Recreational facilities are an important community resource for health promotion because they provide access to affordable physical activities. However, despite their health mandate, many have unhealthy food environments that may paradoxically increase the risk of childhood obesity. The Alberta Nutrition Guidelines for Children and Youth (ANGCY) are government-initiated, voluntary guidelines intended to facilitate children's access to healthy food and beverage choices in schools, childcare and recreational facilities, however few recreational facilities are using them.
We used mixed methods within an exploratory multiple case study to examine factors that influenced adoption and implementation of the ANGCY and the nature of the food environment within three cases: an adopter, a semi-adopter and a non-adopter of the ANGCY. Diffusion of Innovations theory provided the theoretical platform for the study. Qualitative data were generated through interviews, observations, and document reviews, and were analysed using directed content analysis. Set theoretic logic was used to identify factors that differentiated adopters from the non-adopter. Quantitative sales data were also collected, and the quality of the food environment was scored using four complementary tools.
The keys to adoption and implementation of nutrition guidelines in recreational facilities related to the managers' nutrition-related knowledge, beliefs and perceptions, as these shaped his decisions and actions. The manager, however, could not accomplish adoption and implementation alone. Intersectoral linkages with schools and formal, health promoting partnerships with industry were also important for adoption and implementation to occur. The food environment in facilities that had adopted the ANGCY did not appear to be superior to the food environment in facilities that had not adopted the ANGCY.
ANGCY uptake may continue to falter under the current voluntary approach, as the environmental supports for voluntary action are poor. Where ANGCY uptake does occur, changes to the food environment may be relatively minor. Stronger government measures may be needed to require recreational facilities to improve their food environments and to limit availability of unhealthy foods.
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Our first objective was to determine the accuracy of information provided to customers in health food stores (HFS) in Canada. The second objective was to compare the accuracy of this information with that provided to customers in pharmacies.
Undergraduate students visited 192 HFS and 56 pharmacies, located across Canada. In approximately half of the stores, they asked whether a specific supplement would help to prevent a particular condition or enhance health in a particular way. In the rest of the stores, they asked for advice on particular health concerns.
On 88% of times that questions were asked in HFS, the recommendations made were either unscientific (6%) or were poorly supported by the scientific literature (82%). By contrast, this occurred for only 27% of visits to pharmacies (p
The data on of alimentary risk factors of osteoporosis have been observed. The frequency of decreased bone mineral density, vitamin and calcium diet content and sufficiency with vitamins evaluated by means of blood serum level determination among patients suffering from chronic diseases (of cardiovascular system, gastrointestinal tract, osteopenia and osteoporosis).
Traditionally, consumer food safety survey responses have been classified as either "right" or "wrong" and food handling practices that are associated with high risk of infection have been treated in the same way as practices with lower risks. In this study, a risk-based method for consumer food safety surveys has been developed, and HACCP (hazard analysis and critical control point) methodology was used for selecting relevant questions. We conducted a nationally representative Web-based survey (n = 2,008), and to fit the self-reported answers we adjusted a risk-based grading system originally developed for observational studies. The results of the survey were analyzed both with the traditional "right" and "wrong" classification and with the risk-based grading system. The results using the two methods were very different. Only 5 of the 10 most frequent food handling violations were among the 10 practices associated with the highest risk. These 10 practices dealt with different aspects of heat treatment (lacking or insufficient), whereas the majority of the most frequent violations involved storing food at room temperature for too long. Use of the risk-based grading system for survey responses gave a more realistic picture of risks associated with domestic food handling practices. The method highlighted important violations and minor errors, which are performed by most people and are not associated with significant risk. Surveys built on a HACCP-based approach with risk-based grading will contribute to a better understanding of domestic food handling practices and will be of great value for targeted information and educational activities.
A telephone survey was conducted to determine dietitians' views on nutraceuticals and functional foods.
Using systematic sampling with a random start, 238 names were drawn from the Dietitians of Canada membership. A survey instrument containing mostly open-ended questions and two pages of definitions was pretested and revised. Accurate description was used to analyze and summarize the data with a minimum of interpretation.
Of 180 dietitians contacted, 151 (84%) completed interviews. The majority (n=91, 60%) of respondents thought health claims should be permitted on foods, but only with adequate scientific support for claims and government regulation. Participants overwhelmingly (n=122, 81%) felt that dietitians were the most appropriate professionals to recommend functional foods, but held mixed views of the appropriateness of having dietitians recommend nutraceuticals. However, according to a rating scale of 0 to 10, respondents across all areas of practice believed that it is extremely important for dietitians to become knowledgeable about nutraceuticals (mean +/- standard deviation [SD] = 9.0 +/- 1.2) and functional foods (mean +/- SD = 9.5 +/- 0.9).
Dietitians recommended strict legislation and close monitoring by government; unbiased scientific studies with consensus that the findings support health claims; partnerships with other health professionals, especially pharmacists; and opportunities to gain further knowledge.
By studying carcass quality, expressed as affection, pathological findings, slaughter-weight and evaluation, a picture of an animal's health and potential as high quality food is achieved. This study compares the carcass quality in Swedish certified organic meat production with that of conventional meat production slaughtered during 1997. The study involves 3.9 million pigs, about 570,000 cattle and 190,000 sheep, all reared conventionally and 3483 pigs 4949 cattle and 4997 sheep reared according to organic standards. Pathological and additional findings are registered by meat inspectors from the Swedish National Food Administration at the post-mortem inspection. There was a significant difference at the post-mortem inspection of growing-fattening pigs; 28% of conventionally and 17% of the organically reared pigs had one or more registered lesion. The carcass evaluation of swine shows a higher meat percentage in conventional swine production. The total rate of registered abnormalities in cattle was systems around 28% from organic and 27% from conventionally reared herds. Carcass evaluation of cattle from organic herds gave higher classification in the EUROP system, whereas the fat content was lower than that of conventionally reared cattle. Sheep, reared both organically and conventionally, showed a lower rate of registered abnormalities than swine and cattle.
Collective kitchens are community-based cooking programs in which small groups of people cook large quantities of food. They have developed over the past 20 years, and hundreds of groups have been formed across the country. However, collective kitchens described in the literature vary considerably in structure, purpose, and format. The purpose of this review is to synthesize research on this topic.
Articles and theses were collected through searches of major databases, and synthesized to improve understanding of current information, and of continuing gaps in the knowledge of collective kitchens in Canada.
The limited published research on collective kitchens suggests that social and learning benefits are associated with participation. Some indication exists that participants also find the food cooked to be high quality, culturally acceptable, and acquired in a manner that maintains personal dignity. Whether collective kitchens have an impact on food resources as a whole is unclear, as research has been limited in scale.
The role of collective kitchens in community building and empowering participants often is noted, and bears further investigation. Dietitians and nutritionists have a unique opportunity to facilitate the health promotion and food security benefits of collective kitchens.