The purpose of the work reported is to provide a first-order assessment of food patterns and food pattern trends in each of the Nordic countries. The primary source of input has been food supply data for the period of 1970-1988. The study reveals that important changes in food consumption have taken place over the last 20 years. In Finland and Norway, this has resulted in a reduction of energy contribution from fat to 35%. For Denmark and Sweden no such reduction is observed. The data are intended for use in a wider context in a transeuropean search for relations between health problems and food patterns.
The genesis of the problem of food production and nutrition of African, Asian and Central and South American countries can be traced back to the beginning of 'inter-continental trade' and the emergence of colonialism. Indigenous food patterns and social and economic orders that had evolved to befit the inhabitants and the environment were destroyed. A nutritional framework and an agricultural and economic policy designed to benefit the colonising nations were fostered. At present, millions of people in the developing countries suffer from endemic undernutrition and associated diseases. Famine is always present under the surface claiming families and individual hamlets and breaks through when the semblance of equilibrium between minimal food requirement for survival and supply is disturbed by natural or man-made disaster. Landlessness, an uneven distribution of wealth, overemphasis on cash-crop production, neglect of peasant agriculture in favour of unnecessary expenditure on military hardware and other misguided projects, and crop specialisation are some of the factors responsible for food shortage and undernutrition. Moreover, most of the staple foods of the developing countries are of low energy density and deficient in some essential nutrients. The cycle of undernutrition, hunger, disease and death can only be broken by instituting a well planned, peasant-orientated, integrated development programme based on self-reliance and self-sufficiency.
Food insecurity is a public health concern. The pillars of food security include food access, availability and utilisation. For some indigenous peoples, the pillars may focus on traditional foods.
To conduct a scoping review on traditional foods and food security in Alaska.
Google Scholar and the High North Research Documents were used to search for relevant primary research using the following terms: “traditional foods”, “food security”, “access”, “availability”, “utilisation”, “Alaska”, “Alaska Native” and “indigenous”.
Twenty four articles from Google Scholar and four articles from the High North Research Documents met the inclusion criteria. The articles revealed three types of research approaches, those that quantified traditional food intake (n=18), those that quantified food security (n=2), and qualitative articles that addressed at least one pillar of food security (n=8).
Studies that estimate the prevalence of traditional food insecurity in Alaska are virtually absent from the literature. Instead most studies provide a review of factors related to food security. Research investigating dietary intake of traditional foods is more prevalent. Future research should include direct measurements of traditional food intake and food security to provide a more complete picture of traditional food security in Alaska.
Charitable assistance is a common response to food insecurity in many affluent countries. The coalition featured in this case study is explicitly concerned with social justice, mitigating the potential for charitable assistance to mask the extent of food insecurity, its root causes and its long-term consequences. The coalition structure has assisted community workers in transcending day-to-day routines, so as to reflect on the politics of food insecurity and institutionalised responses to this problem. Coalition members have defined food security as an objective whose achievement will entail comprehensive reform. One noteworthy outcome has been to recommend that member groups not redistribute a number of foodstuffs commonly donated by individuals and corporations. In grappling with a tension between responding to immediate needs for food and addressing the root causes of these needs, community workers have paid attention to public health.