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Assessment of Food Waste Prevention and Recycling Strategies Using a Multilayer Systems Approach.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature274424
Source
Environ Sci Technol. 2015 Dec 15;49(24):13937-45
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-15-2015
Author
Helen A Hamilton
M Samantha Peverill
Daniel B Müller
Helge Brattebø
Source
Environ Sci Technol. 2015 Dec 15;49(24):13937-45
Date
Dec-15-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Agriculture
Biomass
Energy-Generating Resources
Environment
Food - statistics & numerical data
Food Supply
Garbage
Models, Theoretical
Norway
Phosphorus - analysis
Recycling - methods
Systems Analysis
Waste Management - methods
Abstract
Food waste (FW) generates large upstream and downstream emissions to the environment and unnecessarily consumes natural resources, potentially affecting future food security. The ecological impacts of FW can be addressed by the upstream strategies of FW prevention or by downstream strategies of FW recycling, including energy and nutrient recovery. While FW recycling is often prioritized in practice, the ecological implications of the two strategies remain poorly understood from a quantitative systems perspective. Here, we develop a multilayer systems framework and scenarios to quantify the implications of food waste strategies on national biomass, energy, and phosphorus (P) cycles, using Norway as a case study. We found that (i) avoidable food waste in Norway accounts for 17% of sold food; (ii) 10% of the avoidable food waste occurs at the consumption stage, while industry and retailers account for only 7%; (iii) the theoretical potential for systems-wide net process energy savings is 16% for FW prevention and 8% for FW recycling; (iv) the theoretical potential for systems-wide P savings is 21% for FW prevention and 9% for FW recycling; (v) while FW recycling results in exclusively domestic nutrient and energy savings, FW prevention leads to domestic and international savings due to large food imports; (vi) most effective is a combination of prevention and recycling, however, FW prevention reduces the potential for FW recycling and therefore needs to be prioritized to avoid potential overcapacities for FW recycling.
PubMed ID
26496178 View in PubMed
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The association between time scarcity, sociodemographic correlates and consumption of ultra-processed foods among parents in Norway: a cross-sectional study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature286522
Source
BMC Public Health. 2017 May 15;17(1):447
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-15-2017
Author
Ingrid Laukeland Djupegot
Camilla Bengtson Nenseth
Elling Bere
Helga Birgit Torgeirsdotter Bjørnarå
Sissel Heidi Helland
Nina Cecilie Øverby
Monica Klungland Torstveit
Tonje Holte Stea
Source
BMC Public Health. 2017 May 15;17(1):447
Date
May-15-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Age Factors
Cross-Sectional Studies
Fast Foods - statistics & numerical data
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Norway
Parents - psychology
Sex Factors
Socioeconomic Factors
Time Factors
Abstract
Use of ultra-processed foods has expanded rapidly over the last decades and high consumption has been positively associated with risk of e.g. overweight, obesity and type 2 diabetes. Ultra-processed foods offer convenience as they require minimal time for preparation. It is therefore reasonable to assume that such foods are consumed more often among people who experience time scarcity. The main aim of this study was to investigate the association between time scarcity and consumption of ultra-processed foods among parents of 2-year olds in Norway. A secondary aim was to investigate the association between sociodemographic correlates, weight status and consumption of ultra-processed foods.
This cross-sectional study included 497 participants. Chi-square and cross tabulations were used to calculate proportions of high vs. low consumption of ultra-processed foods in relation to time scarcity, sociodemographic correlates and weight status. Binary logistic regression analyses were performed to test the relationship between independent variables and consumption of ultra-processed foods.
Participants reporting medium and high time scarcity were more likely to have a high consumption of ultra-processed dinner products (OR = 3. 68, 95% CI = 2. 32-5.84 and OR = 3.10, 1.80-5.35, respectively) and fast foods (OR = 2.60, 1.62-4.18 and OR = 1.90, 1.08-3.32, respectively) compared to those with low time scarcity. Further, participants with medium time scarcity were more likely to have a high consumption of snacks and soft drinks compared to participants with low time scarcity (OR = 1.63, 1.06-2.49). Finally, gender, ethnicity, educational level, number of children in the household and weight status were identified as important factors associated with the consumption of certain types of ultra-processed foods.
Results from the present study showed that time scarcity, various sociodemographic factors and weight status was associated with consumption of processed foods. Future studies with a longitudinal design are needed to further explore these patterns over a longer period of time.
Notes
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PubMed ID
28506318 View in PubMed
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Associations between children's diets and features of their residential and school neighbourhood food environments.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature128375
Source
Can J Public Health. 2012;103(9 Suppl 3):eS48-54
Publication Type
Article
Date
2012
Author
Andraea Van Hulst
Tracie A Barnett
Lise Gauvin
Mark Daniel
Yan Kestens
Madeleine Bird
Katherine Gray-Donald
Marie Lambert
Author Affiliation
École de santé publique, Université de Montréal; Centre de recherche du CHU Sainte-Justine. a.van.hulst@umontreal.ca
Source
Can J Public Health. 2012;103(9 Suppl 3):eS48-54
Date
2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Child
Diet - statistics & numerical data
Environment Design - statistics & numerical data
Fast Foods - statistics & numerical data
Female
Food Services - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Male
Quebec
Questionnaires
Residence Characteristics - statistics & numerical data
Schools
Abstract
Among studies of the built environment, few examine neighbourhood food environments in relation to children's diets. We examined the associations of residential and school neighbourhood access to different types of food establishments with children's diets.
Data from QUALITY (Quebec Adipose and Lifestyle Investigation in Youth), an ongoing study on the natural history of obesity in 630 Quebec youth aged 8-10 years with a parental history of obesity, were analyzed (n=512). Three 24-hour diet recalls were used to assess dietary intake of vegetables and fruit, and sugar-sweetened beverages. Questionnaires were used to determine the frequency of eating/snacking out and consumption of delivered/take-out foods. We characterized residential and school neighbourhood food environments by means of a Geographic Information System. Variables included distance to the nearest supermarket, fast-food restaurant and convenience store, and densities of each food establishment type computed for 1 km network buffers around each child's residence and school. Retail Food Environment indices were also computed. Multivariable logistic regressions (residential access) and generalized estimating equations (school access) were used for analysis.
Residential and school neighbourhood access to supermarkets was not associated with children's diets. Residing in neighbourhoods with lower access to fast-food restaurants and convenience stores was associated with a lower likelihood of eating and snacking out. Children attending schools in neighbourhoods with a higher number of unhealthful relative to healthful food establishments scored most poorly on dietary outcomes.
Further investigations are needed to inform policies aimed at shaping neighbourhood-level food purchasing opportunities, particularly for access to fast-food restaurants and convenience stores.
PubMed ID
23618089 View in PubMed
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Combining nutrient intake from food/beverages and vitamin/mineral supplements.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature137574
Source
Health Rep. 2010 Dec;21(4):71-84
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2010
Author
Didier Garriguet
Author Affiliation
Health Analysis Division at Statistics Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0T6. Didier.Garriguet@statcan.gc.ca
Source
Health Rep. 2010 Dec;21(4):71-84
Date
Dec-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Beverages - statistics & numerical data
Canada
Child
Child, Preschool
Data Collection - methods
Diet
Dietary Supplements - statistics & numerical data
Female
Food - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Infant
Male
Mental Recall
Minerals - administration & dosage
Nutrition Surveys
Self Report
Vitamins - administration & dosage
Young Adult
Abstract
To calculate total intake of a nutrient and estimate inadequate intake for a population, the amounts derived from food/beverages and from vitamin/mineral supplements must be combined. The two methods Statistics Canada has suggested present problems of interpretation.
Data collected from 34,386 respondents to the 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey-Nutrition were used to compare four methods of combining nutrient intake from food/beverages and vitamin/mineral supplements: adding average intake from supplements to the 24-hour food/beverage recall and estimating the usual distribution in the population (Method 1); estimating usual individual intake from food? beverages and adding intake from supplements (Method 2); and dividing the population into supplement users and non-users and applying Method 1 or Method 2 and combining the estimates based on the percentages of users and non-users (Methods 3 and 4).
Interpretation problems arise with Methods 1 and 2; for example, the percentage of the population with inadequate intake of vitamin C and folate equivalents falls outside the expected minimum-maximum range. These interpretation problems are not observed with Methods 3 and 4.
Interpretation problems that may arise in combining food and supplement intake of a given nutrient are overcome if the population is divided into supplement users and non-users before Method 1 or Method 2 is applied.
PubMed ID
21269014 View in PubMed
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Consumer perceptions of trans fats in 2009 show awareness of negative effects but limited concern regarding use in snack foods.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature132008
Source
Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2011 Aug;36(4):526-32
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2011
Author
Roseann Nasser
Stephanie Cook
Megan Bashutski
Karen Hill
Darci Norton
Jean Coleman
Sharon Walker
Sylvain Charlebois
Author Affiliation
Clinical Nutrition Services, Regina Qu'Appelle Health Region, Regina, Canada. roseann.nasser@rqhealth.ca
Source
Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2011 Aug;36(4):526-32
Date
Aug-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Distribution
Canada
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Food - statistics & numerical data
Food Labeling
Food Preferences - physiology - psychology
Health Behavior
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Sex Distribution
Trans Fatty Acids - adverse effects
Young Adult
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to determine consumers' perceptions of industrially produced trans fats. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Regina at 3 different grocery store chains located in 3 different regions. A 21-item survey was administered in English by 3 research assistants at the grocery stores over a 5-day period. Of 498 potential respondents who were approached, 211 completed the survey, for a 42% response rate. The majority of respondents were female and over 61 years of age. When respondents were asked if they looked for information on food packages while grocery shopping, none of the respondents indicated that they looked for trans fat on the food label. Ninety-six percent of respondents identified that trans fat is found in processed foods, whereas 42% of respondents incorrectly identified trans fat as being found in nonhydrogenated margarines. More female respondents self-reported that they had made dietary changes to decrease trans fat intake as compared with male respondents (p
PubMed ID
21854161 View in PubMed
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Defining Neighbourhoods as a Measure of Exposure to the Food Environment.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature270776
Source
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2015 Jul;12(7):8504-25
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2015
Author
Anders K Lyseen
Henning S Hansen
Henrik Harder
Anders S Jensen
Bent E Mikkelsen
Source
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2015 Jul;12(7):8504-25
Date
Jul-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Data Interpretation, Statistical
Denmark
Fast Foods - statistics & numerical data
Female
Humans
Male
Residence Characteristics - statistics & numerical data
Rural Population - statistics & numerical data
Socioeconomic Factors
Urban Population - statistics & numerical data
Young Adult
Abstract
Neighbourhoods are frequently used as a measure for individuals' exposure to the food environment. However, the definitions of neighbourhoods fluctuate and have not been applied consistently in previous studies. Neighbourhoods defined from a single fixed location fail to capture people's complete exposure in multiple locations, but measuring behaviour using traditional methods can be challenging. This study compares the traditional methods of measuring exposure to the food environment to methods that use data from GPS tracking. For each of the 187 participants, 11 different neighbourhoods were created in which the exposure to supermarkets and fast food outlets were measured. ANOVA, Tukey's Honestly Significant Difference (HSD) test and t-tests were performed to compare the neighbourhoods. Significant differences were found between area sizes and the exposure to supermarkets and fast food outlets for different neighbourhood types. Second, significant differences in exposure to food outlets were found between the urban and rural neighbourhoods. Neighbourhoods are clearly a diffused and blurred concept that varies in meaning depending on each person's perception and the conducted study. Complexity and heterogeneity of human mobility no longer appear to correspond to the use of residential neighbourhoods but rather emphasise the need for methods, concepts and measures of individual activity and exposure.
Notes
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PubMed ID
26197331 View in PubMed
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Depression and suicide ideation in late adolescence and early adulthood are an outcome of child hunger.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature117653
Source
J Affect Disord. 2013 Aug 15;150(1):123-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-15-2013
Author
Lynn McIntyre
Jeanne V A Williams
Dina H Lavorato
Scott Patten
Author Affiliation
Department of Community Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada T2N 4Z6. lmcintyr@ucalgary.ca
Source
J Affect Disord. 2013 Aug 15;150(1):123-9
Date
Aug-15-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Canada
Depression - etiology - psychology
Female
Food - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Hunger
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Risk factors
Suicidal ideation
Young Adult
Abstract
Child hunger represents an adverse experience that could contribute to mental health problems in later life. The objectives of this study were to: (1) examine the long-term effects of the reported experience of child hunger on late adolescence and young adult mental health outcomes; and (2) model the independent contribution of the child hunger experience to these long-term mental health outcomes in consideration of other experiences of child disadvantage.
Using logistic regression, we analyzed data from the Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth covering 1994 through 2008/2009, with data on hunger and other exposures drawn from NLSCY Cycle 1 (1994) through Cycle 7 (2006/2007) and mental health data drawn from Cycle 8 (2008/2009). Our main mental health outcome was a composite measure of depression and suicidal ideation.
The prevalence of child hunger was 5.7% (95% CI 5.0-6.4). Child hunger was a robust predictor of depression and suicidal ideation [crude OR=2.9 (95% CI 1.4-5.8)] even after adjustment for potential confounding variables, OR=2.3 (95% CI 1.2-4.3).
A single question was used to assess child hunger, which itself is a rare extreme manifestation of food insecurity; thus, the spectrum of child food insecurity was not examined, and the rarity of hunger constrained statistical power.
Child hunger appears to be a modifiable risk factor for depression and related suicide ideation in late adolescence and early adulthood, therefore prevention through the detection of such children and remedy of their circumstances may be an avenue to improve adult mental health.
Notes
Comment In: Evid Based Med. 2014 Jun;19(3):11324361751
PubMed ID
23276702 View in PubMed
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Development of a quantitative food frequency questionnaire for use among the Yup'ik people of Western Alaska.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature260452
Source
PLoS One. 2014;9(6):e100412
Publication Type
Article
Date
2014
Author
Fariba Kolahdooz
Desiree Simeon
Gary Ferguson
Sangita Sharma
Source
PLoS One. 2014;9(6):e100412
Date
2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Alaska - ethnology
Diet Surveys - methods
Ethnic Groups - statistics & numerical data
Female
Food - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Questionnaires
Time Factors
Young Adult
Abstract
Alaska Native populations are experiencing a nutrition transition and a resulting decrease in diet quality. The present study aimed to develop a quantitative food frequency questionnaire to assess the diet of the Yup'ik people of Western Alaska. A cross-sectional survey was conducted using 24-hour recalls and the information collected served as a basis for developing a quantitative food frequency questionnaire. A total of 177 males and females, aged 13-88, in six western Alaska communities, completed up to three 24-hour recalls as part of the Alaska Native Dietary and Subsistence Food Assessment Project. The frequency of the foods reported in the 24-hour recalls was tabulated and used to create a draft quantitative food frequency questionnaire, which was pilot tested and finalized with input from community members. Store-bought foods high in fat and sugar were reported more frequently than traditional foods. Seven of the top 26 foods most frequently reported were traditional foods. A 150-item quantitative food frequency questionnaire was developed that included 14 breads and crackers; 3 cereals; 11 dairy products; 69 meats, poultry and fish; 13 fruit; 22 vegetables; 9 desserts and snacks; and 9 beverages. The quantitative food frequency questionnaire contains 39 traditional food items. This quantitative food frequency questionnaire can be used to assess the unique diet of the Alaska Native people of Western Alaska. This tool will allow for monitoring of dietary changes over time as well as the identification of foods and nutrients that could be promoted in a nutrition intervention program intended to reduce chronic disease.
Notes
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PubMed ID
24963718 View in PubMed
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Development of a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire to assess food, energy and nutrient intake in Denmark.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature24666
Source
Int J Epidemiol. 1991 Dec;20(4):900-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-1991
Author
K. Overvad
A. Tjønneland
J. Haraldsdóttir
M. Ewertz
O M Jensen
Author Affiliation
Institute of Social Medicine, University of Arhus, Denmark.
Source
Int J Epidemiol. 1991 Dec;20(4):900-5
Date
Dec-1991
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Denmark
Diet Records
Diet Surveys
Energy intake
Female
Food - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Nutrition Surveys
Questionnaires
Regression Analysis
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Abstract
Foods to be included in a Danish self-administered semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire were identified from food tables developed, together with data collected, for the survey 'Dietary habits in Denmark, 1985'. The questionnaire was to be used in a prospective study on diet, cancer and health, and the aim was to rank individuals with regard to intake of 19 different nutrients considered of prime importance in human carcinogenesis. The questionnaire for the dietary survey included 247 foods and recipes. From stepwise multiple regression analyses with the intake of each of the 19 nutrients as the dependent variable and the intake of the 247 foods and recipes as independent variables, the foods in the models explaining 90% of the between-person variability were considered for the final questionnaire. All relevant analyses were performed for the study group as a whole, for men and women separately, and in each gender for subgroups of energy intake. Taken together, the models explaining 90% of the between-person variability identified a total of 74 foods or recipes, which were important predictors of the intake of one or more of the nutrients considered. A few foods were excluded and a few foods were added to the final questionnaire based on common biological background information, and on information on foods providing important amounts of given nutrients, but which failed to contribute to regression analyses. The 92 foods and recipes, which were included in the final questionnaire provided altogether 81% of the average total supply of the nutrients.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
PubMed ID
1800428 View in PubMed
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Diet and cancer prevention: Contributions from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature100405
Source
Eur J Cancer. 2010 Sep;46(14):2555-62
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2010
Author
Carlos A Gonzalez
Elio Riboli
Author Affiliation
Unit of Nutrition, Environment and Cancer, Programme of Epidemilogical Cancer Research, Institut Català d'Oncologia, Av. Gran Via s/n, km 2.7, 08907 L'Hospitalet, Barcelona, Spain. cagonzalez@iconcologia.net
Source
Eur J Cancer. 2010 Sep;46(14):2555-62
Date
Sep-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Diet - statistics & numerical data
Dietary Fiber
Europe - epidemiology
Female
Food - statistics & numerical data
Fruit
Humans
Male
Meat products
Middle Aged
Neoplasms - epidemiology - prevention & control
Prospective Studies
Vegetables
Abstract
We present the main findings observed to date from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) on dietary factors associated with the most frequent cancer sites. METHODS: EPIC is a multicentre prospective study carried out in 23 centres in 10 European countries: Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom, including 519,978 participants (366,521 women and 153,457 men), most aged 35-70 years. RESULTS: We observed the following significant associations: gastric cancer risk was inversely associated with high plasma vitamin C, some carotenoids, retinol and a-tocopherol, high intake of cereal fibre and high adhesion to Mediterranean diet, while red and processed meat were associated with increased risk. High intake of dietary fibre, fish, calcium, and plasma vitamin D were associated with a decreased risk of colorectal cancer, while red and processed meat intake, alcohol intake, body mass index (BMI) and abdominal obesity were associated with an increased risk. High intake of fruit and vegetables in current smokers were associated with a decreased risk of lung cancer. An increased risk of breast cancer was associated with high saturated fat intake and alcohol intake. In postmenopausal women, BMI was positively and physical activity negatively associated with breast cancer risk. High intake of dairy protein and calcium from dairy products and high serum concentration of IGF-I were associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer. These results contribute to scientific evidence for appropriate public health strategies and prevention activities aimed at reducing the global cancer burden.
PubMed ID
20843485 View in PubMed
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