The (90)Sr activity concentrations released from a radioactive fallout have been determined in a range of samples of mushrooms collected in Poland, Belarus, China, and Sweden in 1996-2013. Measurement of (90)Sr in pooled samples of mushrooms was carried out with radiochemical procedure aimed to pre-isolate the analyte from the fungal materials before it was determined using the Low-Level Beta Counter. Interestingly, the Purple Bolete Imperator rhodopurpureus collected from Yunnan in south-western China in 2012 showed (90)Sr activity concentration at around 10 Bq kg(-1) dry biomass, which was greater when compared to other mushrooms in this study. The King Bolete Boletus edulis from China showed the (90)Sr activity in caps at around 1.5 Bq kg(-1) dry biomass (whole fruiting bodies) in 2012 and for specimens from Poland activity was well lower than 1.0 Bq kg(-1) dry biomass in 1998-2010. A sample of Sarcodonimbricatus collected in 1998 from the north-eastern region of Poland impacted by Chernobyl fallout showed (90)Sr in caps at around 5 Bq kg(-1) dry biomass. Concentration of (90)Sr in Bay Bolete Royoporus (Xerocomus or Boletus) badius from affected region of Gomel in Belarus was in 2010 at 2.1 Bq kg(-1) dry biomass. In several other species from Poland (90)Sr was at
Cadmium (Cd), a nonessential toxic metal present in the environment, accumulates in the organs of herbivorous mammals which typically are consumed by Aboriginal populations. The relative contribution of this potential exposure source to concentrations of blood Cd was investigated in 1429 participants (age >7 years) residing in the nine Cree First Nations communities of Eeyou Istchee, northern Quebec, Canada. Analysis of variance identified significant Cd concentration differences between communities, sex, and age groups, although these were complicated by significant 2-way interactions. The percentage of participants with Cd concentrations within the adopted health-based guideline categories of 'acceptable', 'concern' and 'action' pertaining to kidney damage was 56.2%, 38.3%, and 5.5%, respectively. Partial correlations (controlling for age as a continuous variable) did not show a significant association between consumption of traditional foods and Cd concentrations (r = 0.014, df = 105, p = 0.883). A significant and positive partial correlation (r = 0.390, df = 105, p
We address marine and terrestrial mammal blubber, liver, muscle, kidney, heart, tongue, maktak and maktaaq (epidermis and blubber from bowhead, beluga whales, respectively), and fish muscle and livers, as commonly consumed tissues in subsistence communities across northern Alaska in the context of organochlorine (OC) contamination of store-bought foods. Human exposure to contaminants from biota, as part of a subsistence diet, has been superficially evaluated in numerous studies (focused on liver and blubber), but are limited in the type of tissues analyzed, and rarely consider the contaminants in the alternatives (i.e., store-bought foods).
Concentrations from published literature on selected persistent organochlorine contaminants (OCs) in eight tissues of the bowhead whale and other biota (1) were compared to store-bought foods evaluated in this study.
As expected, store-bought foods had lower concentrations of OCs than some tissues of the marine mammals (especially blubber, maktak, and maktaaq). However, blubber is rarely eaten alone and should not be used to give consumption advice unless considered as a portion of the food item (i.e., maktak). This study indicates that the store-bought food alternatives have detectable OC concentrations (e.g.,
Synthetic pyrethroids are among the most widely used classes of insecticides, and their uses are varied, including plant protection, animal dips, and as a treatment for human clothing and bedding in very hot climates. Veterinary applications include ear tags, pour-on formulations, sprays, and dips. Persistent residues have been reported in livestock, and routine monitoring programs in other countries have found detectable residues of various pyrethroids in fat. A method has been developed using solid-phase extraction that reduces the quantities of solvents used, the time required, and the amount of glassware used compared to an earlier method on which it was based. The scope of analytes tested included the 5 compounds cited in the earlier method (flucythrinate, permethrin, cypermethrin, fenvalerate, and deltamethrin) and, in addition, cyfluthrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, and fluvalinate. Sample extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography with electron capture detection using selected chromatographic peaks characteristic of each compound. Limits of quantification for the compounds were from 25-50 microg/kg, with a linear response for all compounds to 200 microg/kg. Recoveries ranged from 80 to 123%.
Maternal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) during pregnancy has been associated with reduced fetal growth. However, the role of diet, the main source of PAH exposure among non-smokers, remains uncertain.
To assess associations between maternal exposure to dietary intake of the genotoxic PAH benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P] during pregnancy and birth weight, exploring potential effect modification by dietary intakes of vitamins C, E and A, hypothesized to influence PAH metabolism.
This study included 50,651 women in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Dietary B(a)P and nutrient intakes were estimated based on total consumption obtained from a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and estimated based on food composition data. Data on infant birth weight were obtained from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway (MBRN). Multivariate regression was used to assess associations between dietary B(a)P and birth weight, evaluating potential interactions with candidate nutrients.
The multivariate-adjusted coefficient (95%CI) for birth weight associated with maternal energy-adjusted B(a)P intake was -20.5g (-31.1, -10.0) in women in the third compared with the first tertile of B(a)P intake. Results were similar after excluding smokers. Significant interactions were found between elevated intakes of vitamin C (>85mg/day) and dietary B(a)P during pregnancy for birth weight (P
OBJECTIVES: The fatty acid composition and other nutrients in traditional Inuit food appear to provide some protection against diseases of affluent industrialized societies, such as cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. A transition towards increased amounts of imported food might increase the occurrence of these diseases among Inuit. However, since the 1970s it has become evident that the marine-based Inuit diet also contains high levels of potentially toxic lipophilic organic pollutants and heavy metals. Since these two opposing effects on health appear to be inseparable, the phenomenon has become known as "The Arctic Dilemma". However, both the fatty acid composition and the contaminant levels vary in Greenlandic food items. Thus, in theory, it is possible to compose a diet where the benefits outweigh the risks. Our objective was to compare traditional and modern meals in Greenland regarding dietary composition, content of n-3 fatty acids and contaminants. STUDY DESIGN: The present study was part of the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme, AMAP, comparing the results of dietary composition and nutrients in 177 traditional meals collected in Uummannaq municipality, north Greenland in 1976 with 90 meals sampled in Uummannaq town in 2004 under similar conditions. Eleven pesticides, 14 PCB congeners, heavy metals, selenium, and fatty acids were analysed in meals and blood samples from the participants. Contaminant levels were compared between 1976 and 2004 after adjustment for n-3 fatty acids, indicating local food content. RESULTS: Between the traditional meals collected 30 years ago and the meals from 2004, dramatic and significant changes have occurred in the dietary composition. The percentage of local food has decreased, and with it the intake of n-3 fatty acids. Calculated as daily intake, all but three contaminants had decreased significantly. However, this could be explained by the lower intake of local food. After adjustment for n-3 fatty acid content in the food, significant declines of concentration in the local food were evident only for PCBs and lead, whereas for mercury, DDTs, and chlordanes the levels were unchanged, and for hexachlorobenzene, mirex, and toxaphenes, the levels had increased significantly. CONCLUSION: The consumption of locally produced food has decreased in Greenland during the last 30 years and this has led to a reduction in the daily intake of contaminants. However, the concentrations of contaminants in local food items have not decreased, except for PCB and Lead. Therefore, we recommend that the consumption of local products is not increased beyond the present level, until the level of contaminants is reduced to a safer level.
Long range atmospheric and stream transport and oceanic currents drive the ecologic process of PCB deposition in the abiotic environment. In contrast short range transport via bioaccumulation-biomagnification up the food chain determines PCB congener profiles and concentrations and their adverse effects in biological organisms. Two research approaches to congeners, with potential to associate specific adverse human health effects with PCB concentrations in indigenous small populations, are summarized in this study. The field epidemiological approach includes giving questionnaires to target population groups in conjunction with sampling for PCBs (and selected persistent organic pollutants and metals), in foods purchased or hunted and collected by Inuit peoples. Direct determination of contaminant levels in food sources and among individuals in selected comparative subpopulations is also presented.
Organochlorines and heavy metals have bioaccumulated in Arctic wildlife, which is an important food source for the Inuit. In this study, we have developed a statistical model to describe the population distribution of contaminant exposure and the usual intake of the high-end contaminant consumers. Monte Carlo methods are used to account for variations due to seasonal dietary pattern and contaminant concentrations. Distribution of the dietary intake of the contaminants of most concern-mercury, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), chlordane, and toxaphenes-are described. Over 50% of the residents had dietary exposure levels exceeding the tolerable daily intake or provisional tolerable daily intake for Hg, toxaphene, and chlordane (83, 91, and 71% for men and 73, 85, and 56% for women, respectively). The high-end consumers (i.e. the 95th centile) have intake levels 6 times higher than the provisional tolerable weekly intake of Hg, and over 20 times the tolerable daily intake of chlordane and toxaphene. Assessment of health risks of the relative high contaminant exposure in this community must also consider the nutritional, economical, cultural, and social importance of these traditional foods. A comprehensive risk management scheme has yet to be developed.
There are many small villages where environmental contamination is substantial due to historical industrial activities. The aim of the present study was to investigate if long-term or current consumption of local foods, as reported in food frequency questionnaires, co-vary with measured concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and mercury (Hg) in blood, urine and hair from a population living in a historically contaminated village. Blood, urine and hair were provided by men (n=38) and women (n=57), who had participated in a previous case-control study in the contaminated area, and were analyzed for PCB, OCPs, Pb, Cd and Hg. A detailed food frequency questionnaire, used in the previous epidemiological study, was repeated, and up-dated information of life-style, exposure factors and other covariates was collected. Associations between reported consumption of local foods and exposure biomarkers were explored in relation to age, gender, life-style factors and other covariates. A large part of the population in the area reported consumption of local food, and thus, was potentially exposed to the contaminants. Despite the limited number of participants and other weaknesses described, it was possible to link reported consumption of different foods to biomarker concentrations. Reported consumption of local vegetables, forest berries and mushrooms co-varied with urinary Cd, indicating an influence from the contaminated area on the Cd exposure. We found no associations between PCB plasma concentrations with reported consumption of local fish, but with consumption of herring (non-local sea fish) which is typically high in PCB. Pesticide (HCB, p,p'-DDE, trans-nonachlor) exposure was mainly associated with agricultural work and having a private well the first five years of life, but we found no associations between pesticide concentrations in plasma and consumption of local vegetables or fish. Exposure to Hg was associated with consumption of fish, both local and non-local, and Pb exposure was associated with the consumption of game. Overall, the contaminant concentrations measured in blood, urine and hair varied substantially among study participants, but on average, the concentrations were similar to concentrations measured in other groups of the general Swedish population in the same age range. Larger studies are needed to evaluate health risks (and causality) associated with historical environmental contamination.
Problems related to food security in Russian Arctic (dietary imbalance, predominance of carbohydrates, shortage of milk products, vegetables and fruits, deficit of vitamins and microelements, chemical, infectious and parasitic food contamination) have been defined in the literature. But no standard protocol of food security assessment has been used in the majority of studies.
Our aim was to obtain food security indicators, identified within an Arctic collaboration, for selected regions of the Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East, and to compare food safety in these territories.
In 18 regions of the Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East, the following indicators of food security were analyzed: food costs, food consumption, and chemical and biological food contamination for the period 2000-2011.
Food costs in the regions are high, comprising 23-43% of household income. Only 4 out of 10 food groups (fish products, cereals, sugar, plant oil) are consumed in sufficient amounts. The consumption of milk products, eggs, vegetables, potatoes, fruits (and berries) is severely low in a majority of the selected regions. There are high levels of biological contamination of food in many regions. The biological and chemical contamination situation is alarming, especially in Chukotka. Only 7 food pollutants are under regular control; among pesticides, only DDT. Evenki AO and Magadan Oblast have reached peak values in food contaminants compared with other regions. Mercury in local fish has not been analyzed in the majority of the regions. In 3 regions, no monitoring of DDT occurs. Aflatoxins have not been analyzed in 5 regions. Nitrates had the highest percentage in excess of the hygienic threshold in all regions. Excesses of other pollutants in different regions were episodic and as a rule not high.
Improvement of the food supply and food accessibility in the regions of the Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East is of utmost importance. Both quantitative and qualitative control of chemical and biological contaminants in food is insufficient and demands radical enhancement aimed at improving food security.
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