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Altitudinal and thermal gradients of hepatic Cyp1A gene expression in natural populations of Salmo trutta from high mountain lakes and their correlation with organohalogen loads.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature98080
Source
Environ Pollut. 2010 May;158(5):1392-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2010
Author
Sergio Jarque
Eva Gallego
Mireia Bartrons
Jordi Catalan
Joan O Grimalt
Benjamin Piña
Author Affiliation
Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA-CSIC), Jordi Girona 18, 08034-Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.
Source
Environ Pollut. 2010 May;158(5):1392-8
Date
May-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Altitude
Animals
Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A1 - genetics - metabolism
Environmental monitoring
Environmental Pollutants - analysis - toxicity
Fish Proteins - genetics - metabolism
Fresh Water - analysis
Gene Expression - drug effects
Hydrocarbons, Halogenated - analysis - toxicity
Liver - enzymology
Norway
Temperature
Trout - metabolism
Abstract
The biomarker of xenobiotic exposure cytochrome p450A1 (Cyp1A) was used to analyze the biological response to chemical pollution in Salmo trutta (brown trout) from nine high mountain European lakes in Norway, Tatras, Tyrol, and central Pyrenees. Hepatic Cyp1A mRNA levels correlated both with the reciprocal of absolute annual average air temperatures of the sampled lakes and with muscle concentrations of several hydrophobic organohalogen compounds (OC), including chlorinated polychlorobiphenyls (PCB), DDE, and DDT. The correlation between Cyp1A expression and OC content was observed across the whole temperature range (between -0.7 degrees C and +6.2 degrees C), but also in the absence of any thermal gradient. We concluded that airborne pollutants accumulate in high mountain lake fish at concentrations high enough to increase Cyp1A expression, among other possible effects. As geographical distribution of semi-volatile OC is strongly influenced by air temperatures, future climate modifications will potentially enhance their physiological effects in lake ecosystems.
PubMed ID
20149942 View in PubMed
Less detail

Endocrine disruption and differential gene expression in sentinel fish on St. Lawrence Island, Alaska: Health implications for indigenous residents.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature293036
Source
Environ Pollut. 2018 Mar; 234:279-287
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Mar-2018
Author
Frank A von Hippel
Pamela K Miller
David O Carpenter
Danielle Dillon
Lauren Smayda
Ioanna Katsiadaki
Tom A Titus
Peter Batzel
John H Postlethwait
C Loren Buck
Author Affiliation
Department of Biological Sciences & Center for Bioengineering Innovation, Northern Arizona University, 617 S. Beaver St., PO Box 5640, Flagstaff, AZ 86011, USA. Electronic address: frank.vonhippel@nau.edu.
Source
Environ Pollut. 2018 Mar; 234:279-287
Date
Mar-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Alaska
Animals
Arctic Regions
Endocrine Disruptors - analysis - metabolism - pharmacology
Environmental Restoration and Remediation
Female
Fish Proteins - genetics - metabolism
Food contamination - analysis
Food Safety
Fresh Water - analysis
Humans
Islands
Male
Polychlorinated biphenyls - analysis
Seafood - analysis
Smegmamorpha - genetics - growth & development - metabolism
Vitellogenins - genetics - metabolism
Water Pollutants, Chemical - analysis - metabolism - pharmacology
Abstract
People living a subsistence lifestyle in the Arctic are highly exposed to persistent organic pollutants, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Formerly Used Defense (FUD) sites are point sources of PCB pollution; the Arctic contains thousands of FUD sites, many co-located with indigenous villages. We investigated PCB profiles and biological effects in freshwater fish (Alaska blackfish [Dallia pectoralis] and ninespine stickleback [Pungitius pungitius]) living upstream and downstream of the Northeast Cape FUD site on St. Lawrence Island in the Bering Sea. Despite extensive site remediation, fish remained contaminated with PCBs. Vitellogenin concentrations in males indicated exposure to estrogenic contaminants, and some fish were hypothyroid. Downstream fish showed altered DNA methylation in gonads and altered gene expression related to DNA replication, response to DNA damage, and cell signaling. This study demonstrates that, even after site remediation, contaminants from Cold War FUD sites in remote regions of the Arctic remain a potential health threat to local residents - in this case, Yupik people who had no influence over site selection and use by the United States military.
Notes
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PubMed ID
29182972 View in PubMed
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Environmental, population and life-stage plasticity in the visual system of Atlantic cod.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature297758
Source
J Exp Biol. 2018 01 11; 221(Pt 1):
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
01-11-2018
Author
Ragnhild Valen
Rita Karlsen
Jon Vidar Helvik
Author Affiliation
Department of Biology, University of Bergen, NO-5020 Bergen, Norway ragnhild.valen@uib.no vidar.helvik@uib.no.
Source
J Exp Biol. 2018 01 11; 221(Pt 1):
Date
01-11-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adaptation, Physiological
Animal Migration
Animals
Atlantic Ocean
Female
Fish Proteins - genetics - metabolism
Gadus morhua - genetics - growth & development - physiology
Gene Expression Regulation
Male
Norway
Opsins - genetics - metabolism
Seasons
Vision, Ocular
Abstract
The visual system is for many fishes essential in guiding behaviors, such as foraging, predator avoidance and mate choice. The marine environment is characterized by large spatio-temporal fluctuations in light intensity and spectral composition. However, visual capabilities are restricted by both space limitations set by eye size and by the genomic content of light-absorbing opsin genes. The rich array of visual opsins in teleosts may be used differentially to tune vision towards specific needs during ontogeny and to changing light. Yet, to what extent visual plasticity is a pre-programmed developmental event, or is triggered by photic environment, is unclear. Our previous studies on Atlantic cod revealed an evolutionary genomic loss of UV-sensitive sws1 and red-sensitive lws opsin families, while blue-sensitive sws2 and green-sensitive rh2 opsins had duplicated. The current study has taken an opsin expression approach to characterize visual plasticity in cod towards different spectral light during the larval stage, to maturation and extreme seasonal changes in the Barents Sea. Our data suggest that opsin plasticity in cod larvae is controlled by developmental programme rather than immediate light environment. The lack of expressional changes during maturation suggests a less important role for visual modulation related to mate choice. Although no seasonal effects on visual opsins were detected in migratory Northeast Arctic cod, the expressed opsin subset differed from the more stationary Norwegian coastal cod described in previous studies. Interestingly, these data provide the first indications of a population difference in actively used visual opsins associated with cod ecotypes.
PubMed ID
29146770 View in PubMed
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Gene regulation of lipid and phospholipid metabolism in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) larvae.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature274689
Source
Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2015 Dec;190:16-26
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2015
Author
Keshuai Li
Mari-Ann Østensen
Kari Attramadal
Per Winge
Torfinn Sparstad
Atle M Bones
Olav Vadstein
Elin Kjørsvik
Yngvar Olsen
Source
Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2015 Dec;190:16-26
Date
Dec-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acetyltransferases - genetics - metabolism
Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
Animals
Aquaculture
Fatty Acid Desaturases - genetics - metabolism
Fatty Acids, Unsaturated - analysis - metabolism
Fish Proteins - genetics - metabolism
Gadus morhua - growth & development - physiology
Gene Expression Profiling - veterinary
Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental
Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic
Isoenzymes - genetics - metabolism
Larva - enzymology - growth & development - metabolism
Lipid Metabolism
Norway
Nutritional Requirements
Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis - veterinary
Phospholipids - chemistry - metabolism
RNA, Messenger - metabolism
Survival Analysis
Abstract
The mechanism of essentiality of dietary phospholipid (PL) for larval fish is not clear. The main objective of the present study was to determine if the PL requirement of Atlantic cod larvae was due to any genetic impairment caused by functional immaturity. Cod larvae were sampled at 1, 3, 8, 13, 17, 18, 30, 42 and 60 days post hatch (dph) for transcriptome analysis using a recently developed microarray. The fatty acid profile and gene expression levels of cod larvae at 17 dph were compared after feeding differently enriched rotifers, which contained different DHA levels in PL. No significant differences (p
PubMed ID
26310360 View in PubMed
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Hepatic retention and toxicological responses during feeding and depuration periods in Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar ) fed graded levels of the synthetic antioxidant, butylated hydroxytoluene.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature91272
Source
J Agric Food Chem. 2008 Dec 10;56(23):11540-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-10-2008
Author
Holaas Eivind
Bohne Victoria B
Hamre Kristin
Arukwe Augustine
Author Affiliation
Department of Biology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
Source
J Agric Food Chem. 2008 Dec 10;56(23):11540-9
Date
Dec-10-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animal Feed - analysis
Animals
Antioxidants - chemical synthesis - metabolism - toxicity
Butylated Hydroxytoluene - chemical synthesis - metabolism - toxicity
Eating
Fish Proteins - genetics - metabolism
Gene Expression - drug effects
Liver - chemistry - drug effects - metabolism
Salmo salar - genetics - physiology
Abstract
The human safety aspects of seafood production require the expansion of vital knowledge of both nutrients and possible contaminants along the entire production chain. Thus, production of safer seafood can be achieved by using feed materials that are low in contaminants, while maintaining balanced nutrition, in order to secure optimal fish and consumer health. Our understanding of primary responses of fish health and production related diseases, as well as biological processes that influence carry-over and lowering of contaminants in farmed fish, will contribute to a sustainable production of safer seafood products. Therefore, we have studied the liver deposition and toxicological effects in salmon fed graded levels of BHT during a 12-week feeding followed by a 2-week depuration period using chemical, molecular, and catalytic assays. In general, our data showed that BHT was significantly retained in the liver and selectively modulated toxicological responses in the xenobiotic biotransformation pathways during the feeding period. Specifically, BHT produced consistent dose- and time-specific gene expression patterns for AhR2alpha, AhR2beta, CYP1A1, CYP3A, UGT1, and GSTpi. The effect of BHT on the gene expression of biotransformation enzyme did not parallel enzyme activity levels, suggesting a possible inhibition by parent BHT or its metabolites. As a safety precaution, the production of farmed Atlantic salmon in Norway requires a mandatory 2-week depuration period prior to slaughtering and market delivery to ensure the elimination of veterinary medicaments, additives, and other undesirable components. Comparison of feeding and depuration periods showed that BHT was highly retained in fish liver, as only 8-13% of fed BHT was eliminated during the 2-week depuration period. This is just a part of the total concentration in the whole fish, since BHT may have been distributed and accumulated in other organs. Since BHT or its metabolites putatively inhibited biotransformation enzymes and affected metabolism of the compound, they may have potential for toxicological and adverse health effects for both fish and fish consumers through carry-over processes from the fish products.
PubMed ID
19007167 View in PubMed
Less detail

Methionine deficiency does not increase polyamine turnover through depletion of hepatic S-adenosylmethionine in juvenile Atlantic salmon.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature258739
Source
Br J Nutr. 2014 Oct 28;112(8):1274-85
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-28-2014
Author
Marit Espe
Synne Marte Andersen
Elisabeth Holen
Ivar Rønnestad
Eva Veiseth-Kent
Jens-Erik Zerrahn
Anders Aksnes
Source
Br J Nutr. 2014 Oct 28;112(8):1274-85
Date
Oct-28-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acetyltransferases - genetics - metabolism
Adenosylmethionine Decarboxylase - genetics - metabolism
Animals
Aquaculture
Deficiency Diseases - metabolism - prevention & control - veterinary
Diet - adverse effects - veterinary
Energy intake
Fish Proteins - genetics - metabolism
Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental
Lipid Metabolism
Liver - growth & development - metabolism - pathology
Methionine - deficiency - metabolism - therapeutic use
Muscle, Skeletal - metabolism - pathology
Norway
Ornithine Decarboxylase - genetics - metabolism
Plant Proteins - adverse effects
Polyamines - metabolism
Putrescine - metabolism
S-Adenosylmethionine - metabolism
Salmo salar - growth & development - metabolism
Spermine - metabolism
Weight Gain
Abstract
During the last few decades, plant protein ingredients such as soya proteins have replaced fishmeal in the diets of aquacultured species. This may affect the requirement and metabolism of methionine as soya contains less methionine compared with fishmeal. To assess whether methionine limitation affects decarboxylated S-adenosylmethionine availability and polyamine status, in the present study, juvenile Atlantic salmon were fed a methionine-deficient plant protein-based diet or the same diet supplemented with dl-methionine for 8 weeks. The test diets were compared with a fishmeal-based control diet to assess their effects on the growth performance of fish. Methionine limitation reduced growth and protein accretion, but when fish were fed the dl-methionine-supplemented diet their growth and protein accretion equalled those of fish fed the fishmeal-based control diet. Methionine limitation reduced free methionine concentrations in the plasma and muscle, while those in the liver were not affected. S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) concentrations were higher in the liver of fish fed the methionine-deficient diet, while S-adenosylhomocysteine concentrations were not affected. Putrescine concentrations were higher and spermine concentrations were lower in the liver of fish fed the methionine-deficient diet, while the gene expression of SAM decarboxylase (SAMdc) and the rate-limiting enzyme of polyamine synthesis ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) was not affected. Polyamine turnover, as assessed by spermine/spermidine acetyltransferase (SSAT) abundance, activity and gene expression, was not affected by treatment. However, the gene expression of the cytokine TNF-a increased in fish fed the methionine-deficient diet, indicative of stressful conditions in the liver. Even though taurine concentrations in the liver were not affected by treatment, methionine and taurine concentrations in muscle decreased due to methionine deficiency. Concomitantly, liver phospholipid and cholesterol concentrations were reduced, while NEFA concentrations were elevated. In conclusion, methionine deficiency did not increase polyamine turnover through depletion of hepatic SAM, as assessed by SSAT activity and abundance.
PubMed ID
25196630 View in PubMed
Less detail

Sticklebacks adapted to divergent osmotic environments show differences in plasticity for kidney morphology and candidate gene expression.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature290724
Source
J Exp Biol. 2017 06 15; 220(Pt 12):2175-2186
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
06-15-2017
Author
M Mehedi Hasan
Jacquelin DeFaveri
Satu Kuure
Surjya N Dash
Sanna Lehtonen
Juha Merilä
R J Scott McCairns
Author Affiliation
Fisheries and Marine Resource Technology Discipline, Khulna University, Khulna 9208, Bangladesh.
Source
J Exp Biol. 2017 06 15; 220(Pt 12):2175-2186
Date
06-15-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adaptation, Physiological
Animals
Denmark
Finland
Fish Proteins - genetics - metabolism
Gene Expression Regulation
Kidney - anatomy & histology - physiology
Osmoregulation
Phenotype
Salinity
Smegmamorpha - anatomy & histology - genetics - physiology
Abstract
Novel physiological challenges in different environments can promote the evolution of divergent phenotypes, either through plastic or genetic changes. Environmental salinity serves as a key barrier to the distribution of nearly all aquatic organisms, and species diversification is likely to be enabled by adaptation to alternative osmotic environments. The threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) is a euryhaline species with populations found both in marine and freshwater environments. It has evolved both highly plastic and locally adapted phenotypes due to salinity-derived selection, but the physiological and genetic basis of adaptation to salinity is not fully understood. We integrated comparative cellular morphology of the kidney, a key organ for osmoregulation, and candidate gene expression to explore the underpinnings of evolved variation in osmotic plasticity within two populations of sticklebacks from distinct salinity zones in the Baltic Sea: the high salinity Kattegat, representative of the ancestral marine habitat; and the low salinity Bay of Bothnia. A common-garden experiment revealed that kidney morphology in the ancestral high-salinity population had a highly plastic response to salinity conditions whereas this plastic response was reduced in the low-salinity population. Candidate gene expression in kidney tissue revealed a similar pattern of population-specific differences, with a higher degree of plasticity in the native high-salinity population. Together these results suggest that renal cellular morphology has become canalized to low salinity, and that these structural differences may have functional implications for osmoregulation.
PubMed ID
28373599 View in PubMed
Less detail

Synergistic activation of salmon cardiac function by endothelin and beta-adrenergic stimulation.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature82581
Source
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2006 Sep;291(3):H1360-70
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2006
Author
Vierimaa Heidi
Ronkainen Jarkko
Ruskoaho Heikki
Vuolteenaho Olli
Author Affiliation
Department of Physiology, POB 5000, FIN-90014, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.
Source
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2006 Sep;291(3):H1360-70
Date
Sep-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adrenergic beta-Agonists - pharmacology
Animals
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Drug Synergism
Endothelin-1 - pharmacology
Female
Fish Proteins - genetics - metabolism
Gene Expression Regulation - drug effects - physiology
Heart - drug effects - physiology
Isoproterenol - pharmacology
Male
Myocardial Contraction - drug effects - physiology
Natriuretic Peptides - genetics - metabolism
Oligopeptides - pharmacology
Piperidines - pharmacology
RNA, Messenger - genetics - metabolism
Receptors, Endothelin - antagonists & inhibitors
Salmo salar
Abstract
The aim was to find out the effects of endothelin-1 (ET-1) in salmon (Salmo salar) cardiac contractile and endocrine function and its possible interaction with beta-adrenergic regulation. We found that ET-1 has a positive inotropic effect in salmon heart. ET-1 (30 nM) increased the contraction amplitude 17+/-4.7% compared with the basal level. beta-Adrenergic activation (isoprenaline, 100 nM) increased contraction amplitude 30+/-13.1%, but it did not affect the contractile response to ET-1. ET-1 (10 nM) stimulated the secretion of salmon cardiac natriuretic peptide (sCP) from isolated salmon ventricle (3.3+/-0.14-fold compared with control) but did not have any effect on ventricular sCP mRNA. Isoprenaline alone (0.1-1,000 nM) did not stimulate sCP release, but ET-1 (10 nM) together with isoprenaline (0.1 nM) caused a significantly greater increase of sCP release than ET-1 alone (5.4+/-0.07 vs. 3.3+/-0.14 times increase compared with control). The effects on the contractile and secretory function could be inhibited by a selective ETA-receptor antagonist BQ-610 (1 microM), whereas ETB-receptor blockage (by 100 nM BQ-788) enhanced the secretory response. Thus ET-1 is a phylogenetically conserved regulator of cardiac function, which has synergistic action with beta-adrenergic stimulation. The modulatory effects of ET-1 may therefore be especially important in situations with high beta-adrenergic tone.
PubMed ID
16565303 View in PubMed
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Tissue-specific molecular immune response to lipopolysaccharide challenge in emaciated anadromous Arctic charr.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature258962
Source
Dev Comp Immunol. 2014 Jul;45(1):133-40
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2014
Author
Anju M Philip
Even H Jørgensen
Alec G Maule
Mathilakath M Vijayan
Source
Dev Comp Immunol. 2014 Jul;45(1):133-40
Date
Jul-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adiposity - immunology
Animals
Blood glucose
Cytokines - genetics - metabolism
Fasting - physiology
Fish Proteins - genetics - metabolism
Gene Expression - immunology
Glycogen - metabolism
Hydrocortisone - blood
Immunity, Innate
Lipopolysaccharides - pharmacology
Liver - immunology - metabolism
Organ Specificity
Salmonidae - immunology - metabolism
Serum Amyloid A Protein - genetics - metabolism
Spleen - metabolism
Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling Proteins - genetics - metabolism
Abstract
Anadromous Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) undergo voluntary winter fasting for months in the Arctic. We tested the hypothesis that extended fasting will compromise the ability of this species to evoke an immune response. Charr were either fed or fasted for 85 days and challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and the molecular immune response in the liver and spleen assessed at 8 and 96 h post-injection. LPS increased IL-1ß, IL-8, and serum amyloid protein A (SAA) mRNA levels in both groups, but the liver IL-1ß and IL-8, and spleen IL-8 responses were reduced in the fasted group. Fasting upregulated SOCS-1 and SOCS-2 mRNA abundance, while LPS stimulated SOCS-3 mRNA abundance and this response was higher in the fasted liver. Collectively, extended fasting and emaciation does not curtail the capacity of charr to evoke an immune response, whereas upregulation of SOCS may be a key adaptation to conserve energy by restricting the inflammatory response.
PubMed ID
24594135 View in PubMed
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9 records – page 1 of 1.