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Elder knowledge and sustainable livelihoods in post-Soviet Russia: finding dialogue across the generations.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature171361
Source
Arctic Anthropol. 2006;43(1):40-51
Publication Type
Article
Date
2006
Author
Susan A Crate
Source
Arctic Anthropol. 2006;43(1):40-51
Date
2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Environment
Food Supply - economics - history
History, 20th Century
History, 21st Century
Humans
Intergenerational Relations - ethnology
Life Change Events - history
Population Dynamics - history
Population Groups - education - ethnology - history - legislation & jurisprudence - psychology
Russia - ethnology
Social Change - history
Socioeconomic Factors - history
Survival - physiology - psychology
Abstract
Russia's indigenous peoples have been struggling with economic, environmental, and socio-cultural dislocation since the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991. In northern rural areas, the end of the Soviet Union most often meant the end of agro-industrial state farm operations that employed and fed surrounding rural populations. Most communities adapted to this loss by reinstating some form of pre-Soviet household-level food production based on hunting, fishing, and/or herding. However, mass media, globalization, and modernity challenge the intergenerational knowledge exchange that grounds subsistence practices. Parts of the circumpolar north have been relatively successful in valuing and integrating elder knowledge within their communities. This has not been the case in Russia. This article presents results of an elder knowledge project in northeast Siberia, Russia that shows how rural communities can both document and use elder knowledge to bolster local definitions of sustainability and, at the same time, initiate new modes of communication between village youth and elders.
PubMed ID
21847844 View in PubMed
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Expanding the Kachemak: surplus production and the development of multi-season storage in Alaska's Kodiak Archipelago.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature171363
Source
Arctic Anthropol. 2006;43(2):93-129
Publication Type
Article
Date
2006
Author
Amy F Steffian
Patrick G Saltonstall
Robert E Kopperl
Source
Arctic Anthropol. 2006;43(2):93-129
Date
2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alaska - ethnology
Archaeology - education - history
Environment
Food Supply - economics - history
History, 15th Century
History, 16th Century
History, 17th Century
History, 18th Century
History, 19th Century
History, 20th Century
History, 21st Century
Humans
Population Groups - education - ethnology - history - legislation & jurisprudence - psychology
Socioeconomic Factors - history
Survival - physiology - psychology
Abstract
Surplus production is a hallmark of Alaska's prehistoric coastal societies. Over the millennia, foragers procured greater quantities of resources with increasing efficiency, developing economies dependent upon storage and institutionalized exchange. In the central Gulf of Alaska, notable evidence of surplus production comes from the late phase of the Kachemak tradition. Since de Laguna's pioneering studies, archaeologists have noted that intensified fishing, storage, and exchange typify this tradition. However, few have investigated the roots of these behaviors. When, how, and why did foragers begin producing well beyond immediate needs? This paper explores archaeological evidence for surplus production in the Kodiak Archipelago, focusing on patterns in land use, technology, and exchange preserved in Ocean Bay II and Early Kachemak assemblages from the Chiniak Bay region. It suggests that surplus production for the purposes of seasonal food storage began in the Early Kachemak, and accelerated in the Late Kachemak as population levels climbed.
PubMed ID
21847834 View in PubMed
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Experimental encounters: Filipino and Hawaiian bodies in the U.S. imperial invention of odontoclasia, 1928-1946.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature140627
Source
Am Q. 2010;62(3):523-46
Publication Type
Article
Date
2010
Author
Jean J Kim
Source
Am Q. 2010;62(3):523-46
Date
2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Child
Child Care - economics - history - legislation & jurisprudence - psychology
Child Welfare - economics - ethnology - history - legislation & jurisprudence - psychology
Child, Preschool
Food Supply - economics - history
Hawaii - ethnology
History of Dentistry
History of Medicine
History, 20th Century
Humans
Infant
Mouth Diseases - ethnology - history
Oceanic Ancestry Group - education - ethnology - history - legislation & jurisprudence - psychology
Social Change - history
Tooth Diseases - ethnology - history
Abstract
Through extensive dietary and dental surveys among infants and children living in Hawai'i starting in the late 1920s, medical researchers transformed immigrant and indigenous children's mouths into objects of pathological comparison, establishing sites of alternative empirical and epistemological contact that are endemic to U.S. Pacific empire. These studies resulted in the extension of odontoclasia, a veterinary diagnosis, from dogs to humans. As a dietary antidote, researchers recommended the wider consumption of poi, a starchy Hawaiian staple. Although this appears to be a novel endorsement of indigenous foodways predating contemporary activist efforts to reinstate traditional food cultures to support indigenous health, narrow technocratic specificity and the biomedical emphasis on the cultural rather than structural etiology of odontoclasia marginalized Hawaiian health by reducing morbidity to failures to conform to U.S. imperial modernity, which included industrial medical surveillance on plantations. Conversely, doctors credited plantations for saving Filipinos through successful imperial and hygienic assimilation.
PubMed ID
20857583 View in PubMed
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Feeding the family during times of stress: experience and determinants of food insecurity in an Inuit community.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature100389
Source
Geogr J. 2010;:000
Publication Type
Article
Date
2010
Author
James D Ford
Maude Beaumier
Author Affiliation
Department of Geography, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
Source
Geogr J. 2010;:000
Date
2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Arctic regions - ethnology
Climate Change - economics - history
Community Networks - economics - history
Ethnic Groups - education - ethnology - history - legislation & jurisprudence - psychology
Family Characteristics - ethnology
Family Health - ethnology
Food Supply - economics - history - legislation & jurisprudence
History, 20th Century
History, 21st Century
Humans
Inuits - education - ethnology - history - legislation & jurisprudence - psychology
Residence Characteristics
Social Conditions - economics - history - legislation & jurisprudence
Socioeconomic Factors
Starvation - economics - ethnology - history - psychology
Abstract
This paper uses a mixed methods approach to characterise the experience of food insecurity among Inuit community members in Igloolik, Nunavut, and examine the conditions and processes that constrain access, availability, and quality of food. We conducted semi-structured interviews (n= 66) and focus groups (n= 10) with community members, and key informant interviews with local and territorial health professionals and policymakers (n= 19). The study indicates widespread experience of food insecurity. Even individuals and households who were food secure at the time of the research had experienced food insecurity in the recent past, with food insecurity largely transitory in nature. Multiple determinants of food insecurity operating over different spatial-temporal scales are identified, including food affordability and budgeting, food knowledge and preferences, food quality and availability, environmental stress, declining hunting activity, and the cost of harvesting. These determinants are operating in the context of changing livelihoods and climate change, which in many cases are exacerbating food insecurity, although high-order manifestations of food insecurity (that is, starvation) are no longer experienced.
PubMed ID
20860093 View in PubMed
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Feeding the family during times of stress: experience and determinants of food insecurity in an Inuit community.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature101710
Source
Geogr J. 2011;177(1):44-61
Publication Type
Article
Date
2011
Author
James D Ford
Maude Beaumier
Author Affiliation
McGill University, Montreal, Quebec.
Source
Geogr J. 2011;177(1):44-61
Date
2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Community Health Services - economics - history - legislation & jurisprudence
Community Networks - economics - history - legislation & jurisprudence
Family - ethnology - history - psychology
Family Health - ethnology
Food Supply - economics - history
History, 19th Century
History, 20th Century
History, 21st Century
Humans
Nunavut - ethnology
Population Groups - education - ethnology - history - legislation & jurisprudence - psychology
Starvation - economics - ethnology - history
Stress, Physiological
Stress, Psychological - economics - ethnology - history
Abstract
This paper uses a mixed methods approach to characterise the experience of food insecurity among Inuit community members in Igloolik, Nunavut, and examine the conditions and processes that constrain access, availability, and quality of food. We conducted semi-structured interviews (n= 66) and focus groups (n= 10) with community members, and key informant interviews with local and territorial health professionals and policymakers (n= 19). The study indicates widespread experience of food insecurity. Even individuals and households who were food secure at the time of the research had experienced food insecurity in the recent past, with food insecurity largely transitory in nature. Multiple determinants of food insecurity operating over different spatial-temporal scales are identified, including food affordability and budgeting, food knowledge and preferences, food quality and availability, environmental stress, declining hunting activity, and the cost of harvesting. These determinants are operating in the context of changing livelihoods and climate change, which in many cases are exacerbating food insecurity, although high-order manifestations of food insecurity (that is, starvation) are no longer experienced.
PubMed ID
21560272 View in PubMed
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Food security and nutrition in the Russian Federation - a health policy analysis.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature271143
Source
Glob Health Action. 2015;8:27537
Publication Type
Article
Date
2015
Author
Karsten Lunze
Elena Yurasova
Bulat Idrisov
Natalia Gnatienko
Luigi Migliorini
Source
Glob Health Action. 2015;8:27537
Date
2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Agriculture - history
Choice Behavior
Diet - economics - history
Economics
Energy intake
Food Supply - economics - history
Health Policy
History, 20th Century
Humans
Nutritional Status
Obesity - epidemiology - history
Russia - epidemiology
Vulnerable Populations
Abstract
In the Russian Federation (Russia), an elevated burden of premature mortality attributable to non-communicable diseases (NCDs) has been observed since the country's economic transition. NCDs are largely related to preventable risk factors such as unhealthy diets.
This health policy study's aim was to analyze past and current food production and nutritional trends in Russia and their policy implications for Russia's NCD burden.
We examined food security and nutrition in Russia using an analytical framework of food availability, access to food, and consumption.
Agricultural production declined during the period of economic transition, and nutritional habits changed from high-fat animal products to starches. However, per-capita energy consumption remained stable due to increased private expenditures on food and use of private land. Paradoxically, the prevalence of obesity still increased because of an excess consumption of unsaturated fat, sugar, and salt on one side, and insufficient intake of fruit and vegetables on the other.
Policy and economic reforms in Russia were not accompanied by a food security crisis or macronutrient deprivation of the population. Yet, unhealthy diets in contemporary Russia contribute to the burden of NCDs and related avoidable mortality. Food and nutrition policies in Russia need to specifically address nutritional shortcomings and food-insecure vulnerable populations. Appropriate, evidence-informed food and nutrition policies might help address Russia's burden of NCDs on a population level.
Notes
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PubMed ID
26112143 View in PubMed
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13 records – page 1 of 2.