Adulterated alcoholic beverages are legal alcoholic products that have been illicitly tampered with, for instance, by criminally diluting them with water, purposely putting them into new containers to conceal their true origin or adding toxic substances to manipulate the qualities of alcoholic beverages. The collection of cases at the Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Iceland, which contains examples of each category of adulteration, is the basis of the present article. Especially noteworthy are cases involving the toxic substances methanol and/or ethylene glycol. Methanol has been added to legally produced wines to increase their "bite" and ethylene glycol to increase their sweetness. Adding these substances to wine has resulted in poisoning or death in other countries, but not in Iceland as far as is known.
Alcohol consumption in pregnancy may result in serious adverse fetal outcome. Non- or low alcoholic wines and beers may be a risk-reduction strategy to help alcohol-dependent individuals to prevent or limit ethanol consumption. The objective of this study was to quantify ethanol concentrations in Canadian beverages claiming to contain no or low alcohol content.
Forty-five different beverages claiming to contain no or low alcohol content in the Canadian market were tested for ethanol concentration using gas chromatography.
Thirteen (29%) of the beverages contained ethanol levels higher than the declared concentration on their label. Six beverages claiming to contain no alcohol were found to contain greater than 1% ethanol.
Pregnant women seeking replacement to alcoholic beverages may be misled by these labels, unknowingly exposing themselves and their unborn babies to ethanol.
There is concern about the nutritional quality of processed gluten-free (GF) products. The aim was to investigate the nutrient composition and cost of processed GF products compared with similar regular products.
Product size, price, caloric value, and macro- and micronutrient composition were compared between foods labeled "Gluten-free" and comparable regular products in 5 grocery stores in 3 Canadian cities. Data were calculated per 100 g of product.
A total of 131 products were studied (71 GF, 60 regular). Overall, calories were comparable between GF and regular foods. However, fat content of GF breads was higher (mean 7.7 vs. 3.6 g, P = 0.003), whereas protein was lower (mean 5.0 vs. 8.0 g, P = 0.001). Mean carbohydrate content of GF pasta was higher (78 vs. 74 g, P = 0.001), whereas protein (7.5 vs. 13.3 g, P
To study the awareness of the Heart Symbol in different age and educational groups, and changes in the awareness over a 9-year period. In addition, the reported use of products with the symbol was examined.
A series of annual cross-sectional postal surveys on Health Behaviour and Health among the Finnish Adult Population.
A random sample (n 5000 per annum) from the Finnish population aged 15-64 years, drawn from the National Population Register, received a questionnaire.
Men and women (n 29 378) participating in the surveys in 2000-2009.
At the early 2000s, 48 % of men and 73 % of women reported to be familiar with the symbol. The corresponding rates were 66 % for men and 91 % for women in 2009. The reported use of products with the symbol increased from 29 % to 52 % in men and from 40 % to 72 % in women. In men, the awareness did not vary by age, whereas older women (45-64 years) were less likely to be aware of the symbol compared with younger women (25-34 years). Men and women with the highest education were best aware of the symbol and more likely to use the products in the early 2000s. The educational differences diminished or disappeared during the study period.
The majority of Finnish adults are familiar with the Heart Symbol, and the reported use of such products increased in all age and educational groups, especially among the less educated. The symbol may work as an effective measure to diminish nutrition-related health inequalities.
Comment In: Public Health Nutr. 2012 Mar;15(3):483-5; discussion 48621859506
Consumption of packaged fresh leafy vegetables, which are convenient ready-to-eat products, has increased during the last decade. The number of foodborne outbreaks associated with these products has concurrently increased. In our study, (1) label information, (2) O2/CO2 composition, (3) bacterial quality and (4) safety of 100 fresh leafy vegetables at the retail level were studied in Finland during 2013. Bacterial quality was studied using aerobic bacteria (AB) and coliform bacteria (CB) counts, and searching for the presence of Escherichia coli, Listeria and Yersinia. The safety was studied by the presence of Salmonella, ail-positive Yersinia, stx-positive E. coli (STEC) and Listeria monocytogenes using PCR and culturing. Important label information was unavailable on several packages originating from different companies. The packaging date was missing on all packages and the date of durability on 83% of the packages. Storage temperature was declared on 62% of the packages and 73% of the packages contained information about prewashing. The batch/lot number was missing on 29% of the packages. Very low oxygen (O2) (
The article presents the history of food supplements' origin. The main requirements to them are given an account of the main legislative and normative documents, regulating the composition and considered as an important instrument for improving the structure and quality of nutrition of the population.
In article we would like to remind once of what each of the food supplement consumer should know. Food supplement is not a medicine, you can treat no illness with it. But at the same time we should understand, that it is impossible to live without them, as well as it impossible to live without food or the air. It is important to deepen one's knowledge of food supplements: what they consist of, which of them are health-giving and which are not.
A telephone survey was conducted to determine dietitians' views on nutraceuticals and functional foods.
Using systematic sampling with a random start, 238 names were drawn from the Dietitians of Canada membership. A survey instrument containing mostly open-ended questions and two pages of definitions was pretested and revised. Accurate description was used to analyze and summarize the data with a minimum of interpretation.
Of 180 dietitians contacted, 151 (84%) completed interviews. The majority (n=91, 60%) of respondents thought health claims should be permitted on foods, but only with adequate scientific support for claims and government regulation. Participants overwhelmingly (n=122, 81%) felt that dietitians were the most appropriate professionals to recommend functional foods, but held mixed views of the appropriateness of having dietitians recommend nutraceuticals. However, according to a rating scale of 0 to 10, respondents across all areas of practice believed that it is extremely important for dietitians to become knowledgeable about nutraceuticals (mean +/- standard deviation [SD] = 9.0 +/- 1.2) and functional foods (mean +/- SD = 9.5 +/- 0.9).
Dietitians recommended strict legislation and close monitoring by government; unbiased scientific studies with consensus that the findings support health claims; partnerships with other health professionals, especially pharmacists; and opportunities to gain further knowledge.