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Bulletin No. 16 April 3, 1997 April is Food Safety Awareness Month

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature87826
Date
1997
  1 website  
Date
1997
Language
English
Geographic Location
U.S.
Keywords
food safety awareness month, food safety,
Abstract
Foodborne illness is preventable. Attention to proper foodhandling and foodhandler hygiene is critical.
Notes
Includes a table of selected foodborne outbreaks in Alaska, 1987-1996
Online Resources
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Bulletin No. 21 June 17, 1993 Summer Food Safety Tips

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature87828
Date
1993
  1 website  
Date
1993
Language
English
Geographic Location
U.S.
Keywords
Salmonella, E.coli, food safety tips,
Abstract
Foodborne illness caused by E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella can be avoided by following a few simple precautions. These measures are especially important during the summer months when many Alaskans enjoy picnics, barbecues, and camping trips.
Online Resources
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Review of Canadian literature to estimate risks associated with Salmonella in broilers from retail to consumption in Canadian homes.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature114205
Source
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2013;53(7):694-705
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
Author
Hanan Smadi
Jan M Sargeant
Author Affiliation
Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4K1, Canada. smadica@yahoo.ca
Source
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2013;53(7):694-705
Date
2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Canada
Chickens
Consumer Product Safety
Food contamination - analysis
Food Handling - methods
Food Microbiology
Food Safety
Humans
Poultry - microbiology
Public Health
Risk assessment
Risk factors
Salmonella - isolation & purification
Salmonella Food Poisoning - epidemiology
Abstract
The objective was to review the literature related to the risk of salmonellosis from chicken consumed in private homes in Canada. The pathway of concern was retail-to-consumption at private homes due to the direct link between this pathway and public health. A qualitative review was conducted by searching Canadian governmental agencies' webpages, published peer-reviewed journals, and by contacting experts in the field. Overall, with the data available, estimating risk from Salmonella in chicken breasts using only Canadian information was limited. Enumeration data for Salmonella in retail raw chicken at different regions across Canada are needed to be able to generalize the risk of salmonellosis in the Canadian population. Few Canadian surveys were found to describe consumers' food safety behaviors at Canadians' private homes. Observational designs to study food safety practices and Canadian consumers' behavior in private kitchens are needed to ensure that consumer behavior is consistent with consumer perceptions of their behavior. The results of such studies will give valuable input for designing educational programs needed to increase awareness of safe food handling practices by Canadian consumers when preparing food at their homes.
PubMed ID
23638930 View in PubMed
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Tracking sources of Clostridium botulinum type E contamination in seal meat.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature292479
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2017; 76(1):1380994
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
2017
Author
Daniel Leclair
Jeffrey M Farber
Franco Pagotto
Sandy Suppa
Bill Doidge
John W Austin
Author Affiliation
a Bureau of Microbial Hazards , Health Products and Food Branch, Health Canada , Ottawa , Canada.
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2017; 76(1):1380994
Date
2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Animals
Arctic Regions
Clostridium botulinum type E - isolation & purification
Female
Food Handling - methods
Food Microbiology
Food Safety - methods
Humans
Interviews as Topic
Male
Meat - microbiology
Middle Aged
Quebec
Seals, Earless
Seawater - microbiology
Skin - microbiology
Soil Microbiology
Abstract
Botulism in Nunavik, Quebec is associated with the consumption of aged marine mammal meat and fat. The objective was to identify meat handling practices presenting a risk of contamination of seal meat with C. botulinum. Potential sources of contamination were assessed through interviews with igunaq producers from five communities of Nunavik. These sources were verified by detection and isolation of C. botulinum from igunaq prepared in the field from seal carcasses. Interviews indicated practices presenting a risk for contamination included: placing meat or fat on coastal rocks, using seawater for rinsing, and ageing meat in inverted seal skin pouches. Although the presence of C. botulinum type E spores was detected in only two of 32 (6.3%) meat or fat samples collected during the butchering process, two of four igunaq preparations from these samples contained type E botulinum toxin. Analysis of C. botulinum type E isolates recovered from these preparations indicated that shoreline soil may be a source of contamination. Seal meat and fat may be contaminated with C. botulinum type E during the butchering process. Measures can be adopted to reduce the risks of contamination in the field and possibly decrease the incidence of type E botulism in Nunavik.
Notes
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PubMed ID
28982302 View in PubMed
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Endocrine disruption and differential gene expression in sentinel fish on St. Lawrence Island, Alaska: Health implications for indigenous residents.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature293036
Source
Environ Pollut. 2018 Mar; 234:279-287
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Mar-2018
Author
Frank A von Hippel
Pamela K Miller
David O Carpenter
Danielle Dillon
Lauren Smayda
Ioanna Katsiadaki
Tom A Titus
Peter Batzel
John H Postlethwait
C Loren Buck
Author Affiliation
Department of Biological Sciences & Center for Bioengineering Innovation, Northern Arizona University, 617 S. Beaver St., PO Box 5640, Flagstaff, AZ 86011, USA. Electronic address: frank.vonhippel@nau.edu.
Source
Environ Pollut. 2018 Mar; 234:279-287
Date
Mar-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Alaska
Animals
Arctic Regions
Endocrine Disruptors - analysis - metabolism - pharmacology
Environmental Restoration and Remediation
Female
Fish Proteins - genetics - metabolism
Food contamination - analysis
Food Safety
Fresh Water - analysis
Humans
Islands
Male
Polychlorinated biphenyls - analysis
Seafood - analysis
Smegmamorpha - genetics - growth & development - metabolism
Vitellogenins - genetics - metabolism
Water Pollutants, Chemical - analysis - metabolism - pharmacology
Abstract
People living a subsistence lifestyle in the Arctic are highly exposed to persistent organic pollutants, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Formerly Used Defense (FUD) sites are point sources of PCB pollution; the Arctic contains thousands of FUD sites, many co-located with indigenous villages. We investigated PCB profiles and biological effects in freshwater fish (Alaska blackfish [Dallia pectoralis] and ninespine stickleback [Pungitius pungitius]) living upstream and downstream of the Northeast Cape FUD site on St. Lawrence Island in the Bering Sea. Despite extensive site remediation, fish remained contaminated with PCBs. Vitellogenin concentrations in males indicated exposure to estrogenic contaminants, and some fish were hypothyroid. Downstream fish showed altered DNA methylation in gonads and altered gene expression related to DNA replication, response to DNA damage, and cell signaling. This study demonstrates that, even after site remediation, contaminants from Cold War FUD sites in remote regions of the Arctic remain a potential health threat to local residents - in this case, Yupik people who had no influence over site selection and use by the United States military.
Notes
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PubMed ID
29182972 View in PubMed
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Total and inorganic arsenic in dietary supplements based on herbs, other botanicals and algae--a possible contributor to inorganic arsenic exposure.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature116085
Source
Anal Bioanal Chem. 2013 May;405(13):4429-35
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2013
Author
Rikke V Hedegaard
Inge Rokkjær
Jens J Sloth
Author Affiliation
National Food Institute, Division of Food Chemistry, Technical University of Denmark, Søborg, Denmark.
Source
Anal Bioanal Chem. 2013 May;405(13):4429-35
Date
May-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Arsenic - analysis
Arsenic Poisoning - prevention & control
Arsenicals - analysis
Chlorella - chemistry
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
Denmark
Dietary Supplements - analysis
Food contamination - analysis
Food Safety
Government Regulation
Humans
Plant Preparations - chemistry
Spectrophotometry, Atomic
Spirulina - chemistry
Abstract
The content of total and inorganic arsenic was determined in 16 dietary supplements based on herbs, other botanicals and algae purchased on the Danish market. The dietary supplements originated from various regions, including Asia, Europe and USA. The contents of total and inorganic arsenic was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and anion exchange HPLC-ICP-MS, respectively, were in the range of 0.58 to 5.0 mgkg(-1) and 0.03 to 3.2 mg kg(-1), respectively, with a ratio between inorganic arsenic and total arsenic ranging between 5 and 100%. Consumption of the recommended dose of the individual dietary supplement would lead to an exposure to inorganic arsenic within the range of 0.07 to 13 µg day(-1). Such exposure from dietary supplements would in worst case constitute 62.4% of the range of benchmark dose lower confidence limit values (BMDL01 at 0.3 to 8 µg kg bw(-1) kg(-1) day(-1)) put down by European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) in 2009, for cancers of the lung, skin and bladder, as well as skin lesions. Hence, the results demonstrate that consumption of certain dietary supplements could contribute significantly to the dietary exposure to inorganic arsenic at levels close to the toxicological limits established by EFSA.
PubMed ID
23436171 View in PubMed
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[Evaluation of the results of monitoring food safety in Russia. Mycotoxins].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature136823
Source
Vopr Pitan. 2010;79(5):24-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
2010
Author
G G Onishchenko
O S Litvinova
V A Tutel'ian
Source
Vopr Pitan. 2010;79(5):24-8
Date
2010
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Evaluation Studies as Topic
Food analysis
Food Contamination - analysis - prevention & control
Food Safety - methods
Humans
Mycotoxins - analysis
Russia
Abstract
In this report have been accounted analysis of the results monitoring of food's contamination by mycotoxins as argument of possible to observe food's contamination on links by food chain.
PubMed ID
21341473 View in PubMed
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Microbial background flora in small-scale cheese production facilities does not inhibit growth and surface attachment of Listeria monocytogenes.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature261690
Source
J Dairy Sci. 2013 Oct;96(10):6161-71
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2013
Author
B C T Schirmer
E. Heir
T. Møretrø
I. Skaar
S. Langsrud
Source
J Dairy Sci. 2013 Oct;96(10):6161-71
Date
Oct-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Antibiosis
Bacteria - isolation & purification
Bacterial Adhesion
Cheese - microbiology
Food Microbiology
Food Safety
Lactococcus lactis - isolation & purification - physiology
Listeria monocytogenes - growth & development - physiology
Microbiota - physiology
Norway
Salts
Yeasts - isolation & purification - physiology
Abstract
The background microbiota of 5 Norwegian small-scale cheese production sites was examined and the effect of the isolated strains on the growth and survival of Listeria monocytogenes was investigated. Samples were taken from the air, food contact surfaces (storage surfaces, cheese molds, and brine) and noncontact surfaces (floor, drains, and doors) and all isolates were identified by sequencing and morphology (mold). A total of 1,314 isolates were identified and found to belong to 55 bacterial genera, 1 species of yeast, and 6 species of mold. Lactococcus spp. (all of which were Lactococcus lactis), Staphylococcus spp., Microbacterium spp., and Psychrobacter sp. were isolated from all 5 sites and Rhodococcus spp. and Chryseobacterium spp. from 4 sites. Thirty-two genera were only found in 1 out of 5 facilities each. Great variations were observed in the microbial background flora both between the 5 producers, and also within the various production sites. The greatest diversity of bacteria was found in drains and on rubber seals of doors. The flora on cheese storage shelves and in salt brines was less varied. A total of 62 bacterial isolates and 1 yeast isolate were tested for antilisterial activity in an overlay assay and a spot-on-lawn assay, but none showed significant inhibitory effects. Listeria monocytogenes was also co-cultured on ceramic tiles with bacteria dominating in the cheese production plants: Lactococcus lactis, Pseudomonas putida, Staphylococcus equorum, Rhodococcus spp., or Psychrobacter spp. None of the tested isolates altered the survival of L. monocytogenes on ceramic tiles. The conclusion of the study was that no common background flora exists in cheese production environments. None of the tested isolates inhibited the growth of L. monocytogenes. Hence, this study does not support the hypothesis that the natural background flora in cheese production environments inhibits the growth or survival of L. monocytogenes.
PubMed ID
23891302 View in PubMed
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Risk assessment of Salmonella in Danish meatballs produced in the catering sector.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature262393
Source
Int J Food Microbiol. 2015 Mar 2;196:109-25
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2-2015
Author
Cleide O de A Møller
Maarten J Nauta
Donald W Schaffner
Paw Dalgaard
Bjarke B Christensen
Tina B Hansen
Source
Int J Food Microbiol. 2015 Mar 2;196:109-25
Date
Mar-2-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Cooking
Denmark
Food Microbiology
Food Safety
Food Services - standards
Meat - microbiology
Models, Theoretical
Prevalence
Risk assessment
Salmonella - physiology
Salmonella Food Poisoning - prevention & control
Swine
Temperature
Abstract
A modular process risk model approach was used to assess health risks associated with Salmonella spp. after consumption of the Danish meatball product (frikadeller) produced with fresh pork in a catering unit. Meatball production and consumption were described as a series of processes (modules), starting from 1.3kg meat pieces through conversion to 70g meatballs, followed by a dose response model to assess the risk of illness from consumption of these meatballs. Changes in bacterial prevalence, concentration, and unit size were modelled within each module. The risk assessment was built using observational data and models that were specific for Salmonella spp. in meatballs produced in the catering sector. Danish meatballs are often pan-fried followed by baking in an oven before consumption, in order to reach the core temperature of 75°C recommended by the Danish Food Safety Authority. However, in practice this terminal heat treatment in the oven may be accidentally omitted. Eleven production scenarios were evaluated with the model, to test the impact of heat treatments and cooling rates at different room temperatures. The risk estimates revealed that a process comprising heat treatment of meatballs to core temperatures higher than 70°C, and subsequent holding at room temperatures lower than 20°C, for no longer than 3.5h, were very effective in Salmonella control. The current Danish Food Safety Authority recommendation of cooking to an internal temperature of 75°C is conservative, at least with respect to Salmonella risk. Survival and growth of Salmonella during cooling of meatballs not heat treated in oven had a significant impact on the risk estimates, and therefore, cooling should be considered a critical step during meatball processing.
PubMed ID
25540860 View in PubMed
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Specialty food safety concerns and multilingual resource needs: an online survey of public health inspectors.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature141601
Source
Foodborne Pathog Dis. 2010 Dec;7(12):1457-62
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2010
Author
Mai T Pham
Andria Q Jones
Jan M Sargeant
Barbara J Marshall
Catherine E Dewey
Author Affiliation
Department of Population Medicine, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada. phamm@uoguelph.ca
Source
Foodborne Pathog Dis. 2010 Dec;7(12):1457-62
Date
Dec-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Chi-Square Distribution
Cross-Sectional Studies
Data Collection
Food Inspection
Food Safety
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
Humans
Multilingualism
Ontario
Public Health
Questionnaires
Abstract
The province of Ontario, Canada, has a highly diverse and multicultural population. Specialty foods (i.e., foods from different cultures) are becoming increasingly available at retail food outlets and foods service establishments across the province; as a result, public health inspectors (PHIs) are increasingly required to assess the safety of foods with which they may be unfamiliar. The aim of this study was to investigate the concerns, perceptions, and self-identified needs of PHIs in Ontario with regard to specialty foods and food safety information resources in languages other than English. A cross-sectional online survey of 239 PHIs was conducted between April and June 2009. The study found that while some food safety information resources were available in languages other than English, fewer than 25% of respondents (56/239) were satisfied with the current availability of these resources. With regard to specialty foods, 60% of respondents (143/239) reported at least one specialty food with which they were not confident about their current food safety knowledge, and 64% of respondents (153/239) reported at least one specialty food with which they were dissatisfied with the current availability of food safety information. Therefore, the development of additional food safety information resources for specialty foods, and food safety resources in additional languages may provide enhanced support to PHIs involved in protecting and promoting a safe food supply.
PubMed ID
20704506 View in PubMed
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