Australian Food Safety Centre of Excellence, Tasmanian Institute of Agricultural Research, School of Agricultural Science, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 54, Hobart 7001, Tasmania, Australia. email@example.com
Two commercially available organic acid salts, potassium lactate (PURASAL HiPure P) and a potassium lactate-sodium diacetate blend (PURASAL Opti. Form PD 4), were assessed as potential inhibitors of Listeria monocytogenes growth in modified atmosphere packaged (MAP) sliced ham in challenge studies. The influence of the initial inoculation level of L. monocytogenes (10(1) or 10(3) CFU g(-1)) and storage temperature (4 or 8 degrees C) was also examined. The addition of either organic acid salt to MAP sliced ham strongly inhibited the growth of L. monocytogenes during the normal shelf life of the product under ideal refrigeration conditions (4 degrees C) and even under abusive temperature conditions (i.e., 8 degrees C). During the challenge studies and in the absence of either organic acid salt, L. monocytogenes numbers increased by 1000-fold after 20 days at 8 degrees C and 10-fold after 42 days at 4 degrees C. Both organic acid salt treatments were found to be listeriostatic rather than listericidal. The addition of either organic acid salt to the MAP ham also reduced the growth of indigenous microflora, i.e., aerobic microflora and lactic acid bacteria. The influence of these compounds on the risk of listeriosis in relation to product shelf life is discussed.
Several microbial species associated with wine were challenged against increasing concentrations of dimethyl dicarbonate (DMDC). The concentration inducing complete cell death upon addition to red wine was regarded as the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). In dry red wines with 12% (v/v) ethanol and pH 3.50, the inactivation depended on the initial cell concentration. For an initial inoculum of 500 CFU/ml, the MIC of the yeasts species Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Dekkera bruxellensis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia guilliermondii was 100mg/l. The most sensitive strains belong to Zygosaccharomyces bailii, Zygoascus hellenicus and Lachancea thermotolerans, with MIC of 25mg/l DMDC. For inoculation rates of about 10(6)CFU/ml, the maximum dose of DMDC legally authorized (200mg/l) was not effective against the most resistant species. The addition of 100mg/l potassium metabisulphite (PMB), equivalent to 1mg/l molecular sulphur dioxide, increased the inactivation effect of 100mg/l DMDC over initial yeast populations of 10(6)CFU/ml but did not fully kill S. pombe and S. cerevisiae. Lactic acid and acetic acid bacteria were not killed by the addition of 300 mg/l of DMDC. Trials performed in wines before bottling showed that in most samples indigenous bacterial populations were not affected by 200mg/l DMDC. Therefore, under winery practice, DMDC at the maximum dose legally permitted may be regarded as an efficient preservative to control low contamination rates of yeasts but ineffective against lactic acid and acetic acid bacteria.
There has been a pronounced decline in dental caries in industrialized countries during the last decades. The most obvious explanation is exposure to fluorides. However, the decline started before fluorides were extensively used. Theoretically, a contributory factor may have been increased consumption of foods containing preservatives. The aims of the present study were to find out whether increased intake of preservatives has occurred, and to assess the effect of two commonly used preservatives, sorbic acid and benzoic acid, on bacterial growth and on plaque acidogenity in vivo. Results from five consumption reports from the Central Bureau of Statistics of Norway were used to estimate changes in consumption of basic foods containing the preservatives mentioned. A modified broth dilution method was used to determine the growth inhibitory effects on selected oral streptococci. Plaque-pH measurements were performed with a microelectrode to assess possible effects on acid production. Data pointed towards increased consumption of preservatives. Legal concentrations of preservatives inhibited bacterial growth. Similar concentrations of the preservatives had a negligible effect on acid production in dental plaque (0.4% W/V), whereas higher concentrations (2% W/V) had an inhibitory effect.