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The 6th Klaas Breur memorial lecture, 1987. The Chernobyl accident--impact Western Europe.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature25858
Source
Radiother Oncol. 1988 May;12(1):1-13
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-1988
Source
J Environ Radioact. 2011 May;102(5):438-42
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2011
Author
Tuukka Turtiainen
Eila Kostiainen
Anja Hallikainen
Author Affiliation
STUK, Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, P.O. Box 14, 00881 Helsinki, Finland. tuukka.turtiainen@stuk.fi
Source
J Environ Radioact. 2011 May;102(5):438-42
Date
May-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Animals
Cereals - chemistry - classification - metabolism
Data Collection
Female
Finland
Food Contamination, Radioactive - analysis
Humans
Lead Radioisotopes - analysis - chemistry - metabolism
Male
Middle Aged
Polonium - analysis - chemistry - metabolism
Radiation monitoring
Risk assessment
Young Adult
Abstract
A survey was carried out on the activity concentrations of (210)Pb and (210)Po in cereal grains produced in Finland. The cereal species were wheat (Triticum aestivum), rye (Secale cereale), oats (Avena sativa) and barley (Hordeum vulgare), which account for 90% of the Finnish consumption of cereal products. The survey consisted of 18 flour and 13 unprocessed cereal samples and one hulled grain sample from 22 flour mills. According to the results, the mean (210)Pb/(210)Po concentrations in wheat grains, wheat flour, rye flour, oat grains and barley grains were 0.29, 0.12, 0.29, 0.36 and 0.36 Bq kg(-1), respectively. Combined with the consumption rates of the products, we assess that the mean effective doses from (210)Pb and (210)Po in cereal products for the adult male and female population are 22 and 17 µSv per year, respectively.
PubMed ID
21035236 View in PubMed
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210Po, 210Pb, 40K and 137Cs in edible wild berries and mushrooms and ingestion doses to man from high consumption rates of these wild foods.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature119426
Source
J Environ Radioact. 2013 Feb;116:34-41
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2013
Author
Justin P Gwynn
Anna Nalbandyan
Geir Rudolfsen
Author Affiliation
Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, The Fram Centre, N-9296 Tromsø, Norway. justin.gwynn@nrpa.no
Source
J Environ Radioact. 2013 Feb;116:34-41
Date
Feb-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Agaricales - chemistry
Angiosperms
Basidiomycota
Eating
Food Contamination, Radioactive - analysis
Fruit - chemistry
Humans
Norway
Radiation Dosage
Radiation monitoring
Radioisotopes - analysis
Soil Pollutants, Radioactive - analysis
Abstract
This paper discusses activity concentrations of (210)Po, (210)Pb, (40)K and (137)Cs in edible wild berries and mushrooms collected from Øvre Dividalen national park, Northern Norway and derives committed effective ingestion doses to man based on high consumption rates of these wild foods. Edible wild berries and mushrooms accumulated similar levels of (210)Pb, but mushrooms accumulated higher levels of (210)Po and (40)K than berries. There appears to be a clear difference in the ability of Leccinum spp. of fungi to accumulate (210)Po and/or translocate (210)Po to mushrooms compared to Russula spp. of fungi. Activity concentrations of (137)Cs in edible wild berries and mushrooms from Øvre Dividalen national park reflected the lower levels of fallout of this radionuclide in Northern Norway compared to more central areas following the Chernobyl accident. For mushrooms, ingestion doses are dominated by (210)Po, while for berries, (40)K is typically the main contributor to dose. Based on high consumption rates, ingestion doses arising from the combination of (210)Po, (210)Pb and (40)K were up to 0.05 mSv/a for berries and 0.50 mSv/a for mushrooms. Consumption of such wild foods may result in a significant contribution to total annual doses when consumed in large quantities, particularly when selecting mushrooms species that accumulate high activity concentrations of (210)Po.
PubMed ID
23103573 View in PubMed
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Assessment of radiocesium incorporation in Austrians after the Chernobyl accident.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature37261
Source
Health Phys. 1991 Feb;60(2):199-202
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-1991
Author
E. Havlik
H. Bergmann
Author Affiliation
Second Department of Internal Medicine, University of Vienna Medical School, Austria.
Source
Health Phys. 1991 Feb;60(2):199-202
Date
Feb-1991
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Austria
Body Burden
Cesium Radioisotopes - analysis
Child
Child, Preschool
Female
Food Contamination, Radioactive - analysis
Humans
Infant
Male
Middle Aged
Nuclear Reactors
Population Surveillance
Radioactive fallout
Ukraine
Abstract
Residents of Vienna, Austria were whole-body counted for radiocesium content due to fallout deposited after the Chernobyl accident. Data for a 2-y period were compared with prior estimates of radiocesium body burden based on food consumption. Our results suggest that the prior estimates be revised and the rejection limit be increased by a factor of 2 for contaminated food.
PubMed ID
1989941 View in PubMed
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Birth defects in Norway by levels of external and food-based exposure to radiation from Chernobyl.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature59591
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 1992 Aug 15;136(4):377-88
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-15-1992
Author
R T Lie
L M Irgens
R. Skjaerven
J B Reitan
P. Strand
T. Strand
Author Affiliation
Medical Birth Registry of Norway, University of Bergen, Norway.
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 1992 Aug 15;136(4):377-88
Date
Aug-15-1992
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Abnormalities, Radiation-Induced - epidemiology - etiology
Accidents
Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation
Down Syndrome - epidemiology
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects - analysis
Female
Food Contamination, Radioactive - analysis
Humans
Hydrocephalus - epidemiology - etiology
Infant, Newborn
Male
Norway - epidemiology
Nuclear Reactors
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Ukraine
Abstract
In Norway, external doses of radiation resulting from fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear accident were estimated from detailed measurements, including soil deposition patterns. Internal doses were estimated from measurements of radioactive cesium in meat and milk supplies. The doses were calculated as average monthly doses for each of 454 municipalities during 36 consecutive months after the accident in spring 1986. Prospectively collected data on all newborns listed in the Medical Birth Registry of Norway who were conceived in the period May 1983-April 1989 were used to assess possible dose-response relations between estimated external and food-based exposures and congenital malformations and some other conditions. A positive association was observed between total radiation dose (external plus food-based) and hydrocephaly, while a negative association was observed for Down's syndrome. However, an important conclusion of the study was that no associations were found for conditions previously reported to be associated with radiation, i.e., small head circumference, congenital cataracts, anencephaly, spina bifida, and low birth weight. Potential sources of bias, including exposure misclassification and incomplete ascertainment of cases, are discussed.
PubMed ID
1415157 View in PubMed
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Cesium-137 body burdens in Norwegian Lapps, 1965-1983.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature235595
Source
Health Phys. 1987 Feb;52(2):171-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-1987
Author
E A Westerlund
T. Berthelsen
L. Berteig
Source
Health Phys. 1987 Feb;52(2):171-7
Date
Feb-1987
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Body Burden
Cesium Radioisotopes - analysis
Ethnic Groups
Female
Food Contamination, Radioactive - analysis
Humans
Male
Meat - analysis
Norway - ethnology
Radioactive fallout
Reindeer
Abstract
Results of measurements of the whole-body contents of 137Cs during the period 1965-1983 in Lapps from the Kautokeino area in Norway are reported with measurements of 137Cs in reindeer meat during the period 1966-1983. By using available data on 137Cs in precipitation for the period 1950-1980, transfer coefficients from 137Cs in precipitation to reindeer meat have been assessed. A correlation between the 137Cs content in reindeer meat and the 137Cs content in Lapp reindeer breeders has been established. The average whole-body committed dose equivalent, H50, to the reindeer breeders from internally deposited 137Cs from intakes up to year 2000 was assessed to 13 mSv with a peak value of 30 mSv. In comparison, the corresponding committed dose equivalent to the Norwegian population from internally deposited 137Cs has been estimated to be about 1 mSv. The higher intake of 137Cs by reindeer breeders is due to the lichen-reindeer-man exposure pathway.
PubMed ID
3818284 View in PubMed
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Cesium-137 body burdens in Norwegian Lapps, 1965-1983

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature102068
Source
Health Physics. 1987 Feb;52(2):171-177
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-1987
Author
Westerlund, EA
Berthelsen, T
Berteig, L
Source
Health Physics. 1987 Feb;52(2):171-177
Date
Feb-1987
Language
English
Geographic Location
Norway
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Body Burden
Cesium Radioisotopes, analysis
Ethnic Groups
Female
Food Contamination, Radioactive, analysis
Humans
Male
Meat, analysis
Norway, ethnology
Radioactive fallout
Reindeer
Abstract
Results of measurements of the whole-body contents of 137Cs during the period 1965-1983 in Lapps from the Kautokeino area in Norway are reported with measurements of 137Cs in reindeer meat during the period 1966-1983. By using available data on 137Cs in precipitation for the period 1950-1980, transfer coefficients from 137Cs in precipitation to reindeer meat have been assessed. A correlation between the 137Cs content in reindeer meat and the 137Cs content in Lapp reindeer breeders has been established. The average whole-body committed dose equivalent, H50, to the reindeer breeders from internally deposited 137Cs from intakes up to year 2000 was assessed to 13 mSv with a peak value of 30 mSv. In comparison, the corresponding committed dose equivalent to the Norwegian population from internally deposited 137Cs has been estimated to be about 1 mSv. The higher intake of 137Cs by reindeer breeders is due to the lichen-reindeer-man exposure pathway.
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The Chernobyl reactor accident: the impact on the United Kingdom.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature60094
Source
Br J Radiol. 1987 Dec;60(720):1147-58
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-1987
Author
F A Fry
Author Affiliation
National Radiological Protection Board, Chilton, Oxon.
Source
Br J Radiol. 1987 Dec;60(720):1147-58
Date
Dec-1987
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents - economics
Adult
Air Pollutants, Radioactive - analysis
Animals
Environmental monitoring
Food Contamination, Radioactive - analysis
Great Britain
Humans
Infant
Milk
Nuclear Reactors
Radiation Dosage
Ukraine
Abstract
I had originally thought that by this time, nearly 1 year after the Chernobyl reactor accident, I would be in a position to describe fully its impact on the UK in terms of radiation doses, economics and future emergency planning. However, only one of these is reasonably clear-the radiological impact. We shall continue our measurements, particularly those of activity in persons, and doubtless we shall refine our estimates of collective dose, but they are unlikely to change significantly. We can therefore be certain that the radiological impact on the UK was small and that the health effects will not be detectable. Predictions of the consequences of accidental releases of radionuclides have in the past, perforce, relied upon models of environmental transfer. Data on which the models are based were obtained from investigations of weapons fallout and of routine releases from nuclear facilities. The Chernobyl accident provided a situation of activity deposition that was well characterised in time and in geographical distribution, and measurements along environmental pathways will allow us to validate or refine our models. This accidental deposition reinforced the importance of some effects that we knew about-such as the importance of wet deposition-and will cause us to consider the need to take account of specific situations that we had not considered previously in adequate detail-in particular, the behaviour of radionuclides in upland ecosystems. The overall economic impact is not yet clear and, unfortunately, is unlikely to become so until all restrictions on the movement and slaughter of sheep are removed and the farmers have received compensation. The effect on international trade may never be quantified. Some international agencies are evaluating the consequences of Chernobyl and their reports will become available during 1987. International agreements on intervention levels are also still under discussion and it would be premature to speculate about the need for any fundamental revisions to Emergency Reference Levels and derived quantities. Similarly, we are aware of the need for revision of the national emergency plan, but we are awaiting the government decision on this. One effect of the Chernobyl accident, however, is clear: the public's awareness of radiation issues has reached a new height. Members of the public demand information and advice, and better means of communicating these must be provided. Advice to take some action may provoke unnecessary alarm, but advice that no action is required may be distrusted. We cautiously assume that any dose, no matter how small, has some deleterious effect and yet, in situations of accidental releases, we may tell the public that no actions are required to reduced doses that they may consider appreciable and avoidable. We clearly need to promote a better understanding of the nature and acceptability of the risk of radiation doses in such circumstances and we intend to do so.
PubMed ID
3690162 View in PubMed
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Chernobyl--the radiological impact on Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature233454
Source
Can Assoc Radiol J. 1988 Mar;39(1):37-41
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-1988
Author
W. Huda
A M Sourkes
B L Tracy
Author Affiliation
Department of Medical Physics, Manitoba Cancer Treatment and Research Foundation, Winnipeg, Manitoba.
Source
Can Assoc Radiol J. 1988 Mar;39(1):37-41
Date
Mar-1988
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents
Animals
Canada
Cesium Radioisotopes - analysis
Environmental monitoring
Food Contamination, Radioactive - analysis
Humans
Iodine Radioisotopes - analysis
Milk - analysis
Nuclear Reactors
Radiation Dosage
Radiation monitoring
Radioactive Pollutants - analysis
Rain
Ruthenium Radioisotopes - analysis
Ukraine
Abstract
On 26 April 1986, an accident at a Ukrainian nuclear reactor at Chernobyl triggered the release of large quantities of fission products into the atmosphere. After 7 May 1986 measurable quantities of ruthenium-103, iodine-131, cesium-134, and cesium-137 were detected in environmental sampling carried out in all regions of Canada. Maximum airborne concentrations for each radionuclide were of the order of a few mBq.m-3 and contaminated milk samples on average contained less than 1Bq.L-1 of iodine-131 and cesium-137. The mean value of the effective dose equivalent for an adult Canadian in the two months following the accident is calculated to be 0.28 microSv. As this total radiation dose is about 10(-33) of the dose from natural background during the same period, the resultant radiological detriment is concluded to be negligible.
PubMed ID
2966167 View in PubMed
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74 records – page 1 of 8.