The purpose of the work reported is to provide a first-order assessment of food patterns and food pattern trends in each of the Nordic countries. The primary source of input has been food supply data for the period of 1970-1988. The study reveals that important changes in food consumption have taken place over the last 20 years. In Finland and Norway, this has resulted in a reduction of energy contribution from fat to 35%. For Denmark and Sweden no such reduction is observed. The data are intended for use in a wider context in a transeuropean search for relations between health problems and food patterns.
Traditional food systems of indigenous peoples are defined as being composed of items from the local, natural environment that are culturally acceptable. Rapid dietary change of indigenous peoples worldwide is posing threats to use of this food and the traditional knowledge required for traditional food system maintainance. This review describes the many influences on choice of food by indigenous peoples, the qualities of traditional food systems, the forces of non-directed dietary change causing decline in use of traditional food systems, and the consequences of change for indigenous peoples. Several examples are given of dietary change research with indigenous peoples.
The main goal of the Norwegian policy on food and nutrition for the period 1975-1990 is to reduce the proportion of fat in the diet to 35 per cent of the energy supply. This should be achieved through a gradual change in diet. Figures on food supply and consumption show that this target has been reached. The dietary changes have probably contributed considerably to the decrease in cardiovascular disease since the early 1970s. It is most likely that public health can still gain much from further changes in the Norwegian diet.
Recent survey data from Finland are used to illustrate a method for measuring the roles of three factors--the relative size of the drinking population, the average frequency of drinking and the average quantity consumed per occasion--in changes in aggregate consumption of alcohol.