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Abandoned Mid-Canada Radar Line sites in the Western James region of Northern Ontario, Canada: a source of organochlorines for First Nations people?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature80754
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2006 Nov 1;370(2-3):452-66
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-1-2006
Author
Tsuji Leonard J S
Wainman Bruce C
Martin Ian D
Weber Jean-Philippe
Sutherland Celine
Nieboer Evert
Author Affiliation
Department of Environment and Resource Studies, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada N2L 3G1. ljtsuji@2fes.uwaterloo.ca
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2006 Nov 1;370(2-3):452-66
Date
Nov-1-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
American Native Continental Ancestry Group
Animals
Birds
Diet
Environmental pollutants - blood
Female
Fishes
Food Contamination
Hazardous Waste
Humans
Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated - blood
Male
Mammals
Ontario
Abstract
The potential exists for human exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and other contaminants originating from abandoned Mid-Canada Radar Line (MCRL) sites in sub-arctic Canada. We examined patterns of differences with respect to body burden of organochlorines (lipid-adjusted) between residents of the Ontario First Nations of Fort Albany (the site of MCRL Site 050) and Kashechewan (no radar base) and Hamilton (an industrial, southern Ontario community) to assess whether the presence of Site 050 influenced organochlorine body burden with respect to the people of Fort Albany. PCBs (Aroclor 1260 and summation operator14 PCBs congeners [CBs]) and DDE in the plasma of Fort Albany and Kashechewan subjects were elevated relative to Hamilton participants. PCB and DDE-plasma levels in First Nation women were of comparable magnitude to those reported for Inuit women living in the west/central Northwest Territories. Significantly lower DDE/DDT ratios observed for Fort Albany indicates exposure to higher levels of DDT compared to Kashechewan. The probable source of DDT exposure for Fort Albany people is the DDT-contaminated soil surrounding buildings of Site 050. The results of the correspondence analysis (CA) indicated that people from Hamilton had relatively higher pesticides and lower CB body burdens, while people from Fort Albany and Kashechewan exhibited relatively higher CBs and lower pesticide levels (CA-1). The separation of Fort Albany and Kashechewan from Hamilton was also clear using questionnaire data (i.e., plotting dietary principal component [PC]-1 scores against PC-2); PC-1 was correlated with the consumption of a traditional diet. Separation of Kashechewan and Albany residents occurred because the people of Kashechewan ate more traditional meats and consumed shorebirds. Only one significant relationship was found between PC analysis and contaminant loadings; PC-1 versus CA-3 for Kashechewan. The presence of Site 050 on Anderson Island appears to have influenced organochlorine body burden of the people of Fort Albany. ANCOVA results revealed that it was not activity on Anderson Island that was important, but activity on Site 050 was the influential variable. When these results are considered with the DDE/DDT ratio data and the CB 187 results (Fort Albany and Kashechewan residents differed significantly), the findings are suggestive that Site 050 did influence organochlorine body burden of people from Fort Albany.
PubMed ID
16959301 View in PubMed
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Accumulation of cadmium in livers and kidneys in Greenlanders.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature80673
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2006 Dec 15;372(1):58-63
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-15-2006
Author
Johansen Poul
Mulvad Gert
Pedersen Henning Sloth
Hansen Jens C
Riget Frank
Author Affiliation
National Environmental Research Institute, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde, Denmark. poj@dmu.dk
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2006 Dec 15;372(1):58-63
Date
Dec-15-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Biological Availability
Cadmium - metabolism
Environmental monitoring
Environmental Pollutants - metabolism
Female
Food Contamination
Greenland
Humans
Kidney Cortex - metabolism
Liver - metabolism
Male
Middle Aged
Smoking
Abstract
In the Arctic, the traditional diet exposes its people to a very high intake of cadmium because it is highly concentrated in the liver and kidneys of commonly eaten marine mammals. In one study in Greenland, the cadmium intake was estimated to 182 microg/day/person in the fall and 346 in the spring. To determine whether the cadmium is accumulated in humans, we analyzed autopsy samples of liver and kidneys from 95 ethnic Greenlanders (aged 19-89) who died from a wide range of causes. The cadmium concentration in liver (overall mean 1.97 microg/g wet wt) appeared to be unrelated to any particular age group, whereas the concentrations in the kidneys peaked in Greenlanders between 40 and 50 years of age (peak concentration 22.3 microg/g wet wt). Despite the high cadmium levels in the typical Greenlander diet, we found that the cadmium concentrations in livers and kidneys were comparable to those reported from Denmark, Sweden, Australia and Great Britain. Furthermore, even though the mean cadmium intake from the diet was estimated to be 13-25 times higher in Greenlanders than in Danes, we found similar cadmium levels in the kidneys of both. Seal livers and kidneys are the main source of cadmium in the diet of Greenlanders, but these tissues are not eaten in Denmark. Thus, our results suggest that the accumulation of cadmium from Greenlander's marine diet is very low.
PubMed ID
16970977 View in PubMed
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Acrylamide and cancer: tunnel leak in Sweden prompted studies.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature19084
Source
J Natl Cancer Inst. 2002 Jun 19;94(12):876-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-19-2002
Source
Lancet. 1966 Feb 26;1(7435):498
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-26-1966

Addressing historic environmental exposures along the Alaska Highway.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature107704
Source
Pages 787-795 in N. Murphy and A. Parkinson, eds. Circumpolar Health 2012: Circumpolar Health Comes Full Circle. Proceedings of the 15th International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Fairbanks, Alaska, USA, August 5-10, 2012. International Journal of Circumpolar Health 2013;72 (Suppl 1):787-795
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
  1 document  
Author
Anna Godduhn
Lawrence Duffy
Author Affiliation
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK 99775, USA
Source
Pages 787-795 in N. Murphy and A. Parkinson, eds. Circumpolar Health 2012: Circumpolar Health Comes Full Circle. Proceedings of the 15th International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Fairbanks, Alaska, USA, August 5-10, 2012. International Journal of Circumpolar Health 2013;72 (Suppl 1):787-795
Date
2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Digital File Format
Text - PDF
Physical Holding
University of Alaska Anchorage
Keywords
Alaska
Animals
Animals, Wild
Diet - adverse effects
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects - analysis - history
Fishes
Food Contamination
Health status
History, 20th Century
Humans
Interviews as Topic
Neoplasms - epidemiology
Pilot Projects
Questionnaires
Retrospective Studies
Risk factors
Thyroid Diseases - epidemiology
Abstract
A World War II defense site at Northway, Alaska, was remediated in the 1990s, leaving complex questions regarding historic exposures to toxic waste. This article describes the context, methods, limitations and findings of the Northway Wild Food and Health Project (NWFHP).
The NWFHP comprised 2 pilot studies: the Northway Wild Food Study (NWFS), which investigated contaminants in locally prioritized traditional foods over time, and the Northway Health Study (NHS), which investigated locally suspected links between resource uses and health problems.
This research employed mixed methods. The NWFS reviewed remedial documents and existing data. The NHS collected household information regarding resource uses and health conditions by questionnaire and interview. NHS data represent general (yes or no) personal knowledge that was often second hand. Retrospective cohort comparisons were made of the reported prevalence of 7 general health problems between groups based on their reported (yes or no) consumption of particular resources, for 3 data sets (existing, historic and combined) with a two-tailed Fisher's Exact Test in SAS (n = 325 individuals in 83 households, 24 of which no longer exist).
The NWFS identified historic pathways of exposure to petroleum, pesticides, herbicides, chlorinated byproducts of disinfection and lead from resources that were consumed more frequently decades ago and are not retrospectively quantifiable. The NHS found complex patterns of association between reported resource uses and cancer and thyroid-, reproductive-, metabolic- and cardiac problems.
Lack of detail regarding medical conditions, undocumented histories of exposure, time lapsed since the release of pollution and changes to health and health care over the same period make this exploratory research. Rather than demonstrate causation, these results document the legitimacy of local suspicions and warrant additional investigation. This article presents our findings, with discussion of limitations related to study design and limitations that are inherent to such research.
Notes
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PubMed ID
23984298 View in PubMed
Documents
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[A dysentery outbreak of food origin].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature108836
Source
Zh Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol. 1965 Sep;42(9):143-4
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-1965
Author
A S Klimentova
N A Fedorova
Source
Zh Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol. 1965 Sep;42(9):143-4
Date
Sep-1965
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Dysentery, Bacillary - epidemiology
Food Contamination
Food Microbiology
Humans
Russia
PubMed ID
4224671 View in PubMed
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Alaska Natives assessing the health of their environment

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature4347
Source
Pages 479-486 in P. Bjerregaard et al., eds. Part II, Proceedings of the 11th International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Harstad, Norway, June 5-9, 2000. International Journal of Circumpolar Health. 2001;60(4)
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2001
  1 document  
Author
Garza, D
Author Affiliation
Marine Advisory Program, University of Alaska, Ketchikan 99901, USA. ffdag@uaf.edu
Source
Pages 479-486 in P. Bjerregaard et al., eds. Part II, Proceedings of the 11th International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Harstad, Norway, June 5-9, 2000. International Journal of Circumpolar Health. 2001;60(4)
Date
Nov-2001
Language
English
Geographic Location
U.S.
Publication Type
Article
Digital File Format
Text - PDF
Keywords
Alaska
Attitude to Health
Environmental health
Environmental pollution
Food Contamination
Humans
Indians, North American
Information Services
Abstract
The changes in Alaska's ecosystems caused by pollution, contaminants and global climate change are negatively impacting Alaska Natives and rural residents who rely on natural resources for food, culture and community identity. While Alaska commerce has contributed little to these global changes and impacts, Alaska and its resources are nonetheless affected by the changes. While Alaska Natives have historically relied on Alaska's land, water and animals for survival and cultural identity, today their faith in the safety and quality of these resources has decreased. Alaska Natives no longer believe that these wild resources are the best and many are turning to alternative store-bought foods. Such a change in diet and activity may be contributing to a decline in traditional activities and a decline in general health. Contaminants are showing up in the animals, fish and waters that Alaska Natives use. Efforts need to be expanded to empower Alaska Native Tribes to collect and analyze local wild foods for various contaminants. In addition existing information on contaminants and pollution should be made readily available to Alaska residents. Armed with this type of information Alaska Native residents will be better prepared to make informed decisions on using wild foods and materials.
PubMed ID
11768422 View in PubMed
Documents
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Alterations of visual evoked potentials in preschool Inuit children exposed to methylmercury and polychlorinated biphenyls from a marine diet.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature82445
Source
Neurotoxicology. 2006 Jul;27(4):567-78
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2006
Author
Saint-Amour Dave
Roy Marie-Sylvie
Bastien Célyne
Ayotte Pierre
Dewailly Eric
Després Christine
Gingras Suzanne
Muckle Gina
Author Affiliation
Département d'ophtalmologie, CHU Sainte-Justine, 3175, Côte Sainte-Catherine, Montréal, Que., Canada H3T 1C5.
Source
Neurotoxicology. 2006 Jul;27(4):567-78
Date
Jul-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Antioxidants - pharmacology
Child
Child, Preschool
Confidence Intervals
Diet
Evoked Potentials, Visual - drug effects
Fatty Acids, Omega-3 - pharmacology
Female
Food Contamination
Humans
Infant, Newborn
Inuits
Male
Methylmercury Compounds - toxicity
Polychlorinated Biphenyls - toxicity
Pregnancy
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects
Reaction Time - drug effects - physiology
Regression Analysis
Selenium - pharmacology
Abstract
The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of chronic exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and methylmercury on visual brain processing in Inuit children from Nunavik (Northern Québec, Canada). Concentrations of total mercury in blood and PCB 153 in plasma had been measured at birth and they were again measured at the time of testing in 102 preschool aged children. Relationships between contaminants and pattern-reversal visual evoked potentials (VEPs) were assessed by multivariate regression analyses, taking into account several potential confounding variables. The possible protective effects of selenium and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids against methylmercury and PCB toxicity were also investigated. Results indicate that exposure to methylmercury and PCBs resulting from fish and sea mammal consumption were associated with alterations of VEP responses, especially for the latency of the N75 and of the P100 components. In contrast, the concomitant intake of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids was associated with a shorter latency of the P100. However, no significant interactions between nutrients and contaminants were found, contradicting the notion that these nutrients could afford protection against environmental neurotoxicants. Interestingly, significant associations were found with concentrations of neurotoxicants in blood samples collected at the time of testing, i.e. at the preschool age. Our findings suggest that VEP can be used as a valuable tool to assess the developmental neurotoxicity of environmental contaminants in fish-eating populations.
PubMed ID
16620993 View in PubMed
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Altered menstrual cycles in women with a high dietary intake of persistent organochlorine compounds.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature61535
Source
Chemosphere. 2004 Aug;56(8):813-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2004
Author
Anna Axmon
Lars Rylander
Ulf Strömberg
Lars Hagmar
Author Affiliation
Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, University Hospital, SE-221 85 Lund, Sweden. anna.axmon@ymed.lu.se
Source
Chemosphere. 2004 Aug;56(8):813-9
Date
Aug-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Animals
Cohort Studies
Comparative Study
Diet
Female
Fishes
Food Contamination
Geography
Humans
Insecticides - toxicity
Life Style
Menstrual Cycle - drug effects
Oceans and Seas
Polychlorinated Biphenyls - toxicity
Questionnaires
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Smoking
Sweden
Time Factors
Abstract
Dietary exposure to persistent organochlorine compounds (POCs) has been found to affect the menstrual cycle in both animals and humans. In Sweden, the major exposure route for POCs is the consumption of fatty fish from the Baltic Sea. Thus, women who eat relatively large amounts of this fish constitute a suitable study group when investigating a possible association between dietary exposure to POC and menstrual cycle disruption. Questionnaires were sent to the exposed women, as well as to a socioeconomically similar cohort of controls, and information was collected on their menstrual cycles. Since the exposed women tended to smoke more than the controls, all results were adjusted for smoking habits. A cohort comparison found that the exposed women on average had 0.46 (95% confidence interval: 0.03, 0.89) days shorter menstrual cycles than controls. However, within the exposed cohort no effects were found of the proxy variables early life exposure and high consumption of Baltic Sea fatty fish. The results give some support to previous results from studies on women with similar exposure, but are not conclusive with respect to whether there is a causal association between POC exposure and menstrual cycle disruption.
PubMed ID
15251296 View in PubMed
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Analysis of Norwegian milk and infant formulas for ochratoxin A.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature33228
Source
Food Addit Contam. 1999 Feb;16(2):75-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-1999
Author
M A Skaug
Author Affiliation
Department of Agriculture and Natural Science, Hedmark College, Ridabu, Norway.
Source
Food Addit Contam. 1999 Feb;16(2):75-8
Date
Feb-1999
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Carcinogens - analysis
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
Food Contamination
Health Food - analysis
Humans
Infant
Infant Food - analysis
Milk - chemistry
Mycotoxins - analysis
Norway
Ochratoxins - analysis
Abstract
Samples of organic cow's milk, conventional cow's milk, and cow's milk-based infant formulas were analysed for the occurrence of ochratoxin A by means of an HPLC method. The detection limit was 10 ng/l. Ochratoxin A was detected in 6 out of 40 conventional cow's milk samples (range 11-58 ng/l), and in 5 out of 47 organic milk samples (range 15-28 ng/l). No ochratoxin A was detected in any of the 20 infant formula samples. The ochratoxin A levels in cow's milk found in this investigation are sufficient to cause a higher intake of ochratoxin A than the suggested TDI of 5 ng/kg bw/day, e.g. in small children who consume large quantities of milk.
PubMed ID
10435076 View in PubMed
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560 records – page 1 of 56.