The number of older workers will expand during the next decades. Older workers have more long-term health problems and related limitations.
This study examined supportive actions provided in occupational healthcare services to older workers after vocational rehabilitation. An additional purpose was to explore occupational healthcare professionals' views on how to realize and improve adequate support activities.
Qualitative and quantitative methods were used, including a postal questionnaire and focus group discussions. Sixty-seven occupational healthcare service units participated in the postal questionnaire. Eight occupational healthcare professionals participated in two focus group discussions. The qualitative data was analyzed using qualitative content analysis.
The qualitative analysis resulted in one theme (Act with respect), and four categories (Need for cooperation, Collaborative resources of involved stakeholders, Individual needs for support, and Gender as homogenous and separate groups). Quantitative results revealed that the workers' initiative strongly influenced the support carried out. Recommendations from the rehabilitation clinic were almost always considered when deciding on supportive actions. Focus group discussions brought up gender differences especially highlighted in the category Gender as homogenous and separate groups.
Appropriate support of older workers requires cooperation between involved stakeholders, including occupational healthcare services. Provided support should be based on individual needs, but a mutual practice of determining needed support is requested.
The purpose of this study was to explore Arabic-speaking women´s experiences of communication at antenatal care in Sweden when using a tablet application (app).
The study is a part of a major research project, where a Swedish-Arabic app was developed to improve and facilitate communication between Arabic-speaking women and midwives. The first prototype was developed in 2017 and tested at six antenatal clinics in southeast of Sweden. Ten Arabic-speaking women were purposively recruited, and individual interviews were performed. Content analysis was used.
Four main categories emerged: "Adapting the content to the patient group", "language and communication", "user-friendly" and "improvement proposal". The women reported that the content was educational, reliable and understandable. The information gave the women a sense of security. It was time effective and allowed opportunity for dialogue. Depending on language skills, there were different opinions as to whether the App should be a complement to having an interpreter or used separately.
Arabic-speaking women perceived the App as being a communication tool despite their language skills in Swedish. There is a need for digital support for communication in maternity care.
Illicit drug use rates are high among Canadian youth, and are particularly pronounced in Northern Ontario. The availability and accessibility of effective substance use-related treatments and services are required to address this problem, especially among rural and remote Northern communities. In order to assess specific service and treatment needs, as well as barriers and deterrents to accessing and utilizing services and treatments for youth who use illicit drugs in Northern Ontario, we conducted the present study.
This study utilized a mixed-methods design and incorporated a community-based participatory research approach. Questionnaires were administered in conjunction with audio-recorded semi-structured interviews and/or focus groups with youth (aged 14-25) who live in Northern Ontario and use illicit drugs. Interviews with 'key informants' who work with the youth in each community were also conducted. Between August and December 2017, the research team traveled to Northern Ontario communities and carried out data collection procedures.
A total of 102 youth and 35 key informants from eleven different Northern Ontario communities were interviewed. The most commonly used drugs were prescription opioids, cocaine and crack-cocaine. Most participants experienced problems related to their drug use, and reported 'fair' mental and physical health status. Qualitative analyses highlighted an overall lack of services; barriers to accessing treatment and services included lack of motivation, stigmatization, long wait-lists and transportation/mobility issues. Articulated needs revolved around the necessity of harm reduction-based services, low-threshold programs, specialized programming, and peer-based counselling.
Although each community varied in terms of drug use behaviors and available services, an overall need for youth-specific, low-threshold services was identified. Information gathered from this study can be used to help inform rural and remote communities towards improving treatment and service system performance and provision.
Effective communication has been shown to be essential to physician-patient communication and may be even more critical for poison control center (PCC) calls because of the absence of visual cues, the need for quick and accurate information exchange, and possible suboptimal conditions such as call surges. Professionals who answer poison control calls typically receive extensive training in toxicology but very little formal training in communication.
An instrument was developed to assess the perceived need for communication training for specialists in poison information (SPIs) with input from focus groups and a panel of experts. Requests to respond to an online questionnaire were made to PCCs throughout the United States and Canada.
The 537 respondents were 70% SPIs or poison information providers (PIPs), primarily educated in nursing or pharmacy, working across the United States and Canada, and employed by their current centers an average of 10 years. SPIs rated communication skills as extremely important to securing positive outcomes for PCC calls even though they reported that their own training was not strongly focused on communication and existing training in communication was perceived as only moderately useful. Ratings of the usefulness of 21 specific training units were consistently high, especially for new SPIs but also for experienced SPIs. Directors rated the usefulness of training for experienced SPIs higher for 5 of the 21 challenges compared to the ratings of SPIs.
Findings support the need for communication training for SPIs and provide an empirical basis for setting priorities in developing training units.
SETTING: A study carried out in 1996 in four districts representing south and north as well as urban and rural areas of Vietnam. OBJECTIVE: To explore gender differences in knowledge, beliefs and attitudes towards tuberculosis and its treatment, and how these factors influence patients' compliance with treatment. DESIGN: Sixteen focus group discussions were performed by a multi-disciplinary research team from Vietnam and Sweden. Analysis was performed using modified Grounded Theory technique, specifically evaluating gender differences. RESULTS: Women were believed to be more compliant than men. Insufficient knowledge and individual cost during treatment were reported as main obstacles to compliance among men (poor patient compliance), while sensitivity to interaction with health staff and stigma in society (poor health staff and system compliance) were reported as the main obstacles among women. CONCLUSIONS: It is time to adopt a more comprehensive and gender-sensitive approach to compliance, which incorporates patient compliance, doctor compliance and system compliance, in order to fully support individual patients in their efforts to comply with treatment.
Peroperative Medicine and Intensive Care, Karolinska University Hospital, 17176 Stockholm, Sweden; Division of Nursing, Department of Neurobiology, Care Science and Society, Karolinska Institutet, 141 52 Stockholm, Sweden.
Patient participation in healthcare is important for optimizing treatment outcomes and for ensuring satisfaction with care. Therefore, this study aims to identify barriers to patient participation in the critical care unit, as identified by critical care nurses.
Qualitative data were collected in four focus group interviews with 17 nurses from two separate hospitals. The interviews were analyzed using qualitative content analysis.
The results show three main categories: nurse's attitude toward caring, the organization of the critical care unit and the patient's health condition.
Barriers for patient participation in the ICU were found and this lead to a power imbalance between patient and nurse. In contrast to other care settings, this imbalance could be a consequence of the critical care organization and its degree of highly specialized care. The clinical application of our results is that these barriers should be considered when implementing patient participation in such a highly technological care situation as a critical care unit.
Many countries of the world are characterized by the use of two or more languages, and qualitative research is usually conducted in indigenous languages; however, bilingual facilitators often do not have any experience in research studies or in conducting focus group discussions. This article presents a 4-day skill-training workshop for local facilitators in which they learn the role of moderator, recorder, and observer and acquire research skills during role playing and during a pretest of the study population. Developed over several years of field experience, this technique has proven successful in collecting reliable data in situations when time is limited, when participants speak indigenous languages, and when bilingual facilitators have no background in research and lack focus group skills. The advantages of this training are that it is low cost and fast and permits a careful translation of the data. Moreover, because facilitators are involved in the collecting and analyzing of the data, their input provides the investigator with a valuable understanding of the findings from an emic perspective.
To explore and describe the experiences of Norwegian intensive care unit nurses providing nurse-led follow-up to patients and their families.
The study had a qualitative design with a phenomenological approach. Three focus-group interviews were conducted with nurses on three intensive care units. Giorgi's phenomenological method guided the analysis.
The creation of meaning emerged as a general structure describing intensive care nurses' experiences of nurse-led follow-up. When caring for critically ill patients, nurses described becoming emotionally moved, which motivated them to perform nurse-led follow-up procedures, such as writing in patient diaries. A general wish to give context to the patients' time spent in intensive care emerged. When conducting nurse-led follow-up, the nurses made personal contributions, which could be emotionally challenging for them. Overall, nurse-led follow-up was found to increase nurses' insight into and motivation for their own practice.
The performance of nurse-led follow-up appears to be grounded in care for and engagement in individual patients and families. The nurses studied wanted to help patients and families to be able to handle their experiences during an intensive care stay. In addition, nurse-led follow-up gave meaning to the intensive care nurses' own practice.
Western societies' need for knowledge about how to meet the challenges in health care following increased immigration has emerged as studies have showed that non-Western immigrants tend to experience more obstacles to drug use and poorer communication with health professionals.
To identify the cultural barriers encountered by Norwegian community pharmacists in providing service to non-Western immigrant patients and to outline how they are being addressed.
Community pharmacies in Oslo, Norway.
A qualitative study consisting of four focus groups was conducted. In total 19 ethnic Norwegian pharmacists (17 female and 2 male; mean age: 40.6 years) participated. They were recruited from 13 pharmacies situated in areas of Oslo densely populated by non-Western immigrants. The audio-records of the focus group discussions were transcribed verbatim. A thematic content analysis was conducted. Main outcome measure Cultural barriers identified by Norwegian community pharmacists in the encounter with non-Western immigrants.
All the pharmacists were in contact with non-Western immigrant patients on a daily basis. They said that they found it challenging to provide adequate service to these patients, and that the presence of language as well as other cultural barriers not only affected what the patients got out of the available information, but also to a great extent what kind of and how much information was provided. Although the pharmacists felt that immigrant patients were in great need of drug counselling, there were large disparities in how much effort was exerted in order to provide this service. They were all uncomfortable with situations where family or friends acted as interpreters, especially children. Otherwise, cultural barriers were related to differences in body language and clothing which they thought distracted the communication. All the pharmacists stated that they had patients asking about the content of pork gelatin in medicines, but few said that they habitually notified the patients of this unless they were asked directly. Ramadan fasting was not identified as a subject during drug counselling.
This focus group study shows that language and other cultural barriers, including differences in body language, non-Western gender roles, and all-covering garments, are of great concern for ethnic Norwegian community pharmacists in the encounter with non-Western immigrant patients. Although the pharmacists recognise their role as drug information providers for immigrant patients, large disparities were detected with respect to kind of and amount of information provided to these patients.