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Elder knowledge and sustainable livelihoods in post-Soviet Russia: finding dialogue across the generations.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature171361
Source
Arctic Anthropol. 2006;43(1):40-51
Publication Type
Article
Date
2006
Author
Susan A Crate
Source
Arctic Anthropol. 2006;43(1):40-51
Date
2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Environment
Food Supply - economics - history
History, 20th Century
History, 21st Century
Humans
Intergenerational Relations - ethnology
Life Change Events - history
Population Dynamics - history
Population Groups - education - ethnology - history - legislation & jurisprudence - psychology
Russia - ethnology
Social Change - history
Socioeconomic Factors - history
Survival - physiology - psychology
Abstract
Russia's indigenous peoples have been struggling with economic, environmental, and socio-cultural dislocation since the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991. In northern rural areas, the end of the Soviet Union most often meant the end of agro-industrial state farm operations that employed and fed surrounding rural populations. Most communities adapted to this loss by reinstating some form of pre-Soviet household-level food production based on hunting, fishing, and/or herding. However, mass media, globalization, and modernity challenge the intergenerational knowledge exchange that grounds subsistence practices. Parts of the circumpolar north have been relatively successful in valuing and integrating elder knowledge within their communities. This has not been the case in Russia. This article presents results of an elder knowledge project in northeast Siberia, Russia that shows how rural communities can both document and use elder knowledge to bolster local definitions of sustainability and, at the same time, initiate new modes of communication between village youth and elders.
PubMed ID
21847844 View in PubMed
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Expanding the Kachemak: surplus production and the development of multi-season storage in Alaska's Kodiak Archipelago.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature171363
Source
Arctic Anthropol. 2006;43(2):93-129
Publication Type
Article
Date
2006
Author
Amy F Steffian
Patrick G Saltonstall
Robert E Kopperl
Source
Arctic Anthropol. 2006;43(2):93-129
Date
2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alaska - ethnology
Archaeology - education - history
Environment
Food Supply - economics - history
History, 15th Century
History, 16th Century
History, 17th Century
History, 18th Century
History, 19th Century
History, 20th Century
History, 21st Century
Humans
Population Groups - education - ethnology - history - legislation & jurisprudence - psychology
Socioeconomic Factors - history
Survival - physiology - psychology
Abstract
Surplus production is a hallmark of Alaska's prehistoric coastal societies. Over the millennia, foragers procured greater quantities of resources with increasing efficiency, developing economies dependent upon storage and institutionalized exchange. In the central Gulf of Alaska, notable evidence of surplus production comes from the late phase of the Kachemak tradition. Since de Laguna's pioneering studies, archaeologists have noted that intensified fishing, storage, and exchange typify this tradition. However, few have investigated the roots of these behaviors. When, how, and why did foragers begin producing well beyond immediate needs? This paper explores archaeological evidence for surplus production in the Kodiak Archipelago, focusing on patterns in land use, technology, and exchange preserved in Ocean Bay II and Early Kachemak assemblages from the Chiniak Bay region. It suggests that surplus production for the purposes of seasonal food storage began in the Early Kachemak, and accelerated in the Late Kachemak as population levels climbed.
PubMed ID
21847834 View in PubMed
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Feeding the family during times of stress: experience and determinants of food insecurity in an Inuit community.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature101710
Source
Geogr J. 2011;177(1):44-61
Publication Type
Article
Date
2011
Author
James D Ford
Maude Beaumier
Author Affiliation
McGill University, Montreal, Quebec.
Source
Geogr J. 2011;177(1):44-61
Date
2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Community Health Services - economics - history - legislation & jurisprudence
Community Networks - economics - history - legislation & jurisprudence
Family - ethnology - history - psychology
Family Health - ethnology
Food Supply - economics - history
History, 19th Century
History, 20th Century
History, 21st Century
Humans
Nunavut - ethnology
Population Groups - education - ethnology - history - legislation & jurisprudence - psychology
Starvation - economics - ethnology - history
Stress, Physiological
Stress, Psychological - economics - ethnology - history
Abstract
This paper uses a mixed methods approach to characterise the experience of food insecurity among Inuit community members in Igloolik, Nunavut, and examine the conditions and processes that constrain access, availability, and quality of food. We conducted semi-structured interviews (n= 66) and focus groups (n= 10) with community members, and key informant interviews with local and territorial health professionals and policymakers (n= 19). The study indicates widespread experience of food insecurity. Even individuals and households who were food secure at the time of the research had experienced food insecurity in the recent past, with food insecurity largely transitory in nature. Multiple determinants of food insecurity operating over different spatial-temporal scales are identified, including food affordability and budgeting, food knowledge and preferences, food quality and availability, environmental stress, declining hunting activity, and the cost of harvesting. These determinants are operating in the context of changing livelihoods and climate change, which in many cases are exacerbating food insecurity, although high-order manifestations of food insecurity (that is, starvation) are no longer experienced.
PubMed ID
21560272 View in PubMed
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Norse Greenland settlement: reflections on climate change, trade, and the contrasting fates of human settlements in the North Atlantic Islands.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature165871
Source
Arctic Anthropol. 2007;44(1):12-36
Publication Type
Article
Date
2007
Author
Andrew J Dugmore
Christian Keller
Thomas H McGovern
Source
Arctic Anthropol. 2007;44(1):12-36
Date
2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Anthropology - education - history
Climate Change - economics - history
Economics - history
Food Supply - economics - history
Greenland - ethnology
History, 16th Century
History, 17th Century
History, 18th Century
History, 19th Century
History, 20th Century
History, 21st Century
Humans
Population Dynamics - history
Population Groups - education - ethnology - history - legislation & jurisprudence - psychology
Residence Characteristics - history
Abstract
Changing economies and patterns of trade, rather than climatic deterioration, could have critically marginalized the Norse Greenland settlements and effectively sealed their fate. Counter-intuitively, the end of Norse Greenland might not be symptomatic of a failure to adapt to environmental change, but a consequence of successful wider economic developments of Norse communities across North Atlantic. Data from Greenland, the Faroe Islands, and medieval Iceland is used to explore the interplay of Norse society with climate, environment, settlement, and other circumstances. Long term increases in vulnerability caused by economic change and cumulative climate changes sparked a cascading collapse of integrated interdependent settlement systems, bringing the end of Norse Greenland.
PubMed ID
21847839 View in PubMed
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The St. Lawrence Island famine and epidemic, 1878–80: a Yupik narrative in cultural and historical context.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature171362
Source
Arctic Anthropol. 2006;43(1):1-19
Publication Type
Article
Date
2006
Author
Aron L Crowell
Estelle Oozevaseuk
Source
Arctic Anthropol. 2006;43(1):1-19
Date
2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alaska - ethnology
Canada - ethnology
Documentation - history
Epidemics - economics - history
Ethnology - education - history
Food Supply - economics - history
History, 19th Century
Humans
Memory
Narration - history
Population Groups - education - ethnology - history - legislation & jurisprudence - psychology
Starvation - economics - ethnology - history - psychology
Abstract
A collaborative study of the Smithsonian Institution's ethnology collections has inspired the narration of Alaska Native oral traditions, including Yupik Elder Estelle Oozevaseuk's re-telling (in 2001) of the story of Kukulek village and the St. Lawrence Island famine and epidemic of 1878–80. The loss of at least 1,000 lives and all but two of the island's villages was a devastating event that is well documented in historical sources and archaeology, as well as multiple Yupik accounts. Yupiget have transmitted memories of extreme weather, bad hunting conditions, and a wave of fatal contagion that swept the island. The Kukulek narrative, with origins traceable to the late nineteenth century, provides a spiritual perspective on the disaster's underlying cause, found in the Kukulek people's disrespect toward the animal beings that sustained them. This paper explores the cultural and historical contexts of this narrative, and contrasts it with Western perspectives.
PubMed ID
21847843 View in PubMed
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6 records – page 1 of 1.