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59 records – page 1 of 6.

Age-related variation in red blood cell stable isotope ratios (delta13C and delta15N) from two Yupik villages in southwest Alaska: a pilot study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature77980
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2007 Feb;66(1):31-41
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2007
Author
Wilkinson Michael J
Yai Youlim
O'Brien Diane M
Author Affiliation
Center for Alaska Native Health Research, Institute of Arctic Biology, University of Alaska, Fairbanks 99775-7000, USA.
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2007 Feb;66(1):31-41
Date
Feb-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Factors
Aged
Alaska
Biological Markers - blood
Carbon Isotopes - blood
Diet Surveys
Dietary Fats - analysis
Erythrocytes - radionuclide imaging
Female
Food Analysis - methods
Food Habits - ethnology
Food Preservation
Humans
Inuits
Male
Mass Spectrometry
Middle Aged
Nitrogen Isotopes - blood
Pilot Projects
Abstract
OBJECTIVES: A significant fraction of the Alaska Native population appears to be shifting from a primarily subsistence-based diet to a market-based diet; therefore, the ability to link diet pattern to disease risk has become increasingly important to predicting public health needs. Our research aims to develop the use of stable isotope ratios as diet pattern biomarkers, based on naturally-occurring isotopic differences in the elemental composition of subsistence and non-subsistence foods. These differences are reflected in human blood, hair and fingernail isotope signatures. STUDY DESIGN: In this preliminary study, we investigate the potential for 13C and 15N to serve as dietary biomarkers for age-related dietary differences in a subset of participants involved with a long-term study initiated by the Center for Alaska Native Health Research (CANHR) at the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF). METHODS: We measured delta13C and delta15N in red blood cells collected from 12 "elder" participants (age 60+ yrs) and 14 younger participants (age 14-19 yrs). Samples were evenly divided between males and females, and between two villages sampled in 2004. We also sampled market and subsistence foods in Fairbanks, AK, as an indicator of the isotopic differences likely to be observed in village foods. RESULTS: Elders were significantly enriched in 15N, but depleted in 13C, relative to younger participants. These differences are consistent with increased intake of marine subsistence in elders, and of certain market foods in younger participants. However, elders were considerably more variable in delta15N, suggesting greater differences among individuals in their usual intake. CONCLUSIONS: Overall we find that RBC stable isotope signatures exhibit variation consistent with previously documented dietary patterns in Alaska Natives, and we describe future directions for developing these biomarkers for diet pattern monitoring.
PubMed ID
17451132 View in PubMed
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Animal-free paralytic shellfish toxin testing--the Canadian perspective to improved health protection.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature104308
Source
J AOAC Int. 2014 Mar-Apr;97(2):334-8
Publication Type
Article
Author
Wade A Rourke
Cory J Murphy
Source
J AOAC Int. 2014 Mar-Apr;97(2):334-8
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animal Testing Alternatives - methods
Animals
Biological Assay
Canada
Food Analysis - methods
Food Safety - methods
Humans
Marine Toxins - chemistry
Mice
Shellfish - analysis
Time Factors
Abstract
The performance characteristics of AOAC Official Method 2011.02 (the PCOX method) as a replacement for the AOAC mouse bioassay procedure have been well defined by validation studies, but these data do not communicate the complete story. The context provided by analyzing 9000 regulatory monitoring samples over 3 years demonstrates not only the reduction in animal use but also the increase in food safety that has been realized using a chemistry-based method. Detection of lower toxin levels provided early warning to enable directed sampling as toxin levels increased. The toxin profile information generated by a chemistry-based method was used to detect potential interferences qualitatively and can be used to assess the impact of changes recommended to monitoring programs. Such changes might include which toxins should be included in an action limit or the toxic equivalence factors used for these toxins.
PubMed ID
24830144 View in PubMed
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Annual variation of deoxynivalenol in Danish wheat flour 1998-2003 and estimated daily intake by the Danish population.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature78422
Source
Food Addit Contam. 2007 Mar;24(3):315-25
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2007
Author
Rasmussen Peter Have
Petersen Annette
Ghorbani Faranak
Author Affiliation
Danish Institute for Food and Veterinary Research - Food Chemistry, Mørkhøj Bygade 19, Søborg 2860, Denmark. phr@dfvf.dk
Source
Food Addit Contam. 2007 Mar;24(3):315-25
Date
Mar-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid - methods
Denmark
Flour - analysis
Food Analysis - methods
Food contamination - analysis
Food Habits
Humans
Mass Spectrometry - methods
Rain
Seasons
Temperature
Trichothecenes - administration & dosage - analysis
Triticum - chemistry
Abstract
The occurrence of deoxynivalenol (DON) in Danish wheat flour was studied during the period 1998-2003 by either capillary gas chromatography with electron capture detection and liquid chromatography coupled to an ion trap mass spectrophotometer. A total of 151 samples were collected from mills and the retail market in Denmark. Contamination levels varied considerably from year-to-year with the highest concentrations occurring in samples from the 2002 harvest with mean and median concentrations of 255 and 300 microg kg(-1), respectively. Compared to other harvest years, 2002 had the highest amount of precipitation around flowering time, i.e. from the end of June to the beginning of July covering weeks 25-27. The lowest average levels were found in samples from the 2001 harvest, where weeks 25-27 were dry compared with other harvest years. The highest value (705 microg kg(-1)) was obtained in a flour sample from the 2002 harvest, but none of the tested samples exceeded the maximum limit of 750 microg kg(-1), which has been recently introduced by the European Commission for DON in flour used as raw materials in food products. Calculation of chronic or usual intake by a deterministic approach showed that intake did not exceed the TDI of 1 microg kg(-1) bw day(-1) either for the whole population or for children. A probabilistic approach also showed that intake in general was below the TDI, but intake for children in the 99% percentile amounted to more than 75% of the TDI. The highest intake is calculated to be 2.5 microg kg(-1) bw day(-1).
PubMed ID
17364935 View in PubMed
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Application of isotope dilution mass spectrometry: determination of ochratoxin A in the Canadian Total Diet Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature134090
Source
Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess. 2011 Jun;28(6):754-61
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2011
Author
J. Tam
P. Pantazopoulos
P M Scott
J. Moisey
R W Dabeka
I D K Richard
Author Affiliation
Health Canada-Santé Canada, Ontario Region, Food Laboratories Division, 2301 Midland Avenue, Toronto, ON, Canada.
Source
Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess. 2011 Jun;28(6):754-61
Date
Jun-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Bread - analysis
Calibration
Canada
Carbon Isotopes
Cereals - chemistry
Chromatography, Affinity
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
Diet
Fast Foods - analysis
Food Analysis - methods
Food Contamination
Food Habits
Humans
Indicator Dilution Techniques
Limit of Detection
Nutrition Surveys
Ochratoxins - analysis - chemistry - isolation & purification
Reproducibility of Results
Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization
Tandem Mass Spectrometry
Abstract
Analytical methods are generally developed and optimized for specific commodities. Total Diet Studies, representing typical food products 'as consumed', pose an analytical challenge since every food product is different. In order to address this technical challenge, a selective and sensitive analytical method was developed suitable for the quantitation of ochratoxin A (OTA) in Canadian Total Diet Study composites. The method uses an acidified solvent extraction, an immunoaffinity column (IAC) for clean-up, liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for identification and quantification, and a uniformly stable isotope-labelled OTA (U-[(13)C(20)]-OTA) as an internal recovery standard. Results are corrected for this standard. The method is accurate (101% average recovery) and precise (5.5% relative standard deviation (RSD)) based on 17 duplicate analysis of various food products over 2 years. A total of 140 diet composites were analysed for OTA as part of the Canadian Total Diet Study. Samples were collected at retail level from two Canadian cities, Quebec City and Calgary, in 2008 and 2009, respectively. The results indicate that 73% (102/140) of the samples had detectable levels of OTA, with some of the highest levels of OTA contamination found in the Canadian bread supply.
Notes
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Cites: Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 2004;18(22):2661-815481100
Cites: Food Addit Contam. 2005 Feb;22(2):163-7215824007
Cites: Food Chem Toxicol. 2005 Oct;43(10):1541-5515963619
Cites: Anal Bioanal Chem. 2005 Oct;383(4):570-516158296
Cites: Food Addit Contam. 2005;22 Suppl 1:37-4416332620
Cites: J Toxicol Environ Health B Crit Rev. 2006 May-Jun;9(3):265-9616621780
Cites: Food Chem Toxicol. 2008 Mar;46(3):879-8518037554
PubMed ID
21623499 View in PubMed
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Application of laws, policies, and guidance from the United States and Canada to the regulation of food and feed derived from genetically modified crops: interpretation of composition data.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature108631
Source
J Agric Food Chem. 2013 Sep 4;61(35):8349-55
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-4-2013
Author
William D Price
Lynne Underhill
Author Affiliation
12818 Wolfsville Road, Smithsburg, Maryland 21783, United States.
Source
J Agric Food Chem. 2013 Sep 4;61(35):8349-55
Date
Sep-4-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animal Feed - analysis
Canada
Food Analysis - methods
Food Safety - methods
Food, Genetically Modified
Humans
Legislation, Food
Nutrition Policy
Plants, Genetically Modified - chemistry
Risk assessment
United States
United States Food and Drug Administration
Abstract
With the development of recombinant DNA techniques for genetically modifying plants to exhibit beneficial traits, laws and regulations were adopted to ensure the safety of food and feed derived from such plants. This paper focuses on the regulation of genetically modified (GM) plants in Canada and the United States, with emphasis on the results of the compositional analysis routinely utilized as an indicator of possible unintended effects resulting from genetic modification. This work discusses the mandate of Health Canada and the Canadian Food Inspection Agency as well as the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's approach to regulating food and feed derived from GM plants. This work also addresses how publications by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and Codex Alimentarius fit, particularly with defining the importance and purpose of compositional analysis. The importance of study design, selection of comparators, use of literature, and commercial variety reference values is also discussed.
PubMed ID
23865444 View in PubMed
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Biomarker and dietary validation of a Canadian food frequency questionnaire to measure eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid intakes from whole food, functional food, and nutraceutical sources.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature124417
Source
J Acad Nutr Diet. 2012 Jul;112(7):1005-14
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2012
Author
Ashley C Patterson
Ryan C Hogg
Diane M Kishi
Ken D Stark
Author Affiliation
Department of Kinesiology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada.
Source
J Acad Nutr Diet. 2012 Jul;112(7):1005-14
Date
Jul-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Biological Markers - blood
Canada
Diet Records
Diet Surveys - instrumentation - standards
Dietary Supplements - analysis
Docosahexaenoic Acids - administration & dosage - analysis - blood
Eicosapentaenoic Acid - administration & dosage - analysis - blood
Female
Food Analysis - methods
Functional Food - analysis
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Questionnaires - standards
Seafood - analysis
Young Adult
Abstract
Canadian dietary sources of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) include marine and non-marine whole foods, functional foods, and nutraceuticals.
In the present study, these sources were incorporated into a nutrient-specific, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and the ability to measure the EPA and DHA intakes of Canadian adults was assessed. Specifically, the EPA and DHA intakes estimated by FFQ of 78 men and women, 20 to 60 years of age, were compared with EPA and DHA measurements from 3-day food records and measures of EPA and DHA in fasting whole blood.
Mean (±standard deviation) and median intakes of EPA+DHA were 0.34±0.34 and 0.21 g/day by FFQ and 0.47±0.71 and 0.13 g/day by food record, with no significant differences between mean intakes (P=0.93). The FFQ provided higher estimates than the food record at low intakes of EPA and DHA and lower estimates at high intakes based on Bland-Altman plots. The FFQ was moderately correlated with food record (r=0.31 to 0.49) and with blood biomarker measures of EPA and DHA (r=0.31 to 0.51). Agreement analysis revealed that 42% of participants were classified in the same and 77% into same or adjacent quartile when EPA and DHA intake was assessed by food record and by FFQ. Similar quartile agreement was found for EPA and DHA intakes by FFQ with blood biomarker EPA and DHA. The range of the validity coefficients, calculated using the method of triads, was 0.43 to 0.71 for FFQ measurement of EPA+DHA.
The FFQ is an adequate tool for estimating usual EPA and DHA intakes and ranking Canadian adults by their intakes.
PubMed ID
22583924 View in PubMed
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Cadmium intake of moose hunters in Finland from consumption of moose meat, liver and kidney.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature185161
Source
Food Addit Contam. 2003 May;20(5):453-63
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2003
Author
L. Vahteristo
T. Lyytikäinen
E-R Venäläinen
M. Eskola
E. Lindfors
R. Pohjanvirta
R. Maijala
Author Affiliation
Department of Risk Assessment, National Veterinary and Food Research Institute, Helsinki, Finland.
Source
Food Addit Contam. 2003 May;20(5):453-63
Date
May-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Cadmium - administration & dosage - analysis
Deer - metabolism
Diet
Finland
Food Analysis - methods
Food contamination - analysis
Humans
Kidney - chemistry
Liver - chemistry
Meat - analysis
Abstract
Although the average cadmium intake in Finland is about 10 microg day(-1), some risk groups can be identified. This study assessed cadmium intake from the consumption of moose meat, liver and kidneys by moose hunters. Consumption data from a postal questionnaire were combined with a representative database on moose cadmium concentrations. Cadmium intakes were calculated as point estimates for all respondents (n = 711), for those consuming moose meat, liver and/or kidneys, and for the highest decile of those. Probabilistic modelling using the Monte Carlo technique was used to simulate the distribution of dietary cadmium exposure. Of the respondents, 69% consumed moose liver and only 23% moose kidneys. The consumption of moose liver or kidneys significantly increased cadmium intake, whereas moose meat (median consumption 17 kg year(-1) person(-1)) contributed only slightly (0.16 microg day(-1) person(-1)) to the daily total cadmium intake. In the simulation, 10% of the moose hunters had an intake of > 8.76 microg day(-1) (14.6% of PTWI for a 60-kg person) from moose. Point estimates provided only a partial understanding of the potential exposure. Simulated distributions of intake were more useful in characterizing exposure. The study revealed that heavy users of moose organs have a relatively narrow safety margin from the levels of cadmium probably causing adverse health effects.
PubMed ID
12775464 View in PubMed
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Canadian Total Diet Study in 1998: pesticide levels in foods from Whitehorse, Yukon, Canada, and corresponding dietary intake estimates.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature30285
Source
Food Addit Contam. 2004 Mar;21(3):232-50
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2004
Author
D F Rawn
X L Cao
J. Doucet
D J Davies
W F Sun
R W Dabeka
W H Newsome
Author Affiliation
Food Research Division (2203D), Bureau of Chemical Safety, Health Products and Food Branch, Health Canada, Tunney's Pasture, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A 0L2. thea_rawn@hc-sc.gc.ca
Source
Food Addit Contam. 2004 Mar;21(3):232-50
Date
Mar-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Animals
Canada
Child
Child, Preschool
Diet Surveys
Female
Fishes
Food Analysis - methods
Food contamination - analysis
Fruit - chemistry
Humans
Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated
Infant
Insecticides - analysis
Male
Maximum Allowable Concentration
Middle Aged
Organophosphorus Compounds
Pesticide Residues - analysis
Vegetables - chemistry
Yukon Territory
Abstract
The Canadian Total Diet Study is a national survey to determine the level of chemical contaminants in the Canadian food supply. Food samples were collected from Whitehorse, Yukon, supermarkets as part of the study in 1998. Whitehorse was chosen as a sampling centre, despite its small population (n = 19,000), to determine if residue levels were different in foods available in northern communities relative to levels observed in previous studies in the more populated south. Foods were prepared as for consumption before pesticide residue analysis. Residue levels observed in most foods were similar to levels observed in samples from previous surveys from southern Canadian cities. Malathion and DDE (1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene), a transformation product of DDT (1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl(ethane), were the two most frequently detected compounds (26.4 and 25.8%, respectively). The majority of pesticides, however, had a detection frequency of
PubMed ID
15195471 View in PubMed
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Chlorinated paraffin analysis by gas chromatography Orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometry: Method performance, investigation of possible interferences and analysis of fish samples.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature290837
Source
J Chromatogr A. 2018 Mar 02; 1539:53-61
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Mar-02-2018
Author
Kerstin Krätschmer
Cristian Cojocariu
Alexander Schächtele
Rainer Malisch
Walter Vetter
Author Affiliation
University of Hohenheim, Institute of Food Chemistry (170b), Garbenstraße 28, 70599 Stuttgart, Germany; European Union Reference Laboratory (EU-RL) for PCBs and Dioxins in Feed and Food, Bissierstraße 5, 79114 Freiburg, Germany.
Source
J Chromatogr A. 2018 Mar 02; 1539:53-61
Date
Mar-02-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Animals
Environmental Monitoring - methods
Fishes
Food Analysis - methods
Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated - analysis
Limit of Detection
Norway
Paraffin - analysis
Polychlorinated biphenyls - analysis
Abstract
For decades, high quantities of short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCP) and medium-chain chlorinated paraffins (MCCP) have been widely used, for instance as plasticizers or flame retardants, leading to global pollution due to unintentional emissions from products or waste. Due to the high complexity of chlorinated paraffins with several thousand congeners there is no consensus on an analytical procedure for SCCPs and MCCPs in food samples. Amongst the multitude of methods currently in use, high-resolution mass spectrometry is particularly valuable for in-depth studies of homologue patterns. Here we analyse SCCPs and MCCPs with gas chromatography coupled to high-resolution Orbitrap mass spectrometry (GC-Orbitrap-HRMS) operated in full-scan acquisition in electron capture negative ion (ECNI) mode at 60,000 and 120,000 resolution (FWHM, m/z 200, equals roughly 30,000 and 60,000 at 5% peak height). Linear dynamic range, selectivity and sensitivity tests confirmed an excellent linearity in a concentration range of 25-15,000?pg/µL with very low limits of detection (LODs) in the low pg/µL range. Spiking experiments with high levels of native mono- and di-ortho-polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and mixtures of MCCP and SCCP standards did not have a negative impact on isotope ratios of the examined homologues. Besides the [M-Cl]- fragment ions used for quantification, the mass spectra of homologues also featured [M-HCl]- ions whose abundance increased with decreasing chlorination degree. In addition, [M-HCl-Cl]- ions were detected with a relative abundance of 5-10%. Three salmon (Salmo salar) samples farmed in Norway showed a consistent CP homologue pattern which differed both from the CP pattern in a sample from Scottish aquaculture and a wild salmon sample. These measurements produce evidence that discretely different CP patterns may exist in different areas of origin. Our results demonstrate that GC/ECNI-Orbitrap-HRMS is well-suited for the analysis of CPs by overcoming a range of mass interference problems and due to its thus far unmatched sensitivity.
PubMed ID
29397983 View in PubMed
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59 records – page 1 of 6.