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An ethicist's commentary on promoting farm animal welfare at the expense of productivity.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature134039
Source
Can Vet J. 2011 Mar;52(3):230
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2011

The Danish Organic Action Plan 2020: assessment method and baseline status of organic procurement in public kitchens.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature273609
Source
Public Health Nutr. 2015 Sep;18(13):2350-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2015
Author
Nina N Sørensen
Anne D Lassen
Hanne Løje
Inge Tetens
Source
Public Health Nutr. 2015 Sep;18(13):2350-7
Date
Sep-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Conservation of Natural Resources
Denmark
Environmental Policy
Food Services
Food Supply - economics
Food, Organic - economics
Guideline Adherence
Health Plan Implementation
Humans
Nutrition Policy
Program Evaluation
Abstract
With political support from the Danish Organic Action Plan 2020, organic public procurement in Denmark is expected to increase. In order to evaluate changes in organic food procurement in Danish public kitchens, reliable methods are needed. The present study aimed to compare organic food procurement measurements by two methods and to collect and discuss baseline organic food procurement measurements from public kitchens participating in the Danish Organic Action Plan 2020.
Comparison study measuring organic food procurement by applying two different methods, one based on the use of procurement invoices (the Organic Cuisine Label method) and the other on self-reported procurement (the Dogme method). Baseline organic food procurement status was based on organic food procurement measurements and background information from public kitchens.
Public kitchens participating in the six organic food conversion projects funded by the Danish Organic Action Plan 2020 during 2012 and 2013.
Twenty-six public kitchens (comparison study) and 345 public kitchens (baseline organic food procurement status).
A high significant correlation coefficient was found between the two organic food procurement measurement methods (r=0·83, P
PubMed ID
25945898 View in PubMed
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The economics of sheep and goat husbandry in Norse Greenland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature176798
Source
Arctic Anthropol. 2005;42(1):103-20
Publication Type
Article
Date
2005
Author
Ingrid Mainland
Paul Halstead
Source
Arctic Anthropol. 2005;42(1):103-20
Date
2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animal Husbandry - economics - education - history
Animals
Anthropology, Cultural - education - history
Arctic regions - ethnology
Dairy Products - history
Diet - ethnology - history
Economics - history
Food Supply - economics - history
Goats
Greenland - ethnology
History, Medieval
Humans
Meat Products - history
Population Groups - ethnology - history
Sheep
Abstract
Insight into the relative importance of sheep and goat herding and of the economic significance of each species (i.e., milk vs. meat vs. wool) in Medieval Greenland is obtained through the application of Halstead et al.'s (2002) criteria for the identification of adult ovicaprine mandibles to faunal assemblages from three Norse farmsteads: Sandnes, V52a, and Ø71S. The economic strategies identified are broadly comparable between the two species and the Eastern and Western Settlement sites examined, and are suggestive of the subsistence production of meat and milk. Comparison with farmsteads elsewhere in Greenland indicates that socio-economic status and/or farmstead size interacted with geographical location in determining the economic strategies employed by the Norse farmers. A broader use of resources and a more varied diet are evident at larger farmsteads in Greenland and this paper suggests that such sites would have been better able than their smaller counterparts to withstand environmental deterioration during the early Middle Ages. These analyses have also confirmed that goats were relatively more common in Norse sites in Greenland than in Norse sites in Iceland, Orkney, or Shetland.
PubMed ID
21774148 View in PubMed
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Effects of the Danish saturated fat tax on the demand for meat and dairy products.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature291091
Source
Public Health Nutr. 2016 Dec; 19(17):3085-3094
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Dec-2016
Author
Jørgen Dejgaard Jensen
Sinne Smed
Lars Aarup
Erhard Nielsen
Author Affiliation
1Department of Food and Resource Economics,University of Copenhagen,Rolighedsvej 25,DK-1958 Frederiksberg C,Denmark.
Source
Public Health Nutr. 2016 Dec; 19(17):3085-3094
Date
Dec-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Animals
Dairy Products - economics
Denmark
Fatty acids
Food Supply - economics
Humans
Meat - economics
Taxes
Abstract
Taxation of unhealthy food is considered a regulation tool to improve diets. In 2011 Denmark introduced a tax on saturated fat in food products, the first country in the world to do so. The objective of the present paper is to investigate the effects of the tax on consumers' intake of saturated fat within three different types of food product group: minced beef, regular cream and sour cream.
We use an augmented version of the Linearized Almost Ideal Demand System (LAIDS) functional form for econometric analysis, allowing for tax-induced structural breaks.
Data originate from one of the largest retail chains in Denmark (Coop Danmark) and cover January 2010 to October 2012, with monthly records of sales volume, sales revenue and information about specific campaigns from 1293 stores.
The Danish fat tax had an insignificant or small negative effect on the price for low- and medium-fat varieties, and led to a 13-16 % price increase for high-fat varieties of minced beef and cream products. The tax induced substitution effects, budget effects and preference change effects on consumption, yielding a total decrease of 4-6 % in the intake of saturated fat from minced beef and regular cream, and a negligible effect on the intake from sour cream.
The Danish introduction of a tax on saturated fat in food in October 2011 had statistically significant effects on the sales of fat in minced beef and cream products, but the tax seems to have reduced the beyond-recommendation saturated fat intake to only a limited extent.
PubMed ID
26306542 View in PubMed
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Historical warnings of future food insecurity with unprecedented seasonal heat.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature95460
Source
Science. 2009 Jan 9;323(5911):240-4
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-9-2009
Author
Battisti David S
Naylor Rosamond L
Author Affiliation
Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-1640, USA. battisti@washington.edu
Source
Science. 2009 Jan 9;323(5911):240-4
Date
Jan-9-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Africa South of the Sahara
Agriculture - trends
Animals
Animals, Domestic
Climate
Commerce
Crops, Agricultural - economics - growth & development
Droughts
Extreme Heat
Food - economics
Food Supply - economics
Forecasting
France
Greenhouse Effect
Hot Temperature
Humans
Seasons
Tropical Climate
Ukraine
Abstract
Higher growing season temperatures can have dramatic impacts on agricultural productivity, farm incomes, and food security. We used observational data and output from 23 global climate models to show a high probability (>90%) that growing season temperatures in the tropics and subtropics by the end of the 21st century will exceed the most extreme seasonal temperatures recorded from 1900 to 2006. In temperate regions, the hottest seasons on record will represent the future norm in many locations. We used historical examples to illustrate the magnitude of damage to food systems caused by extreme seasonal heat and show that these short-run events could become long-term trends without sufficient investments in adaptation.
Notes
Comment In: Science. 2009 Apr 10;324(5924):177-9; author reply 177-919359565
Comment In: Science. 2009 Jan 9;323(5911):19319131598
PubMed ID
19131626 View in PubMed
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Nutritional quality and price of food hampers distributed by a campus food bank: a Canadian experience.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature104051
Source
J Health Popul Nutr. 2014 Jun;32(2):287-300
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2014
Author
Mahsa Jessri
Arvin Abedi
Alexander Wong
Ghazaleh Eslamian
Source
J Health Popul Nutr. 2014 Jun;32(2):287-300
Date
Jun-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Canada
Dietary Fats
Energy intake
Food - economics
Food Supply - economics - methods
Fruit
Humans
Meat
Milk
Nutrition Surveys - methods - statistics & numerical data
Nutritive Value - physiology
Recommended Dietary Allowances - economics
Students - statistics & numerical data
Universities
Vegetables
Abstract
Food insecurity is a mounting concern among Canadian post-secondary students. This study was conducted to evaluate the content of food hampers distributed by University of Alberta Campus Food Bank (CFB) and to assess the cost savings to students, using these hampers. Contents of hampers distributed among 1,857 students and their dependants since 2006 were evaluated against Canada's Food Guide (CFG) recommendations and Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI). Hampers were aimed at serving university students and one to five members of their households located in Edmonton, Western Canada. One thousand eight hundred fifty-seven clients in Alberta, Canada, were included in the study. Although all hampers provided adequate energy, their fat and animal protein contents were low. Compared to the CFG recommendations, the requirements of milk and alternatives and meat and alternatives were not sufficiently met for clients using > or = 3-person hampers. None of food hampers (i.e. one- to five-person hampers) met the DRI recommendations for vitamin A and zinc. Clients of CFB received Canadian dollar (CN$) 14.88 to 64.3 worth of non-perishable food items in one- to five-person hampers respectively. Hampers provided from the CFB need improvement. Nutrients missing from the food hampers could be provided from fresh fruits, vegetables, dairy, and meat products; however, these foods are more expensive than processed food items. The CFB provides a significant amount of savings to its clients even without considering the additional perishable donations that are provided to clients. Interpretation of our data required the assumption that all clients were consuming all of their hampers, which may not always be the case. Clients that do not fully consume their hampers may benefit less from the food bank.
PubMed ID
25076666 View in PubMed
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Spilt milk: an inter-sectoral partnership that failed to advance milk security for low-income lone mothers in Nova Scotia, Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature133269
Source
Glob Health Promot. 2011 Mar;18(1):20-2
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2011
Author
Lynn McIntyre
N Theresa Glanville
Andrea Hilchie-Pye
Author Affiliation
Department of Community Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, TRW 3E43-3280 Hospital Dr NW, Calgary, Alberta T2N 4Z6, Canada. lmcintyr@ucalgary.ca
Source
Glob Health Promot. 2011 Mar;18(1):20-2
Date
Mar-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Female
Food Supply - economics
Humans
Milk - economics
Mothers
Nova Scotia
Nutrition Policy - economics
Poverty
Public Health
Single Parent
Abstract
Canadian agricultural policy supports higher milk prices. Consequently, poor families lack sufficient funds to purchase adequate quantities of milk. Low-income lone mothers in the Canadian province of Nova Scotia suggested their preferred strategies for improved access to milk. We then built inter-sectoral support for a policy intervention to address their recommendations. Our research-to-action process led to a policy dialogue focusing on an electronic smart card that would permit the delivery of lower-priced milk to poor households. While all agreed that milk insecurity was an important issue, the project ultimately failed because of the entrenched positions of influential stakeholder groups.
PubMed ID
21721295 View in PubMed
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The value of a polar bear: evaluating the role of a multiple-use resource in the Nunavut mixed economy.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature142018
Source
Arctic Anthropol. 2010;47(1):39-56
Publication Type
Article
Date
2010
Author
Martha Dowsley
Source
Arctic Anthropol. 2010;47(1):39-56
Date
2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Arctic regions - ethnology
Commerce - economics - education - history - legislation & jurisprudence
Food Supply - economics - history - legislation & jurisprudence
History, 20th Century
History, 21st Century
Humans
Inuits - education - ethnology - history - legislation & jurisprudence - psychology
Local Government - history
Nunavut - ethnology
Public Opinion - history
Socioeconomic Factors
Ursidae
Abstract
The polar bear (Ursus maritimus) is a common pool resource that contributes to both the subsistence and monetary aspects of the Nunavut mixed economy through its use as food, the sale of hides in the fur trade, and sport hunt outfitting. Sport hunting is more financially profitable than subsistence hunting; however, the proportion of the polar bear quota devoted to the sport hunt has become relatively stable at approximately 20% across Nunavut. This ratio suggests local Inuit organizations are not using a neoclassical economic model based on profit maximization. This paper examines local-level hunting organizations and their institutions (as sets of rules) governing the sport and Inuit subsistence hunts from both formalist and substantivist economic perspectives. It concludes that profit maximization is used within the sport hunting sphere, which fits a neoclassical model of economic rationality. A second and parallel system, better viewed through the substantivist perspective, demonstrates that the communities focus on longer-term goals to maintain and reproduce the socio-economic system of the subsistence economy, which is predicated on maintaining social, human-environment, and human-polar bear relations.
PubMed ID
20648983 View in PubMed
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Vulnerability assessment of New Jersey's food supply to invasive species: the New Jersey IMPORT project.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature166259
Source
New Solut. 2006;16(3):289-99
Publication Type
Article
Date
2006
Author
Petros Gregory
George Hamilton
Marija Borjan
Mark Robson
Author Affiliation
New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station, NJ 08901, USA.
Source
New Solut. 2006;16(3):289-99
Date
2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Commerce - economics
Crops, Agricultural
Food Contamination - economics
Food Microbiology
Food Supply - economics
Humans
Insect Control - economics
Internationality
New Jersey
Pest Control - economics
Risk assessment
Abstract
The United States' environment and economy have been severely impacted by unintentionally introduced biological organisms for the last 100 years. Our ecosystems and biological reserves of conservation importance are regularly invaded by non-indigenous species. To help prevent future invaders from entering the ports, this project undertaken at the Port of Elizabeth proposed to: 1. Catalog the different vegetable and fruit crops entering this country; 2. Evaluate the potential risk to New Jersey crops that an introduced exotic pest might pose; and 3. Evaluate the potential that imported crops entering the U.S. have for harboring exotic pests. The New Jersey IMPORT report, or Invasive Management Promoting Open and Responsible Trade project, details a newly designed ecological risk assessment tool to evaluate entry potential of invasive pests at the Port of Elizabeth. Risk designations were assigned to shipments of four fruits; seven vegetables; and two field/forage crops based on: i) Country of origin; ii) Amounts of commodities imported; and iii) Endemic pests present in exporting countries. Between 5,000 and 180,000 tons of crops were imported into the Port of Elizabeth from October 2001 to 2003. Pest risk analyses were drafted for twenty-five intercepted insects taken from the Port Information Network. In addition, eighteen pest risk analyses were drafted for invasive fungi, bacteria, and viruses of global concern as alerted by ProMed Digest. It was concluded that three crops imported remain at high risk: apples, peppers, and tomatoes. Peaches, soybeans, lettuce, sweet corn, potatoes, squash, and eggplant imported were considered moderate risk. Blueberries, cranberries, and alfalfa were considered low risk.
PubMed ID
17145643 View in PubMed
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10 records – page 1 of 1.