During 2005-2010, the Canadian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance identified increased prevalence of ciprofloxacin (a fluororquinolone) resistance among Campylobacter isolates from retail chicken in British Columbia (4%-17%) and Saskatchewan (6%-11%), Canada. Fluoroquinolones are critically important to human medicine and are not labeled for use in poultry in Canada.
Cites: J Infect Dis. 2002 Mar 15;185(6):837-4011920303
The meat industry in Norway has developed national guidelines for Good Hygiene Practices for slaughtering and skinning, based on categorisation of animals. These include shearing sheep and lambs in the abattoirs immediately before slaughter. The aim of this study was to investigate microbiological carcass contamination associated with: (i) different shearing regimes; (ii) fleece cleanliness; and (iii) the slaughter process. In addition, the efficacy of the national guidelines in reducing microbial contamination was evaluated. A total of 280 swab samples were collected from the brisket areas (100 cm(2)) of 140 naturally contaminated lamb carcasses in a commercial abattoir. Half the samples were collected at skinning of brisket areas at the start of the slaughter-line and half of them were collected at the end of slaughter-line, just before chilling. The lambs were divided into four groups (n=35) according to the duration of the period between shearing and slaughter: (i) 0 days (shorn at the abattoir immediately before slaughter); (ii) three days; (iii) seven days; and (iv) not shorn. Mean log colony forming units (CFU) per 100 cm(2) at skinning were 5.78 and 6.95 for aerobic plate count (APC) (P
Problems related to food security in Russian Arctic (dietary imbalance, predominance of carbohydrates, shortage of milk products, vegetables and fruits, deficit of vitamins and microelements, chemical, infectious and parasitic food contamination) have been defined in the literature. But no standard protocol of food security assessment has been used in the majority of studies.
Our aim was to obtain food security indicators, identified within an Arctic collaboration, for selected regions of the Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East, and to compare food safety in these territories.
In 18 regions of the Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East, the following indicators of food security were analyzed: food costs, food consumption, and chemical and biological food contamination for the period 2000-2011.
Food costs in the regions are high, comprising 23-43% of household income. Only 4 out of 10 food groups (fish products, cereals, sugar, plant oil) are consumed in sufficient amounts. The consumption of milk products, eggs, vegetables, potatoes, fruits (and berries) is severely low in a majority of the selected regions. There are high levels of biological contamination of food in many regions. The biological and chemical contamination situation is alarming, especially in Chukotka. Only 7 food pollutants are under regular control; among pesticides, only DDT. Evenki AO and Magadan Oblast have reached peak values in food contaminants compared with other regions. Mercury in local fish has not been analyzed in the majority of the regions. In 3 regions, no monitoring of DDT occurs. Aflatoxins have not been analyzed in 5 regions. Nitrates had the highest percentage in excess of the hygienic threshold in all regions. Excesses of other pollutants in different regions were episodic and as a rule not high.
Improvement of the food supply and food accessibility in the regions of the Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East is of utmost importance. Both quantitative and qualitative control of chemical and biological contaminants in food is insufficient and demands radical enhancement aimed at improving food security.
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