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Feeding the family during times of stress: experience and determinants of food insecurity in an Inuit community.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature101710
Source
Geogr J. 2011;177(1):44-61
Publication Type
Article
Date
2011
Author
James D Ford
Maude Beaumier
Author Affiliation
McGill University, Montreal, Quebec.
Source
Geogr J. 2011;177(1):44-61
Date
2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Community Health Services - economics - history - legislation & jurisprudence
Community Networks - economics - history - legislation & jurisprudence
Family - ethnology - history - psychology
Family Health - ethnology
Food Supply - economics - history
History, 19th Century
History, 20th Century
History, 21st Century
Humans
Nunavut - ethnology
Population Groups - education - ethnology - history - legislation & jurisprudence - psychology
Starvation - economics - ethnology - history
Stress, Physiological
Stress, Psychological - economics - ethnology - history
Abstract
This paper uses a mixed methods approach to characterise the experience of food insecurity among Inuit community members in Igloolik, Nunavut, and examine the conditions and processes that constrain access, availability, and quality of food. We conducted semi-structured interviews (n= 66) and focus groups (n= 10) with community members, and key informant interviews with local and territorial health professionals and policymakers (n= 19). The study indicates widespread experience of food insecurity. Even individuals and households who were food secure at the time of the research had experienced food insecurity in the recent past, with food insecurity largely transitory in nature. Multiple determinants of food insecurity operating over different spatial-temporal scales are identified, including food affordability and budgeting, food knowledge and preferences, food quality and availability, environmental stress, declining hunting activity, and the cost of harvesting. These determinants are operating in the context of changing livelihoods and climate change, which in many cases are exacerbating food insecurity, although high-order manifestations of food insecurity (that is, starvation) are no longer experienced.
PubMed ID
21560272 View in PubMed
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Traditional food and monetary access to market-food: correlates of food insecurity among Inuit preschoolers.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature131779
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2011 Sep;70(4):373-83
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2011
Author
Grace M Egeland
Laakkuluk Williamson-Bathory
Louise Johnson-Down
Isaac Sobol
Author Affiliation
Centre for Indigenous Peoples' Nutrition and Environment and School of Dietetics and Human Nutrition, Macdonald Campus, McGill University, Ste. Anne-de-Bellevue, QC H9X 3V9, Canada. grace.egeland@mcgill.ca
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2011 Sep;70(4):373-83
Date
Sep-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Anemia, Iron-Deficiency - epidemiology
Canada
Child, Preschool
Cross-Sectional Studies
Family Characteristics
Food Habits
Food Supply - economics
Health Surveys
Humans
Inuits
Nutritional Status
Social Class
Abstract
To evaluate correlates of food insecurity among Inuit preschoolers. Study design. Cross-sectional health survey.
Correlates of food insecurity were assessed in 3-5 year old children (n=388) residing in 16 Nunavut communities (2007-2008) in whom a high prevalence of child food insecurity (56%) has been documented. A bilingual team conducted interviews, including 24-hour dietary recalls and past-year food security assessment involving monetary access to market foods.
Children residing in child food insecure homes were more likely to have consumed traditional food (TF) (51.7% vs. 39.9%, p = 0.01), and less likely to have consumed any milk (52.2% vs. 73.2%, p = 0.001) compared to children in child food secure homes. Median healthy eating index scores were significantly lower (77.1 vs. 79.9, p = 0.01) and sugar drink intake higher (429 vs. 377 g/day, p = 0.05) in children from child food insecure than food secure households. Children that consumed TF had higher protein and lower carbohydrate intake (p = 0.05) and tendencies for a lower prevalence of iron deficiency (plasma ferritin
PubMed ID
21878183 View in PubMed
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Historical warnings of future food insecurity with unprecedented seasonal heat.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature95460
Source
Science. 2009 Jan 9;323(5911):240-4
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-9-2009
Author
Battisti David S
Naylor Rosamond L
Author Affiliation
Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-1640, USA. battisti@washington.edu
Source
Science. 2009 Jan 9;323(5911):240-4
Date
Jan-9-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Africa South of the Sahara
Agriculture - trends
Animals
Animals, Domestic
Climate
Commerce
Crops, Agricultural - economics - growth & development
Droughts
Extreme Heat
Food - economics
Food Supply - economics
Forecasting
France
Greenhouse Effect
Hot Temperature
Humans
Seasons
Tropical Climate
Ukraine
Abstract
Higher growing season temperatures can have dramatic impacts on agricultural productivity, farm incomes, and food security. We used observational data and output from 23 global climate models to show a high probability (>90%) that growing season temperatures in the tropics and subtropics by the end of the 21st century will exceed the most extreme seasonal temperatures recorded from 1900 to 2006. In temperate regions, the hottest seasons on record will represent the future norm in many locations. We used historical examples to illustrate the magnitude of damage to food systems caused by extreme seasonal heat and show that these short-run events could become long-term trends without sufficient investments in adaptation.
Notes
Comment In: Science. 2009 Apr 10;324(5924):177-9; author reply 177-919359565
Comment In: Science. 2009 Jan 9;323(5911):19319131598
PubMed ID
19131626 View in PubMed
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Feeding the family during times of stress: experience and determinants of food insecurity in an Inuit community.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature100389
Source
Geogr J. 2010;:000
Publication Type
Article
Date
2010
Author
James D Ford
Maude Beaumier
Author Affiliation
Department of Geography, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
Source
Geogr J. 2010;:000
Date
2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Arctic regions - ethnology
Climate Change - economics - history
Community Networks - economics - history
Ethnic Groups - education - ethnology - history - legislation & jurisprudence - psychology
Family Characteristics - ethnology
Family Health - ethnology
Food Supply - economics - history - legislation & jurisprudence
History, 20th Century
History, 21st Century
Humans
Inuits - education - ethnology - history - legislation & jurisprudence - psychology
Residence Characteristics
Social Conditions - economics - history - legislation & jurisprudence
Socioeconomic Factors
Starvation - economics - ethnology - history - psychology
Abstract
This paper uses a mixed methods approach to characterise the experience of food insecurity among Inuit community members in Igloolik, Nunavut, and examine the conditions and processes that constrain access, availability, and quality of food. We conducted semi-structured interviews (n= 66) and focus groups (n= 10) with community members, and key informant interviews with local and territorial health professionals and policymakers (n= 19). The study indicates widespread experience of food insecurity. Even individuals and households who were food secure at the time of the research had experienced food insecurity in the recent past, with food insecurity largely transitory in nature. Multiple determinants of food insecurity operating over different spatial-temporal scales are identified, including food affordability and budgeting, food knowledge and preferences, food quality and availability, environmental stress, declining hunting activity, and the cost of harvesting. These determinants are operating in the context of changing livelihoods and climate change, which in many cases are exacerbating food insecurity, although high-order manifestations of food insecurity (that is, starvation) are no longer experienced.
PubMed ID
20860093 View in PubMed
Less detail

Canada's northern food subsidy Nutrition North Canada: a comprehensive program evaluation.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature290437
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2017; 76(1):1279451
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
2017
Author
Tracey Galloway
Author Affiliation
a Department of Anthropology , University of Toronto Mississauga , Mississauga , Canada.
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2017; 76(1):1279451
Date
2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Arctic Regions
Canada
Commerce
Eligibility Determination
Food Assistance - economics - legislation & jurisprudence - organization & administration - statistics & numerical data
Food Supply - economics - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Program Evaluation
Abstract
Nutrition North Canada (NNC) is a retail subsidy program implemented in 2012 and designed to reduce the cost of nutritious food for residents living in Canada's remote, northern communities. The present study evaluates the extent to which NNC provides access to perishable, nutritious food for residents of remote northern communities.
Program documents, including fiscal and food cost reports for the period 2011-2015, retailer compliance reports, audits of the program, and the program's performance measurement strategy are examined for evidence that the subsidy is meeting its objectives in a manner both comprehensive and equitable across regions and communities.
NNC lacks price caps or other means of ensuring food is affordable and equitably priced in communities. Gaps in food cost reporting constrain the program's accountability. From 2011-15, no adjustments were made to community eligibility, subsidy rates, or the list of eligible foods in response to information provided by community members, critics, the Auditor General of Canada, and the program's own Advisory Board. Measures to increase program accountability, such as increasing subsidy information on point-of-sale receipts, make NNC more visible but do nothing to address underlying accountability issues Conclusions: The current structure and regulatory framework of NNC are insufficient to ensure the program meets its goal. Both the volume and cost of nutritious food delivered to communities is highly variable and dependent on factors such as retailers' pricing practices, over which the program has no control. It may be necessary to consider alternative forms of policy in order to produce sustainable improvements to food security in remote, northern communities.
Notes
Cites: Int J Circumpolar Health. 2016 Jul 05;75:31127 PMID 27388896
PubMed ID
28151097 View in PubMed
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An application of the edge effect in measuring accessibility to multiple food retailer types in southwestern Ontario, Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature134478
Source
Int J Health Geogr. 2011;10:34
Publication Type
Article
Date
2011
Author
Richard C Sadler
Jason A Gilliland
Godwin Arku
Author Affiliation
Department of Geography, University of Western Ontario, 1151 Richmond St, London, ON, N6A 5C2, Canada.
Source
Int J Health Geogr. 2011;10:34
Date
2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Food - economics - statistics & numerical data
Food Supply - economics - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Marketing - economics - statistics & numerical data
Nutrition Policy - economics
Ontario - epidemiology
Rural Population
Socioeconomic Factors
Abstract
Trends in food retailing associated with the consolidation of smaller-format retailers into fewer, larger-format supercentres have left some rural areas with fewer sources of nutritious, affordable food. Access to nutritious, affordable food is essential for good dietary habits and combating health issues such as type-2 diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease. Many studies on food environments use inaccurate or incomplete methods for locating food retailers, which may be responsible for mischaracterising food deserts. This study uses databases of every residence in and every food retailer in and around Middlesex County, Ontario, Canada. Residences were geocoded to their precise address, and network analysis techniques were performed in a geographic information system (GIS) to determine distances between every residence and different types of food retailers (grocery stores, fast food, fruit and vegetable sources, grocery stores plus fruit and vegetable sources, variety stores), both when considering and neglecting facilities outside the area of study, to account for a deficiency in analysis termed the 'edge effect'.
Analysis of household accessibility to food outlets by neighbourhood socioeconomic distress level indicated that residents in the most distressed neighbourhoods tended to have better accessibility to all types of food retailers. In the most distressed neighbourhoods, 79 percent of residences were within walking distance of a grocery store, compared to only 10 percent in the least distressed neighbourhoods. When the edge effect was neglected, 37 percent of distance estimates proved inaccurate. Average accessibility to all food retailer types improved dramatically when food outlets adjacent to the study area were considered, thereby controlling for the edge effect.
By neglecting to consider food retailers just outside study area boundaries, previous studies may significantly over-report the actual distance necessary to travel for food. Research on food access spanning large rural regions requires methods that accurately geocode residents and their food sources. By implementing methods akin to those in this paper, future research will be better able to identify areas with poor food accessibility. Improving identification of food desert communities is a first step in facilitating more effective deployment of food policies and programs in those communities.
Notes
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PubMed ID
21575162 View in PubMed
Less detail

Experimental encounters: Filipino and Hawaiian bodies in the U.S. imperial invention of odontoclasia, 1928-1946.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature140627
Source
Am Q. 2010;62(3):523-46
Publication Type
Article
Date
2010
Author
Jean J Kim
Source
Am Q. 2010;62(3):523-46
Date
2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Child
Child Care - economics - history - legislation & jurisprudence - psychology
Child Welfare - economics - ethnology - history - legislation & jurisprudence - psychology
Child, Preschool
Food Supply - economics - history
Hawaii - ethnology
History of Dentistry
History of Medicine
History, 20th Century
Humans
Infant
Mouth Diseases - ethnology - history
Oceanic Ancestry Group - education - ethnology - history - legislation & jurisprudence - psychology
Social Change - history
Tooth Diseases - ethnology - history
Abstract
Through extensive dietary and dental surveys among infants and children living in Hawai'i starting in the late 1920s, medical researchers transformed immigrant and indigenous children's mouths into objects of pathological comparison, establishing sites of alternative empirical and epistemological contact that are endemic to U.S. Pacific empire. These studies resulted in the extension of odontoclasia, a veterinary diagnosis, from dogs to humans. As a dietary antidote, researchers recommended the wider consumption of poi, a starchy Hawaiian staple. Although this appears to be a novel endorsement of indigenous foodways predating contemporary activist efforts to reinstate traditional food cultures to support indigenous health, narrow technocratic specificity and the biomedical emphasis on the cultural rather than structural etiology of odontoclasia marginalized Hawaiian health by reducing morbidity to failures to conform to U.S. imperial modernity, which included industrial medical surveillance on plantations. Conversely, doctors credited plantations for saving Filipinos through successful imperial and hygienic assimilation.
PubMed ID
20857583 View in PubMed
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The Danish Organic Action Plan 2020: assessment method and baseline status of organic procurement in public kitchens.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature273609
Source
Public Health Nutr. 2015 Sep;18(13):2350-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2015
Author
Nina N Sørensen
Anne D Lassen
Hanne Løje
Inge Tetens
Source
Public Health Nutr. 2015 Sep;18(13):2350-7
Date
Sep-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Conservation of Natural Resources
Denmark
Environmental Policy
Food Services
Food Supply - economics
Food, Organic - economics
Guideline Adherence
Health Plan Implementation
Humans
Nutrition Policy
Program Evaluation
Abstract
With political support from the Danish Organic Action Plan 2020, organic public procurement in Denmark is expected to increase. In order to evaluate changes in organic food procurement in Danish public kitchens, reliable methods are needed. The present study aimed to compare organic food procurement measurements by two methods and to collect and discuss baseline organic food procurement measurements from public kitchens participating in the Danish Organic Action Plan 2020.
Comparison study measuring organic food procurement by applying two different methods, one based on the use of procurement invoices (the Organic Cuisine Label method) and the other on self-reported procurement (the Dogme method). Baseline organic food procurement status was based on organic food procurement measurements and background information from public kitchens.
Public kitchens participating in the six organic food conversion projects funded by the Danish Organic Action Plan 2020 during 2012 and 2013.
Twenty-six public kitchens (comparison study) and 345 public kitchens (baseline organic food procurement status).
A high significant correlation coefficient was found between the two organic food procurement measurement methods (r=0·83, P
PubMed ID
25945898 View in PubMed
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71 records – page 1 of 8.