Unhealthy food in advertising has been suggested as a mediator for the increase in diet-related illness. This study quantitatively investigates changes in food advertising between 1995 and 2014 in terms of food categories promoted, macronutrient content, and percentage of foods classified as heathy or unhealthy from a sample of 7,199 ads from three Swedish food magazines. With the exception of increased alcoholic beverage and decreased carbohydrate-rich-food promotion, no monotonic trends of increasingly unhealthy food advertisement are found. From these findings, it is argued that food magazine advertising is not a mediator of the adverse dietary trend.
To assess usual calcium intake of urban high school students and to assess the association of social and demographic variables with calcium intake.
A self-administered survey instrument containing the following elements: a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) developed to estimate calcium intake; questions to elicit demographic information; and scales to reflect taste enjoyment of dairy products, social reinforcement for consumption of milk, perceptions of others' opinions about milk, and behavioral modeling of milk consumption (ie, the frequency of observing friends' and family members' use of milk). The FFQ was shown to include major sources of calcium in diets of a pretest sample (n = 130).
Urban high schools in a metropolitan setting.
Students in one class per grade level in six high schools (approximately 900 students) were asked to participate. Of the 856 questionnaires completed, 785 were usable.
Total calcium intake, as estimated using the FFQ.
Descriptive statistics, t tests, one-way analysis of variance, correlation analysis, and stepwise multiple regression analysis were used to assess relationships of independent variables with calcium intake.
Mean estimated calcium intakes for male and female students were 1,146 +/- 41 mg/day (mean +/- standard error of the mean) and 815 +/- 26 mg/day (P girls); taste enjoyment of dairy products; number of meals and snacks per day; age; ethnicity (whites > Asians); behavioral modeling of milk consumption; perceptions of others' opinions, recommendations, and use of milk; and soft drink consumption (total adjusted R2 = .304). With the exception of age, these variables were positively associated with calcium intake. Regression equations developed for boys and girls separately revealed that different variables entered the equations.
Most of the variability in adolescents calcium intakes remained unexplained by the variables included in this study. Nevertheless, the results suggest that education programs focusing on taste enjoyment of dairy products and building on the influence of peers and family members may have a positive impact on calcium intake.
The main purpose of this study is to identify consumer segments based on the importance of product attributes when buying seafood for homemade meals on weekdays. There is a particular focus on the relative importance of the packaging attributes of fresh seafood. The results are based on a representative survey of 840 Norwegian consumers between 18 and 80 years of age. This study found that taste, freshness, nutritional value and naturalness are the most important attributes for the home consumption of seafood. Except for the high importance of information about expiration date, most other packaging attributes have only medium importance. Three consumer segments are identified based on the importance of 33 attributes associated with seafood: Perfectionists, Quality Conscious and Careless Consumers. The Quality Conscious consumers feel more self-confident in their evaluation of quality, and are less concerned with packaging, branding, convenience and emotional benefits compared to the Perfectionists. Careless Consumers are important as regular consumers of convenient and pre-packed seafood products and value recipe information on the packaging. The seafood industry may use the results provided in this study to strengthen their positioning of seafood across three different consumer segments.
OBJECTIVE: South Asians are generally known to have high prevalence of diabetes type 2 and coronary heart diseases. The Pakistani immigrant group in Norway constitute a high-risk subgroup of the population that needs a selective prevention approach. The main objective of this study was to provide information on dietary change and factors leading to these changes in Pakistani women after migration from Punjab, Pakistan to Oslo, Norway. Such information is important in designing appropriate strategies for dietary counselling. DESIGN: Twenty-five Pakistani immigrant women, recruited through the Oslo Health Study 2000-2001, participated in focus group interviews. Each group met four times, aided by a moderator and professional interpreters. A model developed by Koctürk was tested for its usefulness in analysing the dietary changes. PRECEDE was used to organise and structure the factors that were found to cause the changes. RESULTS: According to the women, life in Norway has led to several changes in meal pattern, meal composition and intake of different foods. In accordance with the Koctürk model, the cultural importance of breakfast and lunch has diminished, and dinner has become the most important meal. Meals on weekends tend to be more traditional than on working days. The study gives limited support to the hypothesis that changes occur predominantly among the accessory foods and least among staples. The focus group interviews revealed a rich variety of factors influencing dietary change: health aspects, children's preferences, work schedules, social relations, stress, traditional beliefs, climate, season and access of foods. CONCLUSION: To develop effective intervention strategies, it is vital to understand both how changes do occur and how different factors influence dietary habits. The Koctürk model was useful to structure the various foods and changes that may occur. Strategies for dietary counselling should not only include dietary advice but also focus on the multitude of factors causing dietary changes.
The International Polar Year (IPY) Inuit Health Survey provided an opportunity to compare dietary and body mass index (BMI) data with data collected a decade earlier for the same communities.
A dietary survey included 1,929 randomly selected participants aged 15 years or older, selected from 18 Inuit communities in 1998-1999. The IPY survey included 2,595 randomly selected participants aged 18 years or older, selected from 36 Inuit communities in 2007-2008. Data from the same 18 communities included in both surveys were compared for adults 20 years and older.
Twenty-four-hour dietary recall data were analysed to assess the percentage of energy from traditional and market foods by sex and age groups. Body mass index (BMI) was assessed to establish the prevalence of obesity by sex and age groups in both surveys.
There was a significant decrease (p=0.05) in energy contribution from traditional food and a significant increase in market food consumption over time. Sugar-sweetened beverages, chips and pasta all increased as percentages of energy. BMI increased overall for women and for each age stratum evaluated (p
Comment In: Int J Circumpolar Health. 2011;70(5):447-922208994
Comment In: Int J Circumpolar Health. 2011;70(5):444-622208993
Inuit in Arctic regions are experiencing a rapid diet and lifestyle transition. There are limited data on food consumption patterns among this unique population, raising concerns about assessing the risk for the development of diet-related chronic diseases.
To assess the current frequency of consumption of foods and beverages among Inuit in Nunavut, Arctic Canada.
A cross-sectional dietary study was conducted among randomly selected Inuit adults from three communities in Nunavut using a validated quantitative food frequency questionnaire. The participants were 175 women and 36 men with median (IQR) ages of 41.0 (32.5-48.5) and 40.1 (30.0-50.0) years, respectively. The mean and median frequencies of consumption over a 30-day period were computed for 147 individual food items and grouped as foods or beverages.
The 30 most frequently consumed foods were identified. Non-nutrient-dense foods (i.e., high-fat and high-sugar foods) were the most frequently consumed food group (median intake, 3.4 times/day), followed by grains (2.0 times/day) and traditional meats (1.7 times/day). The frequency of consumption of fruits (0.7 times/day) and vegetables (0.4 times/day) was low. The median values for the three most frequently consumed food items were sugar or honey (once/day), butter (0.71 times/day), and Coffee-mate (0.71 times/day). Apart from water, coffee, and tea, the most frequently consumed beverages were sweetened juices (0.71 times/day) and regular pop (soft drinks) (0.36 times/day). This study showed that non-nutrient-dense foods are consumed most frequently in these Inuit communities.
The results have implications for dietary quality and provide useful information on current dietary practices to guide nutritional intervention programs.
To compare the liking, flavor and texture of whole, partially defatted and defatted cow's milk using sensory tests.
Children aged 6-16 years, living in indigenous boarding schools in the State of Hidalgo, Mexico, tested samples of whole, partially defatted and defatted cow's milk and answered a questionnaire that explored liking, flavor and texture through ad hoc designed scales. The differences in response proportions were analyzed by ?² tests and multinomial logistic regression models.
Tests were completed by 165 children (79 girls and 86 boys). Rated by habitual consumers of whole, partially defatted and defatted milk, liking (70.6-77.8%, liked it very much), flavor (72.5-77.8%, very tasteful) and texture (41.3-54.9%, not creamy or watery) were better rated for defatted than for whole milk [liking (19.6-29.4%, p
We explored the eating habits of Arab immigrants to determine whether they have maintained their traditional diet or have consumed a more Westernized diet since immigrating to Canada.
Arab immigrants who had been in Canada for at least eight years and were currently living in the Greater Toronto Area were recruited. A sample of 24 Arab immigrants completed a mailed, self-administered questionnaire, and six participated in a focus group. The focus group discussion was transcribed verbatim and results were recorded. Latent content analysis was used to analyze, code, and categorize emerging themes.
Arab immigrants consumed a mixture of both Arabic and Western food and perceived their current diet to be healthier than it was before they immigrated to Canada. Factors that influenced their food choices included increased nutrition health awareness, differences in food preferences and preparation methods, and preservation of dietary practices in the new environment.
Our findings will help dietitians who work with Arab immigrants to become more aware of factors that motivate this group's food choices, and to create nutrition programs that are more culturally sensitive.
A leading cause of morbidity and mortality among Native Americans, cancer is largely preventable through lifestyle habits. Ranked high among those habits is a diet low in fat and high in fiber, fruits, and vegetables. Because Native Americans are not included in national nutritional monitoring systems, limited data exist on the cancer-related dietary habits of this population. To bridge this gap, this study measured the eating patterns of Native American youths in the northeastern United States.
Urban Indian centers and tribal and reservation settings located in New York, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Vermont, and Maine.
191 self-identified Native American parents of children between 8 and 14 years of age.
Frequency of intake of foods recommended for inclusion in or omission from a diet to reduce cancer risk.
Dietary patterns among Native American youths differed from a national US sample and varied between youths in reservation and non-reservation settings.
A need exists for nutrition education and behavior change programs that reflect the culturally specific eating habits of the indigenous peoples of the Northeast. Ideally, developing nutrition curricula for specific communities will be done in cooperation with these communities and acknowledge barriers that may limit Native Americans' access to healthful foods.
Although in the past, rates of heart disease, cancer, and diabetes were lower in Alaska Natives than in US whites, these diseases are now increasing. The rate of iron-deficiency anemia for Alaska Natives continues to be higher than that in the general population. To understand the role of diet in these chronic diseases, seasonal dietary intakes of 351 Alaska Native adults from 11 communities were assessed during 1987-1988. Alaska Natives consumed more energy (19%), protein (39%), fat (21%), carbohydrate (13%), iron (25%), vitamin A (53%), and vitamin C (31%), but less calcium (19%) than did the general US adult population [National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey II (NHANES II)]; Alaska Natives consumed six times more fish but less fruits and vegetables. Results suggest that energy and protein intakes decreased in the last 30 y but the proportion of energy from fat (37%) remained unchanged. High fish consumption and large seasonal dietary variations persisted, which may protect against chronic diseases. However, excess energy and fat and low calcium, fruit, and vegetable intakes may be contributing to recent increases in chronic diseases. Dietary guidelines are proposed.
Comment In: Am J Clin Nutr. 1993 May;57(5):698-98480692