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45 records – page 1 of 5.

Abundance of actinobacteria and production of geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol in Danish streams and fish ponds.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature83047
Source
FEMS Microbiol Ecol. 2005 Apr 1;52(2):265-78
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-1-2005
Author
Klausen Cecilie
Nicolaisen Mette H
Strobel Bjarne W
Warnecke Falk
Nielsen Jeppe L
Jørgensen Niels O G
Author Affiliation
Department of Ecology, Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Thorvaldsensvej 40, DK-1871 Frederiksberg, Denmark.
Source
FEMS Microbiol Ecol. 2005 Apr 1;52(2):265-78
Date
Apr-1-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Actinobacteria - genetics - isolation & purification - metabolism
Animals
Aquaculture
Bornanes - analysis - metabolism
Denmark
Fishes - physiology
Fresh Water - chemistry - microbiology
Naphthols - analysis - metabolism
Nitrogen - analysis - metabolism
Seasons
Abstract
Occurrence of the odours geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol (MIB) in freshwater environments indicates that odour-producing organisms are commonly occurring. In the present study, we assumed actinomycetes to be a major source of the odours. Seasonal concentrations of odours and abundance of Actinobacteria, which includes actinomycetes and other G+ and high GC bacteria, were determined in one oligotrophic and two eutrophic freshwater streams, as well as in aquacultures connected to these streams, in Denmark. Concentrations of geosmin and MIB ranged from 2 to 9 ng l(-1) and were lowest in the winter. Passage of stream water in the aquacultures increased the amount of geosmin and MIB by up to 55% and 110%, respectively. Densities of actinobacteria were determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization with catalyzed reporter deposition (CARD-FISH) technique and were found to make up from 4 to 38 x 10(7) cells l(-1), corresponding to 3-9% of the total bacterial populations. The lowest densities of actinobacteria occurred in the winter. Filamentous bacteria targeted by the FISH probe made up about 2.7-38% (average was 22%) of the actinobacteria and were expected to be actinomycetes. Combined microautoradiography and CARD-FISH demonstrated that 10-38% (incorporation of 3H-thymidine) and 41-65% (incorporation of 3H-leucine) of the actinobacteria were metabolically active. The proportion of active actinobacteria increased up to 2-fold during passage of stream water in the aquacultures, and up to 98% of the cells became active. Sequencing of 16S rRNA genes in 8 bacterial isolates with typical actinomycete morphology from the streams and ponds demonstrated that most of them belonged to the genus Streptomyces. The isolated actinomycetes produced geosmin at rates from 0.1 to 35 aggeosmin bacterium(-1)h(-1). MIB was produced at similar rates in 5 isolates, whereas no MIB was produced by three of the isolates. Addition of the odours to stream water demonstrated that indigenous stream bacteria were capable of reducing the odours, and that enrichment with LB medium stimulated the degradation. Our study shows that bacterial communities in freshwater include geosmin- and MIB-producing actinobacteria. However, the mechanisms controlling production as well as degradation of the odours in natural waters appear complex and require further research.
PubMed ID
16329912 View in PubMed
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Accumulated state of the Yukon River watershed: part I critical review of literature.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature121234
Source
Integr Environ Assess Manag. 2013 Jul;9(3):426-38
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2013
Author
Monique G Dubé
Breda Muldoon
Julie Wilson
Karonhiakta'tie Bryan Maracle
Author Affiliation
Canadian Rivers Institute, University of New Brunswick, Alberta, Canada. Dub.mon@hotmail.com
Source
Integr Environ Assess Manag. 2013 Jul;9(3):426-38
Date
Jul-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alaska - epidemiology
Animal Migration
Animals
British Columbia - epidemiology
Climate change
Environment
Environmental Monitoring - methods
Fish Diseases - epidemiology - microbiology - parasitology
Fishes - physiology
Fresh Water - analysis - microbiology - parasitology
Humans
Neoplasms - chemically induced - epidemiology
Seasons
Water Movements
Water Pollutants, Chemical - analysis - metabolism - toxicity
Water Quality
Yukon Territory - epidemiology
Abstract
A consistent methodology for assessing the accumulating effects of natural and manmade change on riverine systems has not been developed for a whole host of reasons including a lack of data, disagreement over core elements to consider, and complexity. Accumulated state assessments of aquatic systems is an integral component of watershed cumulative effects assessment. The Yukon River is the largest free flowing river in the world and is the fourth largest drainage basin in North America, draining 855,000 km(2) in Canada and the United States. Because of its remote location, it is considered pristine but little is known about its cumulative state. This review identified 7 "hot spot" areas in the Yukon River Basin including Lake Laberge, Yukon River at Dawson City, the Charley and Yukon River confluence, Porcupine and Yukon River confluence, Yukon River at the Dalton Highway Bridge, Tolovana River near Tolovana, and Tanana River at Fairbanks. Climate change, natural stressors, and anthropogenic stresses have resulted in accumulating changes including measurable levels of contaminants in surface waters and fish tissues, fish and human disease, changes in surface hydrology, as well as shifts in biogeochemical loads. This article is the first integrated accumulated state assessment for the Yukon River basin based on a literature review. It is the first part of a 2-part series. The second article (Dubé et al. 2013a, this issue) is a quantitative accumulated state assessment of the Yukon River Basin where hot spots and hot moments are assessed outside of a "normal" range of variability.
PubMed ID
22927161 View in PubMed
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The adaptation of polar fishes to climatic changes: Structure, function and phylogeny of haemoglobin.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature86911
Source
IUBMB Life. 2008 Jan;60(1):29-40
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2008
Author
Verde Cinzia
Giordano Daniela
di Prisco Guido
Author Affiliation
Institute of Protein Biochemistry, CNR, Via Pietro Castellino 111, Naples, Italy.
Source
IUBMB Life. 2008 Jan;60(1):29-40
Date
Jan-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adaptation, Physiological
Animals
Antarctic Regions
Antifreeze Proteins - genetics
Arctic Regions
Cold Climate
Evolution, Molecular
Fishes - physiology
Hemoglobins - chemistry - genetics - physiology
Oxygen - blood
Phylogeny
Abstract
In the Antarctic, fishes of dominant suborder Notothenioidei have evolved in a unique thermal scenario. Phylogenetically related taxa of the suborder live in a wide range of latitudes, in Antarctic, sub-Antarctic and temperate oceans. Consequently, they offer a remarkable opportunity to study the physiological and biochemical characters gained and, conversely, lost during their evolutionary history. The evolutionary perspective has also been pursued by comparative studies of some features of the heme protein devoted to O(2) transport in fish living in the other polar region, the Arctic. The two polar regions differ by age and isolation. Fish living in each habitat have undergone regional constraints and fit into different evolutionary histories. The aim of this contribution is to survey the current knowledge of molecular structure, functional features, phylogeny and adaptations of the haemoglobins of fish thriving in the Antarctic, sub-Antarctic and Arctic regions (with some excursions in the temperate latitudes), in search of insights into the convergent processes evolved in response to cooling. Current climate change may disturb adaptation, calling for strategies aimed at neutralising threats to biodiversity.
PubMed ID
18379990 View in PubMed
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Adsorption inhibition as a mechanism of freezing resistance in polar fishes.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature46812
Source
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1977 Jun;74(6):2589-93
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-1977
Author
J A Raymond
A L DeVries
Source
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1977 Jun;74(6):2589-93
Date
Jun-1977
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acclimatization
Adsorption
Animals
Blood Proteins - physiology
Cold Climate
Fishes - physiology
Freezing
Glycoproteins - blood
Kinetics
Microscopy, Electron, Scanning
Molecular Weight
Protein Conformation
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
Species Specificity
Abstract
Polar fishes are known to have serum proteins and glycoproteins that protect them from freezing, by a noncolligative process. Measurements of antifreeze concentrations in ice and scanning electron micrographs of freeze-dried antifreeze solutions indicate that the antifreezes are incorporated in ice during freezing. The antifreezes also have a pronounced effect on the crystal habit of ice grown in their presence. Each of four antifreezes investigated caused ice to grow in long needles whose axes were parallel to the ice c axis. Together these results indicate the antifreezes adsorb to ice surfaces and inhibit their growth. A model in which adsorbed antifreezes raise the curvature of growth steps on the ice surface is proposed to account for the observed depression of the temperature at which freezing occurs and agrees well with experimental observations. The model is similar to one previously proposed for other cases of crystal growth inhibition.
PubMed ID
267952 View in PubMed
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Alaska fish adjust to climate change by following the food.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature266474
Source
Mar Pollut Bull. 2015 Feb 15;91(1):11
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-15-2015
Source
Mar Pollut Bull. 2015 Feb 15;91(1):11
Date
Feb-15-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alaska
Animals
Climate change
Feeding Behavior
Fishes - physiology
PubMed ID
25806382 View in PubMed
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Aluminum smelter-derived polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and flatfish health in the Kitimat marine ecosystem, British Columbia, Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature265910
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2015 Apr 15;512-513:227-39
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-15-2015
Author
Lyndal L Johnson
Gina M Ylitalo
Mark S Myers
Bernadita F Anulacion
Jon Buzitis
Tracy K Collier
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2015 Apr 15;512-513:227-39
Date
Apr-15-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aluminum
Animals
British Columbia
Ecosystem
Environmental monitoring
Fishes - physiology
Metallurgy
Polycyclic Hydrocarbons, Aromatic - analysis - metabolism
Water Pollutants, Chemical - analysis - metabolism
Abstract
From 2000-2004 a monitoring study was conducted to evaluate the impacts of aluminum smelter-derived polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on the health of fish in the marine waters of Kitimat, British Columbia, Canada. These waters are part of the historical fishing grounds of the Haisla First Nation, and since the 1950s the Alcan Primary Metal Company has operated an aluminum smelter at the head of the Kitimat Arm embayment. As a result, adjacent marine and estuarine sediments have been severely contaminated with a mixture of smelter-associated PAHs in the range of 10,000-100,000 ng/g dry wt. These concentrations are above those shown to cause adverse effects in fish exposed to PAHs in urban estuaries, but it was uncertain whether comparable effects would be seen at the Kitimat site due to limited bioavailability of smelter-derived PAHs. Over the 5-year study we conducted biennial collections of adult English sole (Parophrys vetulus) and sediment samples at the corresponding capture sites. Various tissue samples (e.g. liver, kidney, gonad, stomach contents) and bile were taken from each animal to determine levels of exposure and biological effects, and compare the uptake and toxicity of smelter-derived PAHs with urban mixtures of PAHs. Results showed significant intersite differences in concentrations of PAHs. Sole collected at sites nearest the smelter showed increased PAH exposure, as well as significantly higher prevalences of PAH-associated liver disease, compared to sites within Kitimat Arm that were more distant from the smelter. However, measures of PAH exposure (e.g., bile metabolites) were surprisingly high in sole from the reference sites outside of Kitimat Arm, though sediment and dietary PAHs at these sites were low, and fish from the areas showed no biological injury. PAH uptake, exposure, and biological effects in Kitimat English sole were relatively lower when compared to English sole collected from urban sites contaminated with PAH mixtures from other sources. These findings indicate that while smelter-associated PAHs in Kitimat Arm appear to be causing some injury to marine resources, they likely have reduced bioavailability, and thus reduced biological toxicity, compared to other environmental PAH mixtures.
PubMed ID
25625635 View in PubMed
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Assessing the effects of climate change on aquatic invasive species.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature95522
Source
Conserv Biol. 2008 Jun;22(3):521-33
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2008
Author
Rahel Frank J
Olden Julian D
Author Affiliation
Department of Zoology and Physiology, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071, USA. frahel@uwyo.edu
Source
Conserv Biol. 2008 Jun;22(3):521-33
Date
Jun-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Climate
Conservation of Natural Resources
Demography
Ecosystem
Environmental monitoring
Fishes - physiology
Greenhouse Effect
Invertebrates - physiology
Plants
Sodium Chloride - chemistry
Temperature
Water - chemistry
Abstract
Different components of global environmental change are typically studied and managed independently, although there is a growing recognition that multiple drivers often interact in complex and nonadditive ways. We present a conceptual framework and empirical review of the interactive effects of climate change and invasive species in freshwater ecosystems. Climate change is expected to result in warmer water temperatures, shorter duration of ice cover, altered streamflow patterns, increased salinization, and increased demand for water storage and conveyance structures. These changes will alter the pathways by which non-native species enter aquatic systems by expanding fish-culture facilities and water gardens to new areas and by facilitating the spread of species during floods. Climate change will influence the likelihood of new species becoming established by eliminating cold temperatures or winter hypoxia that currently prevent survival and by increasing the construction of reservoirs that serve as hotspots for invasive species. Climate change will modify the ecological impacts of invasive species by enhancing their competitive and predatory effects on native species and by increasing the virulence of some diseases. As a result of climate change, new prevention and control strategies such as barrier construction or removal efforts may be needed to control invasive species that currently have only moderate effects or that are limited by seasonally unfavorable conditions. Although most researchers focus on how climate change will increase the number and severity of invasions, some invasive coldwater species may be unable to persist under the new climate conditions. Our findings highlight the complex interactions between climate change and invasive species that will influence how aquatic ecosystems and their biota will respond to novel environmental conditions.
PubMed ID
18577081 View in PubMed
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Assessing vessel slowdown for reducing auditory masking for marine mammals and fish of the western Canadian Arctic.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature296514
Source
Mar Pollut Bull. 2018 Oct; 135:290-302
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Oct-2018
Author
Matthew K Pine
David E Hannay
Stephen J Insley
William D Halliday
Francis Juanes
Author Affiliation
Department of Biology, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, Canada; Wildlife Conservation Society Canada, Whitehorse, Yukon, Canada. Electronic address: mattpine@uvic.ca.
Source
Mar Pollut Bull. 2018 Oct; 135:290-302
Date
Oct-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Animals
Arctic Regions
Canada
Ecosystem
Fishes - physiology
Mammals - physiology
Noise
Ships
Abstract
Vessel slowdown may be an alternative mitigation option in regions where re-routing shipping corridors to avoid important marine mammal habitat is not possible. We investigated the potential relief in masking in marine mammals and fish from a 10 knot speed reduction of container and cruise ships. The mitigation effect from slower vessels was not equal between ambient sound conditions, species or vessel-type. Under quiet ambient conditions, a speed reduction from 25 to 15 knots resulted in smaller listening space reductions by 16-23%, 10-18%, 1-2%, 5-8% and 8% respectively for belugas, bowheads, bearded seals, ringed seals, and fish, depending on vessel-type. However, under noisy conditions, those savings were between 9 and 19% more, depending on the species. This was due to the differences in species' hearing sensitivities and the low ambient sound levels measured in the study region. Vessel slowdown could be an effective mitigation strategy for reducing masking.
PubMed ID
30301040 View in PubMed
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Catchment vegetation and temperature mediating trophic interactions and production in plankton communities.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature282411
Source
PLoS One. 2017;12(4):e0174904
Publication Type
Article
Date
2017
Author
Anders G Finstad
Erlend B Nilsen
Ditte K Hendrichsen
Niels Martin Schmidt
Source
PLoS One. 2017;12(4):e0174904
Date
2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Arctic Regions
Bayes Theorem
Climate change
Ecosystem
Fishes - physiology
Food chain
Lakes
Models, Biological
Phytoplankton - growth & development - physiology
Plankton - growth & development - physiology
Temperature
Zooplankton - growth & development - physiology
Abstract
Climatic factors influence the interactions among trophic levels in an ecosystem in multiple ways. However, whereas most studies focus on single factors in isolation, mainly due to interrelation and correlation among drivers complicating interpretation and analyses, there are still only few studies on how multiple ecosystems respond to climate related factors at the same time. Here, we use a hierarchical Bayesian model with a bioenergetic predator-prey framework to study how different climatic factors affect trophic interactions and production in small Arctic lakes. Natural variation in temperature and catchment land-cover was used as a natural experiment to exemplify how interactions between and production of primary producers (phytoplankton) and grazers (zooplankton) are driven by direct (temperature) and indirect (catchment vegetation) factors, as well as the presence or absence of apex predators (fish). The results show that increased vegetation cover increased phytoplankton growth rate by mediating lake nutrient concentration. At the same time, increased temperature also increased grazing rates by zooplankton. Presence of fish increased zooplankton mortality rates, thus reducing grazing. The Arctic is currently experiencing an increase in both temperature and shrub vegetation cover due to climate change, a trend, which is likely to continue. Our results point towards a possible future general weakening of zooplankton grazing on phytoplankton and greening of arctic lakes with increasing temperatures. At the same time, the impact of the presence of an apex predator indicate considerable local variation in the response. This makes direction and strength of global change impacts difficult to forecast.
Notes
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PubMed ID
28414736 View in PubMed
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Characteristics of the energy metabolism of the White Sea herring Clupea pallasii marisalbi Berg (Clupeiformes, Clupeidae) of Onega Bay, Dvina Bay, and Kandalaksha Bay of the White Sea.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature279960
Source
Dokl Biol Sci. 2016 Jul;469(1):173-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2016
Author
N N Nemova
O V Meshcheryakova
M V Churova
S A Murzina
Source
Dokl Biol Sci. 2016 Jul;469(1):173-7
Date
Jul-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Carbohydrate Metabolism - physiology
Energy Metabolism - physiology
Fish Proteins - metabolism
Fishes - physiology
Oceans and Seas
Russia
Abstract
The activity of the enzymes of the energy and carbohydrate metabolisms (cytochrome-c oxidase, L-lactate dehydrogenase, aldolase, and glycerol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase) have been studied in White Sea herring (the 1+, 2+, and 3+ age groups) sampled in Onega Bay, Dvina Bay, and Kandalaksha Bay of the White Sea. The bays differ in the hydrological regime, ecological and feeding conditions. The individual variability of the enzyme activity was the largest in the herring of the age 1+. The flexibility of the intensity and vector of the basic metabolic reactions probably supports the energy homeostasis, preconditions the switching to the most effective way of using the resources, and regulates the synthesis of the structural and storage molecules, as well as vectors the adaptation strategy of herring specimens of each age group to the hydrological regime, environment, and feeding conditions of the particular bay, corresponding to their age-related characteristics.
PubMed ID
27595825 View in PubMed
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45 records – page 1 of 5.