In Finland, berries are part of the traditional diet significantly contributing to the intake of flavonoids and other phenolic compounds. Compositional data on phenolic compounds in berries has been rapidly accumulating and included in the national food composition database. Among the different bioactive substances in berries, phenolic compounds including flavonoids, tannins, and phenolic acids have received considerable interest due to their effects in food and health. A great amount of in vitro evidence exists showing that berry phenolics are powerful antioxidants. However, the antioxidant effect of berry phenolics is strongly dependent on the choice of berry raw material, as the antioxidant activity differs between the different phenolic constituents, including anthocyanins, ellagitannins, and proanthocyanidins. In foods, the antioxidant effect is also influenced by the structure of food. Tannin-containing berries exhibit antimicrobial properties against pathogenic bacteria, thus offering many new applications for food industry. Much of the interest in berry phenolics has focused on cranberries and both cultivated and wild blueberries, although also other berries including black currants, cloudberries, lingonberries, and red raspberries possess promising bioactivities that may have relevance to human health. Antioxidant activity of berry phenolics, in addition to other mechanisms, may contribute to human health, but the possible relationship remains yet to be scientifically substantiated.
The aim of this study was to compare the clinical acceptability of two dose regimens of micronized purified flavonoid fraction (MPFF): a single 1000 mg tablet once daily versus 500 mg twice daily in patients suffering from chronic venous disease (CVD).
In an international, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group study, 174 patients (Clinical Etiological Anatomic Pathophysiologic [CEAP] class C0s to C4) were randomized to MPFF 1000 mg once daily or MPFF 500 mg twice daily for 8 weeks. Adverse events (AEs) were recorded in patient-kept diaries (weeks 0, 2, 4, 8) and leg pain was assessed using a Visual Analog Scale (VAS).
No serious AEs occurred. A total of 30 treatment-emergent adverse events (EAE) were reported (15 in each group). Three treatment-EAE in the MPFF 1000 mg group (constipation, dyspepsia, allergic dermatitis) were considered by the investigator to be related to treatment. All were of mild intensity and resolved when treatment finished. Both MPFF regimens were associated with a significant reduction in leg pain score with a reduction of 4.21 cm for MPFF 1000 mg once daily (P
Flavonoids are effective antioxidants and, in theory, may provide protection against cancer, although direct human evidence of this is scarce. The relation between the intake of antioxidant flavonoids and subsequent risk of cancer was studied among 9,959 Finnish men and women aged 15-99 years and initially cancer free. Food consumption was estimated by the dietary history method, covering the total habitual diet during the previous year. During a follow-up in 1967-1991, 997 cancer cases and 151 lung cancer cases were diagnosed. An inverse association was observed between the intake of flavonoids and incidence of all sites of cancer combined. The sex- and age-adjusted relative risk of all sites of cancer combined between the highest and lowest quartiles of flavonoid intake was 0.80 (95% confidence interval 0.67-0.96). This association was mainly a result of lung cancer, which presented a corresponding relative risk of 0.54 (95% confidence interval 0.34-0.87). The association between flavonoid intake and lung cancer incidence was not due to the intake of antioxidant vitamins or other potential confounding factors, as adjustment for factors such as smoking and intakes of energy, vitamin E, vitamin C, and beta-carotene did not materially alter the results. The association was strongest in persons under 50 years of age and in nonsmokers with relative risks of 0.33 (95% confidence interval 0.15-0.77) and 0.13 (95% confidence interval 0.03-0.58), respectively. Of the major dietary flavonoid sources, the consumption of apples showed an inverse association with lung cancer incidence, with a relative risk of 0.42 (95% confidence interval 0.23-0.76) after adjustment for the intake of other fruits and vegetables. The results are in line with the hypothesis that flavonoid intake in some circumstances may be involved in the cancer process, resulting in lowered risks.
Phenolic acids, flavonoids, proanthocyanidins, and ellagitannins are polyphenols that may have beneficial effects on human health and provide protection against chronic diseases. To date, limited data exist on quantitative intake of polyphenols. The aims of this study were to estimate the quantitative intakes of polyphenols by using analyzed concentrations together with individual food consumption records and to determine major dietary sources. Analyzed concentrations of phenolic acids, anthocyanidins, and other flavonoids, proanthocyanidins, and ellagitannins (44 total polyphenol compounds) were entered into the national food composition database, Fineli. The absolute intakes of the polyphenols and the corresponding food sources were calculated on the basis of 48-h dietary recalls of 2007 Finnish adults. The mean total intake of polyphenols was 863 +/- 415 mg/d. Phenolic acids comprised the dominant group of polyphenols (75% of total intake) followed by proanthocyanidins (14%) and anthocyanidins and other flavonoids (10%). Due to their high consumption and high concentrations of phenolic acids, coffee and cereals were the main contributors to total polyphenol intake. Berries and berry products were the main source for anthocyanidins, ellagitannins, and proanthocyanidins, and fruits were the main source for flavonols, flavones, and flavanones. The results give additional support to the recommendations for a varied diet with fruits, berries, cereals, and vegetables.
Dietary phytoestrogens are not associated with risk of overall breast cancer but diets rich in coumestrol are inversely associated with risk of estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor negative breast tumors in Swedish women.
Results from epidemiological and experimental studies indicate that phytoestrogens may protect against breast cancer. Because one of the biological effects of phytoestrogens is probably estrogenic, it's possible that the preventive effect on breast cancer differs by estrogen receptor (ER) or progesterone receptor (PR) status of the tumor. We evaluated the associations between dietary phytoestrogen (isoflavonoids, lignans, and coumestrol) intake and risk of breast cancer and whether the ER/PR statuses of the tumor influence this relationship. In 1991-2 a prospective population-based cohort study among Swedish pre- and postmenopausal women was performed, making questionnaire data available for 45,448 women. A total of 1014 invasive breast cancers were diagnosed until December 2004. Cox proportional hazards models were performed to estimate multivariate risk ratios, 95% CI for associations with risk of breast cancer. Intakes of lignan, isoflavonoid, or coumestrol were not associated with breast cancer risk overall or before or after 50 y of age. The effects of lignans or isoflavonoids were independent of receptor status. However, intake of coumestrol was associated with decreased risk of receptor negative tumors (ER-PR-) but not positive tumors. The risk of ER-PR- tumors was significantly lower (50%) in women with intermediate coumestrol intake compared with those who did not consume any. In conclusion, we found no association between intake of isoflavonoids or lignans and breast cancer risk. Our results of a decreased risk of ER-PR- tumors in women with intermediate intake of coumestrol could be due to chance because of the low intake. The results should be confirmed in other studies.
The dose-dependent hypocholesterolemic and antiatherogenic effects of dietary apple polyphenol (AP) from unripe apple, which contains approximately 85% catechin oligomers (procyanidins), were examined in male Sprague-Dawley rats (4 wk of age) given a purified diet containing 0.5% cholesterol. Dietary AP at 0.5 and 1.0% levels significantly decreased the liver cholesterol level compared with that in the control (AP-free diet-fed) group. Dietary AP also significantly lowered the serum cholesterol level compared with that in the control group. However, the HDL cholesterol level was significantly higher in the 1.0% AP-fed group than in the control group. Accordingly, the ratio of HDL-cholesterol/total cholesterol was significantly higher in the 0.5% AP-fed group and 1.0% AP-fed group than in the control group. Moreover, the atherogenic indices in the 0.5 and 1.0% AP-fed groups were significantly lower than those in the control group. The activity of hepatic cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase tended to be increased by dietary AP in a dose-dependent manner. In accord with this observation, dietary AP increased the excretion of acidic steroids in feces. Dietary AP also significantly promoted the fecal excretion of neutral steroids in a dose-dependent manner. These observations suggest that dietary AP at a 0.5 or 1.0% level exerts hypocholesterolemic and antiatherogenic effects through the promotion of cholesterol catabolism and inhibition of intestinal absorption of cholesterol.
Green tea biocomposite had effectivey hampered the growth of rat Walker W-256 carcinoma and in less extent rat Guerin's carcinoma. Black tea biocomposite had not practically influenced on Guerin's carcinoma growth. The biocomposite from green tea and extract from red vine rind and lemon suppressed at the level of tendency the growth of rat Walker W-256 carcinoma. The biocomposite from green tea and extract from red vine rind had hampered only Guerin's carcinoma growth and at the tendency had increased the growth of W-256 carcinosarcoma growth. This biocomposite increased also considerably the therapeutic efficiency of cisplatin on Guerin's carcinoma. Studed vegetable biocomposites posesses antiinflammatory and antioxidant properties.
Fish, vitamin D, flavonoids, and flavonoid-containing foods may have cardiovascular benefits and therefore may also reduce the risk of renal cell cancer. Risk was prospectively assessed in the Alpha-Tocopherol Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study (1985-2002) cohort (N = 27,111; 15.2 mean person-years of follow-up). At enrollment, demographic, health, and dietary history information was recorded. Individuals who smoked less than 5 cigarettes/day, with chronic renal insufficiency or prior cancer, were excluded. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals from Cox regression were used to compare upper quartiles (quartiles 2-4) with the lowest quartile (quartile 1) of dietary intake. Among 228 cases, risk (quartile 4 vs. quartile 1) was associated with consumption of the flavonoid quercetin (hazard ratio = 0.6, 95% confidence interval: 0.4, 0.9; P(trend) = 0.015) and Baltic herring (hazard ratio = 2.0, 95% confidence interval: 1.4, 3.0; P(trend)
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To study the association between dietary intake of flavonoids and subsequent coronary mortality.
A cohort study based on data collected at the Finnish mobile clinic health examination survey from 1967-72 and followed up until 1992.
30 communities from different parts of Finland.
5133 Finnish men and women aged 30-69 years and free from heart disease at baseline.
Dietary intake of flavonoids, total mortality, and coronary mortality.
In women a significant inverse gradient was observed between dietary intake of flavonoids and total and coronary mortality. The relative risks between highest and lowest quarters of flavonoid intake adjusted for age, smoking, serum cholesterol concentration, blood pressure, and body mass index were 0.69 (95% confidence interval 0.53 to 0.90) and 0.54 (0.33 to 0.87) for total and coronary mortality, respectively. The corresponding values for men were 0.76 (0.63 to 0.93) and 0.78 (0.56 to 1.08), respectively. Adjustment for intake of antioxidant vitamins and fatty acids weakened the associations for women; the relative risks for coronary heart disease were 0.73 (0.41 to 1.32) and 0.67 (0.44 to 1.00) in women and men, respectively. Intakes of onions and apples, the main dietary sources of flavonoids, presented similar associations. The relative risks for coronary mortality between highest and lowest quarters of apple intake were 0.57 (0.36 to 0.91) and 0.81 (0.61 to 1.09) for women and men, respectively. The corresponding values for onions were 0.50 (0.30 to 0.82) and 0.74 (0.53 to 1.02), respectively.
The results suggest that people with very low intakes of flavonoids have higher risks of coronary disease.
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Nutritional Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Department of Health and Human Services, 6120 Executive Boulevard, Room 3022, Rockville, MD 20852-7232, USA.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2008 Mar;17(3):553-62
Extending research on the protective effect of flavonoids in cell culture and animal studies, we examined the association between consumption of flavonoids and flavonoid-rich foods and development of exocrine pancreatic cancer within the alpha-Tocopherol, beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study cohort. Of the 27,111 healthy male smokers (50-69 years) who completed a self-administered dietary questionnaire at baseline, 306 developed exocrine pancreatic cancer during follow-up (1985-2004; median, 16.1 years). Intakes of total flavonoids, three flavonoid subgroups, seven individual flavonoids, and flavonoid-rich foods were estimated from a validated food frequency questionnaire. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. Overall, flavonoid intake was not significantly associated with pancreatic cancer. However, in stratified analysis, greater total flavonoid intake was associated with decreased pancreatic cancer risk in participants randomized during the trial to placebo (fourth versus first quartile: hazard ratio, 0.36; 95% confidence interval, 0.17-0.78; P trend = 0.009) and not to supplemental alpha-tocopherol (50 mg/d) and/or beta-carotene (20 mg/d; P interaction = 0.002). Similar patterns and significant interactions were observed for flavonols, flavan-3-ols, kaempferol, quercetin, catechin, and epicatechin. Our data suggest that a flavonoid-rich diet may decrease pancreatic cancer risk in male smokers not consuming supplemental alpha-tocopherol and/or beta-carotene.