Accumulation of artificial and natural radionuclides in the chains of food webs leading to non-predatory and piscivorous fish of the Yenisei River was investigated during one year before and three years after the shutdown of a nuclear power plant at the Mining-and-Chemical Combine (2009-2012). The activity of artificial radionuclides in the samples of biota ofthe Yenisei River (aquatic moss, gammarids, dace, grayling, pike) was estimated. The concentration of radionuclides with induced activity (51Cr, 54Mn, 58Co, 60Co, 65Zn, 141, 144Ce, 152, 154Eu, 239Np) decreased in the biomass of biota after the shutdown of the nuclear power plant; the concentration of 137Cs did not. Analysis of the accumulation factors (C(F)) allows us to expect the effective accumulation of 137Cs in the terminal level of the food web of the Yenisei River--pike (C(F) = 2.0-9.4), i.e. biomagnifications of radiocesium. Accumulation of artificial, radionuclides in non-predatory fish from gammarids was not effective (C(F)
In the eutrophicated Baltic Sea, several naturally produced hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs) have been found in marine biota. OH-PBDEs are toxic to adult and developing zebrafish and shown to be potent disruptors of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Disturbed OXPHOS can result in altered energy metabolism and weight loss. In herring, the concentration of OH-PBDEs (i.e. 2'-OH-BDE68 and 6-OH-BDE47) has increased during the period 1980-2010 in the Baltic Proper. Over the same time period, the condition and fat content in Baltic herring have decreased. Given the toxicity and increasing trends of OH-PBDEs in Baltic herring it is important to further assess the exposure to OH-PBDEs in Baltic herring. In this study, the concentrations of OH-PBDEs and related brominated substances i.e. polybrominated phenols (PBPs), polybrominated anisoles (PBAs), methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were measured in herring sampled in the northern Baltic Proper (Askö, n = 12) and the southern Bothnian Sea (Ängskärsklubb, n = 12). The geometric mean (GM) concentrations (ng/g l.w.) at Askö and Ängskärsklubb were; S2PBPs: 4.3 and 9.6, S(2)PBAs: 34 and 20, S(6)OH-PBDEs: 9.4 and 10, S(7)MeO-PBDEs: 42 and 150, S(6)PBDEs: 54 and 27, respectively. 6-OH-BDE47 dominated the OH-PBDE profile and comprised 87% (Askö) and 91% (Ängskärsklubb) of the SOH-PBDEs. At Ängskärsklubb the mean concentration of SMeO-PBDEs (150 ng/g l.w.) was 15 times higher than SOH-PBDEs. As other fish species are known to metabolically transform MeO-PBDEs to OH-PBDEs, high levels of MeO-PBDEs can be of concern as a precursor for more toxic OH-PBDEs in herring and their roe.
The influence of two food types, Boreogadus saida (Bs) and crustaceans (Cr), on the osmolality, ion concentrations, antifreeze activity and antifreeze glycoprotein (AFGP) distribution in the gastrointestinal fluids of the Arctic gadoid Arctogadus glacialis was determined. The gastrointestinal fluids were hyperosmotic to serum but no significant differences in osmolality were found between the two food types. The food type significantly affected the antifreeze activity of the mid-gut fluids. The hysteresis freezing points, -3.27+/-0.30 degrees C and -2.44+/-0.11 degrees C for B. saida and crustaceans, respectively, were significantly lower than that of serum (-1.99+/-0.07 degrees C). Furthermore, an exceptionally large thermal hysteresis ranging from 1.47+/-0.19 degrees C to 2.04+/-0.30 degrees C was observed in the intestinal fluids of fish feeding on B. saida. Native gel electrophoresis revealed that the gastrointestinal fluids contained AFGPs in all the different size groups. However, differences in band intensities for the two food types suggest that the ingested food has an influence on the concentration of the different AFGP-sizes in these fluids. A decrease in band intensities combined with a drop in thermal hysteresis from mid-gut to hind-gut fluid suggests that absorption of AFGP or possibly degradation occur during digestion.
Bocock Chair for Agriculture and the Environment, Department of Renewable Resources, University of Alberta, 348B South Academic Building, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2H1, Canada. Electronic address: email@example.com.
Sci Total Environ. 2019 Feb 10; 650(Pt 2):2559-2566
It has been suggested that open pit mining and upgrading of bitumen in northern Alberta releases Tl and other potentially toxic elements to the Athabasca River and its watershed. We examined Tl and other trace elements in otoliths of Trout-perch (Percopsis omiscomaycus), a non-migratory fish species, collected along the Athabasca River. Otoliths were analyzed using ICP-QMS, following acid digestion, in the metal-free, ultraclean SWAMP laboratory. Compared to their average abundance in the dissolved (
To increase our understanding of possible chemical impacts on coastal fish populations in the Baltic Sea, Kattegat and Skagerrak, the viviparous eelpout (Zoarces viviparus) was used as sentinel species in two major sampling campaigns (spring and autumn) in 16 different coastal sites. Condition factor (CF), liver somatic index (LSI), gonad somatic index (GSI) were measured and the activity of the hepatic enzymes ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD), glutathione reductase GR), glutathione S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT) and muscular activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) were assessed. PAH metabolites in bile were also analyzed. The most notable finding in the data set was the low EROD activity in eelpouts collected at the relatively polluted region in Germany compared to the other regions, which could be due to an inhibition of the CYP1A-system or to adaptation to chronic exposure of pollutants in this area. Additionally, low AChE activity was noted in the German region in the autumn campaign and low AChE activity detected in the Danish region in the spring campaign. These differences suggest possible season-specific differences in the use and release of AChE-inhibiting chemicals in the Danish and German regions. Clustering of biomarkers on site level indicated a relationship between CF and GSI and suggested that sites with a high CF contained eelpout that put a larger effort into their larvae development. Clustering of the oxidative stress markers GR, GST and CAT on the individual level reflected a possible coordinated regulation of these enzymes. Overall, the results support the importance of taking into account general regional differences and seasonal variation in biomarker activity when monitoring and assessing the effects of pollution. Despite the expected seasonal variation for most of the measured endpoint, several markers (GSI, EROD and CF) vary similarly between all selected sites in both spring and autumn. This suggests that the differences between sites for these endpoints are independent of season.
ß-N-Methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA), a neurotoxic non-protein amino acid, plays a significant role as an environmental risk factor in neurodegenerative diseases, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. BMAA producers occur globally, colonizing almost all habitats and represent species from distinct phytoplanktonic groups, i.e., cyanobacteria, diatoms, and dinoflagellates. Bioaccumulation of BMAA in invertebrate and vertebrate organisms has also been registered around the globe. In the Baltic Sea, BMAA has been detected in several commercial fish species, raising the question of the bioaccumulation of BMAA in Swedish limnic systems. Here we find the presence of BMAA in water samples from Lake Finjasjön and identify its bioaccumulation patterns in both plankti-benthivorous and piscivorous fish, according to fish species, total weight, gender, and season of collection. For the first time, a large number of fish individuals were used in order to draw conclusions on BMAA bioaccumulation in a closed ecological community based on a statistical approach. We may, therefore, conclude that feeding patterns (plankti-benthivorous) and increased age of fish may lead to a higher tissue concentration of BMAA.
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The average dietary intake of coenzyme Q10 and coenzyme Q9 of the Danish population was determined, based on food consumption data from a national dietary survey. Selected food items in edible form were analyzed for the coenzyme Q content by HPCL with UV-detection, and their contribution to the total intake calculated. The effect of cooking was a 14-32% destruction of coenzyme Q10 by frying, and no detectable destruction by boiling. The average coenzyme Q10 intake of the Danish population was estimated to 3-5 mg/day, primarily derived from meat and poultry (64% of the daily intake), while cereals, fruit, edible fats, and vegetables only make minor contributions. The intake of coenzyme Q10 is approximately 1 mg/day, primarily derived from vegetable fats and cereals. The alpha-tocopherol content of the selected food samples was analyzed by HPLC with fluorescence detection, and the calculated average intake of alpha-tocopherol was comparable to the estimate from the dietary survey (7-8 vs. 7.4 mg alpha-tocopherol/day, respectively). The commercially available dietary supplements (capsules) provide 10-30 mg CoQ10/day, thus the average diet. The optimal dietary intake of coenzyme Q10 is unknown.
Within Europe, the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) is aimed at addressing the chemical status and quality of the marine environment. One of the main goals is to achieve Good Environmental Status (GES) in the marine environment. Environmental monitoring of biota e.g., Baltic herring and guillemot eggs, is conducted annually in Sweden to follow temporal changes in environmental contaminants. To determine the suitability of guillemot eggs as a sentinel species for investigating GES, we compared temporal trends of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) in these two species from single sampling sites within Sweden. Lipid content from guillemot eggs was consistently high and stable (yearly mean for >40 years, ~12%) compared to that of herring (yearly mean for >20 years, ~3%). A significant decreasing trend of SPCDD/F in TEQ WHO1998 was observed in guillemot eggs, but no trend was seen in herring. CB118 significantly decreased in both species, but in the last 10 years this decrease was not significant in herring. A number of advantages, such as high lipid content in the egg and a low coefficient of variation make guillemot suitable as a sentinel species. The advantages and disadvantages of using either guillemot eggs or Baltic herring are compared.
Persistent organochlorines, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) including coplanar congeners, DDTs, HCHs, chlordanes (CHLs), and HCB, were determined in the blubber of Caspian seals (Phoca caspica) and their fish diet (Rutilus sp.) collected in 1993 from the northern Caspian Sea, Russia. Notable concentrations of DDTs and HCHs were found at mean values of 19 and 1.3 microg/g on wet-weight basis in adult male seals, respectively. PCB pollution in Caspian seals was not so considerable compared with those of seals that suffered mass mortality. Less gender difference of organochlorine residue levels in adult animals implies less excretion of organochlorines from the body of adult females through lactation and gestation, probably due to the higher rate of pregnancy failure. Immature seals had a wide range of organochlorine concentrations, which decreased as body length increased, suggesting dilution. Caspian seals can be considered to have higher degradation capacity for coplanar PCBs. Mean TEQs (2,3,7,8-TCDD toxic equivalents) for non-, mono- and di-ortho coplanar PCBs was 51 pg/g on wet-weight basis, which was lower than those in seals that have suffered mass mortality, but comparable to those found in Arctic seals.