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Absences for sickness among children in day care.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature36550
Source
Acta Paediatr. 1992 Nov;81(11):929-32
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-1992
Author
M. Möttönen
M. Uhari
Author Affiliation
Department of Pediatrics, University of Oulu, Finland.
Source
Acta Paediatr. 1992 Nov;81(11):929-32
Date
Nov-1992
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Absenteeism
Child
Child Day Care Centers - standards - statistics & numerical data
Child, Preschool
Finland - epidemiology
Food Services - standards - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Hygiene
Infant
Morbidity
Multivariate Analysis
Occupations - statistics & numerical data
Parents
Questionnaires
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Retrospective Studies
Seasons
Social Class
Abstract
The number of days of absence because of sickness, recorded for all children in one city in Finland, cared for in municipal day care over a period of 2.5 years, was collected from the monthly figures kept by the city council office for accounting purposes. The average number of days of absence per child was 24 per year at child-care centers and 9 in family care (p
PubMed ID
1467617 View in PubMed
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[Actual diet of children in orphanages]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature31096
Source
Vopr Pitan. 2002;71(5):7-10
Publication Type
Article
Date
2002
Author
A T Elizarov
L P Volkotrub
Source
Vopr Pitan. 2002;71(5):7-10
Date
2002
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Nutrition
Calcium - analysis
Child
Child Nutrition
Diet
Dietary Proteins - analysis
Energy intake
English Abstract
Female
Food
Food Services - standards
Humans
Iodine - analysis
Male
Nutrition Surveys
Orphanages
Phosphorus - analysis
Siberia
Trace Elements - analysis
Vitamins - analysis
Abstract
The account of quantitative and qualitative structure of diets of children of children's houses has revealed infringements in organisation of mode of a meals, and also unbalance of diet on structure of food substances, including on iodine, that can promote development of iodine-dependence diseases.
PubMed ID
12599990 View in PubMed
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An outbreak of Bacillus cereus implicating a part-time banquet caterer.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature188374
Source
Can J Public Health. 2002 Sep-Oct;93(5):353-5
Publication Type
Article
Author
Colette Gaulin
Yv Bonnier Viger
Lise Fillion
Author Affiliation
Centre de santé publique de Québec, 2400 rue d'Estimauville, Beauport, Québec, G1E 7G9. colette.gaulin@ssss.gouv.qc.ca
Source
Can J Public Health. 2002 Sep-Oct;93(5):353-5
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Bacillus cereus - isolation & purification
Bacterial Infections - epidemiology - microbiology
Cohort Studies
Disease Outbreaks - prevention & control
Food Contamination
Food Services - standards
Foodborne Diseases - microbiology
Humans
Quebec - epidemiology
Restaurants - standards
Sanitation
Abstract
In the aftermath of a party, 70% (25 of 36) of attendees had gastroenteritis. The objectives of this study were to identify a risk factor associated with the food during the banquet and to identify measures of control for avoiding this kind of outbreak in the future.
A retrospective cohort study was used. We tried to reach by telephone all guests who had attended this banquet. A standardized questionnaire was used to provide information about identification of a risk factor, especially in relation to food.
The cohort study has shown that potato salad served at the party was significantly associated with the disease. The mayonnaise used to prepare the salad was analyzed and Bacillus cereus was isolated (10(3) bacteria per gram).
Bacillus microorganisms are usually found in decaying organic matter, dust, soil, vegetables and water. The bacteria has a remarkable ability to survive strong environmental stresses. There are strains of B. cereus that can cause food poisoning episodes with infective doses as low as 10(3) to 10(4) bacteria per gram. B. cereus is an infrequently reported cause of foodborne illnesses in Quebec and in North America but this may be due to underreporting of episodes. In this outbreak, bacterial multiplication was facilitated at several points in the interval between the preparation of the meal and the consumption of the banquet by the guests. Because the spores are ubiquitous and resistant to inactivation with most food grade disinfectants, temperature control should be the main focus of B. cereus outbreak prevention.
The meal was prepared by a restaurateur who was inexperienced in catering services and temperature control in particular when food is served outside the restaurant. This outbreak underscores the importance of maintaining meticulous hygienic procedures in food processing. Restaurateurs who offer catering services should be familiar with the constraints that are specific to this sector of the food industry.
PubMed ID
12353456 View in PubMed
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Assessing the need for hot meals: a descriptive Meals on Wheels study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature179479
Source
Can J Diet Pract Res. 2004;65(2):90-2
Publication Type
Article
Date
2004
Author
Karen Parsons
Caryn Rolls
Author Affiliation
Sunnybrook and Women's College Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Source
Can J Diet Pract Res. 2004;65(2):90-2
Date
2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Consumer Product Safety
Food Handling - methods
Food Preferences
Food Services - standards
Humans
Needs Assessment
Quality Control
Quebec
Questionnaires
Abstract
According to recent literature, delivering chilled Meals on Wheels to seniors increases food quality and safety. The purpose of this study was to determine the acceptability and/or feasibility of a cook-chill delivery system for participants in the Maimonides Geriatric Centre Meals on Wheels program in Montreal, Quebec. The authors also evaluated whether the meal was eaten upon delivery, documented where the meal was stored if consumption was delayed, determined what cooking/heating appliances were used and if the recipients were capable of heating up their meals, and assessed preferences for receiving chilled versus hot meals. Upon receiving the meal, 89% of the 60 seniors did not eat it immediately. Those who ate the meal later stored it in the refrigerator. All had some appliance available to heat the delivered meal; 55% used a microwave. Approximately 75% did not object to receiving meals chilled. The majority of recipients did not require delivery of hot meals, as most delayed consuming the meal until later in the day. Other meal-delivery program planners can use these findings when deciding if a cook-chill system is appropriate for their client populations.
PubMed ID
15217528 View in PubMed
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Changes to the school food and physical activity environment after guideline implementation in British Columbia, Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature256767
Source
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2014;11:50
Publication Type
Article
Date
2014
Author
Allison W Watts
Louise C Mâsse
Patti-Jean Naylor
Author Affiliation
School of Population and Public Health, University of British Columbia, F508-4480 Oak Street, Vancouver, British Columbia V6H 3V4, Canada. lmasse@cfri.ubc.ca.
Source
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2014;11:50
Date
2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
British Columbia
Child
Cross-Sectional Studies
Environment
Food Services - standards
Fruit
Guidelines as Topic
Humans
Motor Activity
Nutrition Policy
Nutritional Status
Pediatric Obesity - prevention & control
Physical Education and Training
Regression Analysis
Residence Characteristics
Schools
Socioeconomic Factors
Students
Vegetables
Abstract
High rates of childhood obesity have generated interest among policy makers to improve the school food environment and increase students' levels of physical activity. The purpose of this study was to examine school-level changes associated with implementation of the Food and Beverage Sales in Schools (FBSS) and Daily Physical Activity (DPA) guidelines in British Columbia, Canada.
Elementary and middle/high school principals completed a survey on the school food and physical activity environment in 2007-08 (N=513) and 2011-12 (N=490). Hierarchical mixed effects regression was used to examine changes in: 1) availability of food and beverages; 2) minutes per day of Physical Education (PE); 3) delivery method of PE; and 4) school community support. Models controlled for school enrollment and community type, education and income.
After policy implementation was expected, more elementary schools provided access to fruits and vegetables and less to 100% fruit juice. Fewer middle/high schools provided access to sugar-sweetened beverages, French fries, baked goods, salty snacks and chocolate/candy. Schools were more likely to meet 150 min/week of PE for grade 6 students, and offer more minutes of PE per week for grade 8 and 10 students including changes to PE delivery method. School community support for nutrition and physical activity policies increased over time.
Positive changes to the school food environment occurred after schools were expected to implement the FBSS and DPA guidelines. Reported changes to the school environment are encouraging and provide support for guidelines and policies that focus on increasing healthy eating and physical activity in schools.
Notes
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PubMed ID
24731514 View in PubMed
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Design of the OPUS School Meal Study: a randomised controlled trial assessing the impact of serving school meals based on the New Nordic Diet.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature119374
Source
Scand J Public Health. 2012 Dec;40(8):693-703
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2012
Author
Camilla T Damsgaard
Stine-Mathilde Dalskov
Rikke A Petersen
Louise B Sørensen
Christian Mølgaard
Anja Biltoft-Jensen
Rikke Andersen
Anne V Thorsen
Inge Tetens
Anders Sjödin
Mads F Hjorth
Ditte Vassard
Jørgen D Jensen
Niels Egelund
Camilla B Dyssegaard
Ib Skovgaard
Arne Astrup
Kim F Michaelsen
Author Affiliation
Department of Human Nutrition, Faculty of Science, University of Copenhagen, Denmark. ctd@life.ku.dk
Source
Scand J Public Health. 2012 Dec;40(8):693-703
Date
Dec-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Child
Child Nutritional Physiological Phenomena - physiology
Cluster analysis
Cross-Over Studies
Denmark
Diet - standards
Female
Food Services - standards
Humans
Male
Nutrition Policy
Research Design
Schools
Abstract
Danish children consume too much sugar and not enough whole grain, fish, fruit, and vegetables. The Nordic region is rich in such foods with a strong health-promoting potential. We lack randomised controlled trials that investigate the developmental and health impact of serving school meals based on Nordic foods.
This paper describes the rationale, design, study population, and potential implications of the Optimal well-being, development and health for Danish children through a healthy New Nordic Diet (OPUS) School Meal Study.
In a cluster-randomised cross-over design, 1021 children from 3rd and 4th grades (8-11 years old) at nine Danish municipal schools were invited to participate. Classes were assigned to two 3-month periods with free school meals based on the New Nordic Diet (NND) or their usual packed lunch (control). Dietary intake, nutrient status, physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, sleep, growth, body composition, early metabolic and cardiovascular risk markers, illness, absence from school, wellbeing, cognitive function, social and cultural features, food acceptance, waste, and cost were assessed.
In total, 834 children (82% of those invited) participated. Although their parents were slightly better educated than the background population, children from various socioeconomic backgrounds were included. The proportion of overweight and obese children (14%) resembled that of earlier examinations of Danish school children. Drop out was 8.3%.
A high inclusion rate and low drop out rate was achieved. This study will be the first to determine whether school meals based on the NND improve children's diet, health, growth, cognitive performance, and early disease risk markers.
PubMed ID
23108477 View in PubMed
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Design, testing and validation of an innovative web-based instrument to evaluate school meal quality.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature120393
Source
Public Health Nutr. 2013 Jun;16(6):1028-36
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2013
Author
Emma Patterson
Anna-Karin Quetel
Karin Lilja
Marit Simma
Linnea Olsson
Liselotte Schäfer Elinder
Author Affiliation
Department of Public Health Sciences, Division of Social Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Norrbacka, level 3, 17176 Stockholm, Sweden. emma.patterson@ki.se
Source
Public Health Nutr. 2013 Jun;16(6):1028-36
Date
Jun-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Child
Consumer Satisfaction
Diet - standards
Evaluation Studies as Topic
Food Services - standards
Food Supply
Humans
Internet
Meals
Nutritive Value
Questionnaires - standards
Reproducibility of Results
Schools
Sweden
Abstract
To develop a feasible, valid, reliable web-based instrument to objectively evaluate school meal quality in Swedish primary schools.
The construct 'school meal quality' was operationalized by an expert panel into six domains, one of which was nutritional quality. An instrument was drafted and pilot-tested. Face validity was evaluated by the panel. Feasibility was established via a large national study. Food-based criteria to predict the nutritional adequacy of school meals in terms of fat quality, iron, vitamin D and fibre content were developed. Predictive validity was evaluated by comparing the nutritional adequacy of school menus based on these criteria with the results from a nutritional analysis. Inter-rater reliability was also assessed.
The instrument was developed between 2010 and 2012. It is designed for use in all primary schools by school catering and/or management representatives.
A pilot-test of eighty schools in Stockholm (autumn 2010) and a further test of feasibility in 191 schools nationally (spring 2011).
The four nutrient-specific food-based criteria predicted nutritional adequacy with sensitivity ranging from 0.85 to 1.0, specificity from 0.45 to 1.0 and accuracy from 0.67 to 1.0. The sample in the national study was statistically representative and the majority of users rated the questionnaire positively, suggesting the instrument is feasible. The inter-rater reliability was fair to almost perfect for continuous variables and agreement was = 67 % for categorical variables.
An innovative web-based system to comprehensively monitor school meal quality across several domains, with validated questions in the nutritional domain, is available in Sweden for the first time.
PubMed ID
23009762 View in PubMed
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Developing school nutrition policies: enabling and barrier factors.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature146986
Source
Can J Diet Pract Res. 2009;70(4):166-71
Publication Type
Article
Date
2009
Author
Debbie MacLellan
Jennifer Taylor
Catherine Freeze
Author Affiliation
Department of Family and Nutritional Sciences, University of Prince Edward Island, Charlottetown, PE, Canada.
Source
Can J Diet Pract Res. 2009;70(4):166-71
Date
2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Child
Food Services - standards
Health Plan Implementation - methods
Health promotion
Humans
Nutrition Policy
Policy Making
Prince Edward Island
Schools
Abstract
The study was conducted to identify the enabling and barrier factors in the development of nutrition policies in Prince Edward Island elementary and consolidated schools.
A document review and in-depth interviews were conducted with key stakeholders (n=12).
Principals were identified as important champions for change. Working group members created an interface between the school world and the nutrition world, and drew upon common philosophical ground to work together to lead the change process. Successfully navigating the process of policy development required building a case for change, testing policies in the real world, integrating healthy eating within school life, offering support to schools, engaging participants, and acknowledging the need to weigh the costs and benefits of the change. At times, external pressures on schools and available foods varied in the extent to which they enabled or challenged policy development. Finally, resource limitations, competing issues, and the use of unhealthy food as rewards were identified as the primary barriers.
The use of a consultative approach that engages key stakeholders early in the process is critical to the successful development of school nutrition policies. This approach also may be an important predictor of the long-term success of such initiatives.
PubMed ID
19958571 View in PubMed
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[Development of food supply quality assurance system for armed forces].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature122250
Source
Gig Sanit. 2012 Mar-Apr;(2):47-51
Publication Type
Article
Author
E I Plaksin
Source
Gig Sanit. 2012 Mar-Apr;(2):47-51
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Food Analysis - methods
Food Services - standards
Food Supply - standards
Humans
Military Hygiene - standards
Military Personnel
Quality Control
Questionnaires
Russia
Abstract
To study a serviceman's satisfaction with how nutrition was organized, the author elaborated a questionnaire containing the sections "nutrition organization quality assessment" and "mess food intake condition quality assessment". Different categories of military men taking food were inquired in a mess. The affirmation "I have no after-meal heartburn" became evidence that the sample was heterogeneous. For detailed analysis, the total sample was divided into two subgroups: those who had (Subgroup 1) and had not (Subgroup 2) a burning sensation after eating. Subgroup II servicemen gave lower scores on the questions about the comfort of food intake, the quality of dishes, a general attitude towards nutrition organization in the mess than did Subgroup I. The study has verified that the developed subsistence quality assurance system is of importance. The questionnaire has provided a valid assessment of the quality of the services given by the mess and revealed a reason for low scores.
PubMed ID
22834266 View in PubMed
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Dietary analysis of randomly selected meals from the Child Hunger and Education Program School Nutrition Program in Saskatchewan, Canada, suggests that nutrient target levels are being provided.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature135397
Source
Nutr Res. 2011 Mar;31(3):215-22
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2011
Author
Laura A R Gougeon
Carol J Henry
Dan Ramdath
Susan J Whiting
Author Affiliation
School of Dietetics and Human Nutrition, McGill University, Quebec, Canada, H9X 3V9.
Source
Nutr Res. 2011 Mar;31(3):215-22
Date
Mar-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Child
Child Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
Child, Preschool
Diet - standards
Dietary Fats - analysis
Dietary Fiber - analysis
Energy intake
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Food - standards
Food Services - standards
Humans
Male
Micronutrients - analysis
Minerals - analysis
Nutrition Assessment
Nutrition Policy
Saskatchewan
Schools
Vitamins - analysis
Abstract
In Canada, school meals are regarded as important for social, educational, and nutritional reasons and have been provided for several years because of concerns about the health and welfare of children, especially those from low-income households. They are generally offered as local community organization and individual schools, are not regulated by law, and have no set national nutrition standards. The Canadian scientific literature lacks quantitative information on the nutritional adequacy of school meals. Better and more evaluation of such programs would encourage and guide administrators to assess other local programs in a similar fashion. Here, we describe the dietary assessment process of 1 school meal program in Canada and the nutritional adequacy of the meals. Throughout 10 years (1997-2007), the contents of 159 lunches and 90 breakfasts were collected mainly from elementary schools participating in the Child Hunger and Education Program Good Food, Inc's school nutrition program initiative in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. We collected, weighed, and analyzed food samples from meals served to children at participating schools. We then compared their nutrient content against standards based on the Dietary Recommended Intakes for children aged 4 to 8 and 9 to 13 years using one third of the recommendations as the standard for lunches and one fourth for breakfasts. Overall, both meals had a good nutrient profile and met the standards for most analyzed macronutrients and micronutrients throughout the years. Although energy was persistently low, vitamin and mineral contents were often above the standards, reflecting a tendency to offer nutrient-dense foods in lieu of energy-dense foods. The rigorous methodology described in this manuscript can be followed to assess other small local programs. Furthermore, the dietary assessment presented can encourage not only the implementation of school meal programs in other locations but also the assessment of already existing programs-a clear need in the scientific literature.
PubMed ID
21481715 View in PubMed
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