaction between red fox and small rodents. Red foxes affected ptarmigan negatively only when small rodent abundance was low, which is in accordance with the alternative prey hypothesis. Our results confirm the important role of red fox predation in ptarmigan dynamics, and indicate that if small rodent cycles are disrupted, this may lead to decline in ptarmigan and other alternative prey species due to elevated predation pressure.
Notes
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PubMed ID
29874270 View in PubMed
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318 records – page 1 of 32.