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Association of fish and fish liver oil intake in pregnancy with infant size at birth among women of normal weight before pregnancy in a fishing community.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature58246
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 2004 Sep 1;160(5):460-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-1-2004
Author
Inga Thorsdottir
Bryndis E Birgisdottir
Sveinbjorg Halldorsdottir
Reynir T Geirsson
Author Affiliation
Unit for Nutrition Research, Landspitali University Hospital, Eiríksgata 29, 101 Reykjavik, Iceland. ingathor@landspitali.is
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 2004 Sep 1;160(5):460-5
Date
Sep-1-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Animals
Birth weight
Diet
Female
Fish Oils - administration & dosage
Fishes
Humans
Iceland
Infant, Newborn
Nutrition
Pregnancy
Questionnaires
Abstract
This 1998 study investigated the association between intake of fish and fish oil during pregnancy and full-term infants' size at birth in an Icelandic fishing community. Healthy women aged 20-40 years of normal weight before pregnancy (body mass index: 19.5-25.5 kg/m(2)) and at 38-43 weeks of gestation were selected randomly. Information on infant size at birth was collected from maternity records. Intake of fish and fish oil in pregnancy was ascertained (n = 491, 80.1%) by using a validated, focused, food frequency questionnaire. Infants of women in the lowest quartile of fish consumption weighed less (p = 0.036), were shorter (p or =1 tablespoon (11 ml)/day), consuming threefold the recommended dietary allowance of vitamin A and twofold that of vitamin D, were shorter (p = 0.036) and had a smaller head circumference (p = 0.003) than those of women consuming less. Infant size at birth increased with fish consumption, especially for women in the lower quartiles of consumption. Smaller birth size was linked to the highest levels of fish oil intake. Constituents of fish and fish oil might affect birth size differently depending on the amount consumed.
PubMed ID
15321843 View in PubMed
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Association of frequent consumption of fatty fish with prostate cancer risk is modified by COX-2 polymorphism.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature80057
Source
Int J Cancer. 2007 Jan 15;120(2):398-405
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-15-2007
Author
Hedelin Maria
Chang Ellen T
Wiklund Fredrik
Bellocco Rino
Klint Asa
Adolfsson Jan
Shahedi Katarina
Xu Jianfeng
Adami Hans-Olov
Grönberg Henrik
Bälter Katarina Augustsson
Author Affiliation
Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden. maria.hedelin@ki.se
Source
Int J Cancer. 2007 Jan 15;120(2):398-405
Date
Jan-15-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Animals
Cyclooxygenase 2 - genetics
Diet
Fatty Acids, Omega-3 - administration & dosage
Fish Oils - administration & dosage
Fish Products
Humans
Male
Membrane Proteins - genetics
Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
Prostatic Neoplasms - epidemiology - genetics
Risk
Salmon
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
Dietary intake of marine fatty acids from fish may protect against prostate cancer development. We studied this association and whether it is modified by genetic variation in cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, a key enzyme in fatty acid metabolism and inflammation. We assessed dietary intake of fish among 1,499 incident prostate cancer cases and 1,130 population controls in Sweden. Five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified and genotyped in available blood samples for 1,378 cases and 782 controls. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by multivariate logistic regression. Multiplicative and additive interactions between fish intake and COX-2 SNPs on prostate cancer risk were evaluated. Eating fatty fish (e.g., salmon-type fish) once or more per week, compared to never, was associated with reduced risk of prostate cancer (OR: 0.57, 95% CI: 0.43-0.76). The OR comparing the highest to the lowest quartile of marine fatty acids intake was 0.70 (95% CI: 0.51-0.97). We found a significant interaction (p
PubMed ID
17066444 View in PubMed
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Back-transformation of treatment differences--an approximate method.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature256917
Source
Eur J Clin Nutr. 2014 Feb;68(2):277-80
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2014
Author
R P Laursen
S-M Dalskov
C T Damsgaard
C. Ritz
Author Affiliation
Faculty of Science, Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Source
Eur J Clin Nutr. 2014 Feb;68(2):277-80
Date
Feb-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Confidence Intervals
Cytokines - blood
Data Interpretation, Statistical
Denmark
Dietary Supplements
Fish Oils - administration & dosage
Humans
Immunity - drug effects
Infant
Infant Formula
Milk
Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
Skinfold thickness
Statistics as Topic - methods
Treatment Outcome
Abstract
Transformation of outcomes is frequently used in the analysis of studies in clinical nutrition. However, back-transformation of estimated treatment means and differences is complicated by the nonlinear nature of the transformations. It is not straightforward to obtain an estimated treatment difference that can be interpreted without any reference to the additional predictors included in the statistical model; and moreover, standard errors are not easily available. The aim of this work was to provide a generally applicable, yet operational procedure for obtaining back-transformed estimated differences, and corresponding standard errors and 95% confidence intervals.
Based on data from two randomized controlled studies and an exemplary data set that had all previously been published, we evaluated our approximate procedure by comparing results for different approaches for showing back-transformed estimated treatment differences.
Estimated differences obtained on logarithm, square root and reciprocal square root-transformed scales were back-transformed into estimated differences on the original scales, and these estimates were in good agreement with the results reported by the original studies.
The proposed approximate procedure provides a flexible approach for obtaining quite accurate back-transformed estimated differences in terms of medians and for deriving the corresponding standard errors.
PubMed ID
24327119 View in PubMed
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Beneficial effects of long-chain n-3 fatty acids included in an energy-restricted diet on insulin resistance in overweight and obese European young adults.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature157100
Source
Diabetologia. 2008 Jul;51(7):1261-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2008
Author
A. Ramel
A. Martinéz
M. Kiely
G. Morais
N M Bandarra
I. Thorsdottir
Author Affiliation
Landspitali-University Hospital & Faculty of Food Science and Nutrition, Eiriksgata 29, 101, Reykjavik, Iceland.
Source
Diabetologia. 2008 Jul;51(7):1261-8
Date
Jul-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adiponectin - blood
Adult
Diet, Reducing
Dietary Fats - administration & dosage
Energy Metabolism
European Continental Ancestry Group
Fatty Acids, Omega-3 - administration & dosage
Female
Fish Oils - administration & dosage
Homeostasis - physiology
Humans
Iceland
Insulin Resistance - physiology
Male
Obesity - diet therapy - metabolism
Overweight - diet therapy - metabolism
Seafood
Treatment Outcome
Triglycerides - blood
Abstract
Epidemiological research indicates that long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA) improve insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of seafood consumption on insulin resistance in overweight participants during energy restriction.
In this 8 week dietary intervention, 324 participants (20-40 years, BMI 27.5-32.5 kg/m(2), from Iceland, Spain and Ireland) were randomised by computer to one of four energy-restricted diets (-30E%) of identical macronutrient composition but different LC n-3 PUFA content: control (n = 80; no seafood; single-blinded); lean fish (n = 80; 150 g cod, three times/week); fatty fish (n = 84; 150 g salmon, three times/week); (4) fish oil (n = 80; daily docosahexaenoic/eicosapentaenoic acid capsules, no other seafood; single-blinded). Fasting glucose, insulin, adiponectin, plasma triacylglycerol and fatty acids in erythrocyte membrane were measured at baseline and endpoint. Insulin resistance was calculated using the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Linear models with fixed effects and covariates were used to investigate the effects of seafood consumption on fasting insulin and HOMA-IR at endpoint in comparison with the control group.
Of the participants, 278 (86%) completed the intervention. Fish oil intake was a significant predictor of fasting insulin and insulin resistance after 8 weeks, and this finding remained significant even after including weight loss, triacylglycerol reduction, increased LC n-3 PUFA in membranes or adiponectin changes as covariates in the statistical analysis. Weight loss was also a significant predictor of improvements.
LC n-3 PUFA consumption during energy reduction exerts positive effects on insulin resistance in young overweight individuals, independently from changes in body weight, triacylglycerol, erythrocyte membrane or adiponectin.
ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00315770.
PubMed ID
18491071 View in PubMed
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Beneficial effect(s) of n-3 fatty acids in cardiovascular diseases: but, why and how?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature3153
Source
Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2000 Dec;63(6):351-62
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2000
Author
U N Das
Author Affiliation
EFA Sciences LLC, 1420 Providence Highway, Norwood, MA 02062, USA. undurti@hotmail.com
Source
Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2000 Dec;63(6):351-62
Date
Dec-2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acetylcholine - physiology
Animals
Arrhythmia - epidemiology - prevention & control
Brain - physiopathology
Cardiovascular Diseases - diet therapy - epidemiology - prevention & control
Cell Adhesion Molecules - biosynthesis - genetics
Cell Division - drug effects
Clinical Trials
Cohort Studies
Cytokines - metabolism
Dietary Fats - administration & dosage - pharmacology - therapeutic use
Eicosanoids - metabolism
Endothelium, Vascular - drug effects - metabolism
Exercise
Fatty Acids, Omega-3 - administration & dosage - pharmacology - therapeutic use
Fatty Acids, Unsaturated - metabolism
Fish Oils - administration & dosage - pharmacology - therapeutic use
Gene Expression Regulation - drug effects
Greenland - epidemiology
Heart - drug effects
Hemostasis - drug effects
Humans
Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System - drug effects - physiopathology
Inflammation - drug therapy - metabolism - prevention & control
Inuits
Japan - epidemiology
Lipid Metabolism
Models, Biological
Myocardium - metabolism
Oxidation-Reduction
Oxidative Stress
Parasympathetic Nervous System - drug effects
Pituitary-Adrenal System - drug effects - physiopathology
Rats
Sodium Channels - drug effects
Vagus Nerve - physiopathology
Abstract
Low rates of coronary heart disease was found in Greenland Eskimos and Japanese who are exposed to a diet rich in fish oil. Suggested mechanisms for this cardio-protective effect focused on the effects of n-3 fatty acids on eicosanoid metabolism, inflammation, beta oxidation, endothelial dysfunction, cytokine growth factors, and gene expression of adhesion molecules; But, none of these mechanisms could adequately explain the beneficial actions of n-3 fatty acids. One attractive suggestion is a direct cardiac effect of n-3 fatty acids on arrhythmogenesis. N-3 fatty acids can modify Na+ channels by directly binding to the channel proteins and thus, prevent ischemia-induced ventricular fibrillation and sudden cardiac death. Though this is an attractive explanation, there could be other actions as well. N-3 fatty acids can inhibit the synthesis and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factoralpha (TNFalpha) and interleukin-1 (IL-1) and IL-2 that are released during the early course of ischemic heart disease. These cytokines decrease myocardial contractility and induce myocardial damage, enhance the production of free radicals, which can also suppress myocardial function. Further, n-3 fatty acids can increase parasympathetic tone leading to an increase in heart rate variability and thus, protect the myocardium against ventricular arrhythmias. Increased parasympathetic tone and acetylcholine, the principle vagal neurotransmitter, significantly attenuate the release of TNF, IL-1beta, IL-6 and IL-18. Exercise enhances parasympathetic tone, and the production of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 which may explain the beneficial action of exercise in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes mellitus. TNFalpha has neurotoxic actions, where as n-3 fatty acids are potent neuroprotectors and brain is rich in these fatty acids. Based on this, it is suggested that the principle mechanism of cardioprotective and neuroprotective action(s) of n-3 fatty acids can be due to the suppression of TNFalpha and IL synthesis and release, modulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal anti-inflammatory responses, and an increase in acetylcholine release, the vagal neurotransmitter. Thus, there appears to be a close interaction between the central nervous system, endocrine organs, cytokines, exercise, and dietary n-3 fatty acids. This may explain why these fatty acids could be of benefit in the management of conditions such as septicemia and septic shock, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, inflammatory bowel diseases, diabetes mellitus, essential hypertension and atherosclerosis.
Notes
Erratum In: Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2001 Jan;64(1):74
PubMed ID
11133172 View in PubMed
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Coronary heart disease in Greenland Inuit: a paradox. Implications for western diet patterns.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature5210
Source
Arctic Med Res. 1989 Apr;48(2):47-54
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-1989
Author
J. Dyerberg
Source
Arctic Med Res. 1989 Apr;48(2):47-54
Date
Apr-1989
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Coronary Disease - epidemiology - ethnology
Denmark
Dietary Fats - administration & dosage
Fatty Acids, Unsaturated - administration & dosage
Female
Fish Oils - administration & dosage
Greenland
Humans
Inuits
Male
Middle Aged
Abstract
Epidemiologic examinations of Greenland Inuit have disclosed a connection between high seafood intake containing a high level of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and a low coronary heart disease (CHD) morbidity. Other epidemiologic studies have confirmed this interrelation, and a biological substrate for a causal relationship has been established. This includes a lipid lowering effect of n-3 PUFAs and a modulatory effect on eicosanoid metabolism, shifting platelet vessel wall balance in an antithrombotic direction. Other metabolic effects of n-3 PUFAs are an altered inflammatory response to proinflammatory stimuli and a modest hypotensive effect. These findings create a basis for controlled clinical studies and justify, in the author's opinion, both a mass strategy of advocating that a well-balanced diet should include a higher use of seafood in Western diets, and a more intensive recommendation of n-3 PUFAs in certain high-risk patients with a heterogeneous risk-factor profile. Among these, patients with essential hypertension and patients undergoing reconstructive coronary intervention are obvious candidates. A major outcome of the research, stemming from the epidemiological studies, is establishment of the fact that separate attention should be paid to both the n-6 and the n-3 fatty acids.
PubMed ID
2736000 View in PubMed
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Deep phenotyping of the unselected COPSAC2010 birth cohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature106740
Source
Clin Exp Allergy. 2013 Dec;43(12):1384-94
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2013
Author
H. Bisgaard
N H Vissing
C G Carson
A L Bischoff
N V Følsgaard
E. Kreiner-Møller
B L K Chawes
J. Stokholm
L. Pedersen
E. Bjarnadóttir
A H Thysen
E. Nilsson
L J Mortensen
S F Olsen
S. Schjørring
K A Krogfelt
L. Lauritzen
S. Brix
K. Bønnelykke
Author Affiliation
Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood, Copenhagen University Hospital, Gentofte & Naestved, Denmark; Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Source
Clin Exp Allergy. 2013 Dec;43(12):1384-94
Date
Dec-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Asthma - etiology
Child
Child, Preschool
Cohort Studies
Denmark
Dietary Supplements
Eczema - etiology - prevention & control
Female
Fish Oils - administration & dosage
Humans
Hypersensitivity - etiology - prevention & control
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Influenza Vaccines - administration & dosage - immunology
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Maternal Exposure
Phenotype
Pregnancy
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects
Questionnaires
Risk factors
Vitamin D - administration & dosage
Abstract
We hypothesize that perinatal exposures, in particular the human microbiome and maternal nutrition during pregnancy, interact with the genetic predisposition to cause an abnormal immune modulation in early life towards a trajectory to chronic inflammatory diseases such as asthma and others.
The aim of this study is to explore these interactions by conducting a longitudinal study in an unselected cohort of pregnant women and their offspring with emphasis on deep clinical phenotyping, exposure assessment, and biobanking. Exposure assessments focus on the human microbiome. Nutritional intervention during pregnancy in randomized controlled trials are included in the study to prevent disease and to be able to establish causal relationships.
Pregnant women from eastern Denmark were invited during 2008-2010 to a novel unselected 'COPSAC2010 ' cohort. The women visited the clinic during pregnancy weeks 24 and 36. Their children were followed at the clinic with deep phenotyping and collection of biological samples at nine regular visits until the age of 3 and at acute symptoms. Randomized controlled trials of high-dose vitamin D and fish oil supplements were conducted during pregnancy, and a trial of azithromycin for acute lung symptoms was conducted in the children with recurrent wheeze.
Seven hundred and thirty-eight mothers were recruited from week 24 of gestation, and 700 of their children were included in the birth cohort. The cohort has an over-representation of atopic parents. The participant satisfaction was high and the adherence equally high with 685 children (98%) attending the 1 year clinic visit and 667 children (95%) attending the 2 year clinic visit.
The COPSAC2010 birth cohort study provides longitudinal clinical follow-up with highly specific end-points, exposure assessments, and biobanking. The cohort has a high adherence rate promising strong data to elucidate the interaction between genomics and the exposome in perinatal life leading to lifestyle-related chronic inflammatory disorders such as asthma.
PubMed ID
24118234 View in PubMed
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[Diet and secondary prevention of coronary heart disease--are our recommendations good enough?]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature53924
Source
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2001 Mar 30;121(9):1092-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-30-2001
Author
L K Johnson
I. Hjermann
S. Tonstad
Author Affiliation
Hjerterehabiliteringen Medisinsk avdeling Sentralsykehuset i Vestfold 3116 Tønsberg. lkjohn@frisurf.no
Source
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2001 Mar 30;121(9):1092-8
Date
Mar-30-2001
Language
Norwegian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Coronary Disease - diet therapy - mortality - prevention & control
Diet, Atherogenic
Diet, Fat-Restricted
Dietary Fats - administration & dosage
Dietary Services
English Abstract
Fish Oils - administration & dosage
Food Habits
Humans
Lipids - blood
Oleic Acids - administration & dosage
Practice Guidelines
Randomized Controlled Trials
Vegetables
alpha-Linolenic Acid - administration & dosage
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Dietary treatment plays an important role in prevention of coronary heart disease. In Norway as in other European countries, patients with established coronary heart disease are advised to follow a cholesterol-lowering diet. However, epidemiological observations have suggested that Mediterranean and other diets may have cardioprotective characteristics beyond their effects on serum total and LDL cholesterol levels. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We describe the results of randomised, controlled clinical trials that have investigated the effect of diet on secondary prevention of coronary heart disease. RESULTS: Diets characterised by high contents of oleic acid (18: 1n-9), alpha-linolenic acid (18: 3n-3) and fish or fish oil and near-vegetarian diets have reduced cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with coronary heart disease. INTERPRETATION: Several characteristics of the Mediterranean diet seem to have additional anti-atherothrombogenic effects beyond those observed with the usually recommended cholesterol-lowering diet. We ask whether Norwegian dietary recommendations for secondary prevention, should emphasise more strongly the type of fat used and fruit and vegetable intake, in line with the principles of the Mediterranean diet. Such dietary advice should be incorporated into the medical treatment given to all patients with coronary heart disease, regardless of their lipid profile.
PubMed ID
11354888 View in PubMed
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Dietary effects of fish oils on human health: a review of recent studies.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature5221
Source
Yale J Biol Med. 1987 Jan-Feb;60(1):37-44
Publication Type
Article
Author
S S Kantha
Source
Yale J Biol Med. 1987 Jan-Feb;60(1):37-44
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Blood Coagulation - drug effects
Cardiovascular Diseases - ethnology - prevention & control
Coronary Disease - prevention & control
Dietary Fats, Unsaturated - administration & dosage
Fatty Acids - analysis
Fish Oils - administration & dosage - pharmacology
Humans
Lipids - blood
Abstract
The beneficial effects in humans of ingesting fish oils have attracted much attention among medical scientists and nutritionists recently. Human studies conducted in populations of Eskimos, Japanese, and Caucasians since 1970 are reviewed in this paper. The evidence shows that a diet rich in omega-3 fatty acids significantly reduces plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels, improves fat tolerance, prolongs bleeding times, reduces platelet counts, and decreases platelet adhesiveness.
PubMed ID
3551346 View in PubMed
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Dietary fat intake, circulating and membrane fatty acid composition of healthy Norwegian men and women.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature256390
Source
J Hum Nutr Diet. 2014 Feb;27(1):69-75
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2014
Author
Y. Min
A. Blois
J. Geppert
F. Khalil
K. Ghebremeskel
H. Holmsen
Author Affiliation
Lipidomics and Nutrition Research Centre, Faculty of Life Sciences and Computing, London Metropolitan University, London, UK.
Source
J Hum Nutr Diet. 2014 Feb;27(1):69-75
Date
Feb-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Cholesterol Esters - blood
Dietary Fats - administration & dosage
Energy intake
Fatty Acids - administration & dosage - blood
Female
Fish Oils - administration & dosage
Food Habits
Healthy Volunteers
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Norway
Nutritional Status
Phosphatidylcholines - blood
Phosphatidylethanolamines - blood
Triglycerides - blood
Young Adult
Abstract
The present study aimed to assess the dietary fat intake and blood fatty acid status of healthy Norwegian men and women living in Bergen whose habitual diet is known to be high in long-chain omega-3 fat.
Healthy men (n = 41) and women (n = 40) aged 20-50 years who were regular blood donors completed 7-day food diaries and their nutrient intake was analysed by Norwegian food database software, kbs, version 4.9 (kostberegningssystem; University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway). Blood samples were obtained before blood donation and assessed for the fatty acid composition of plasma triglycerides and cholesterol esters, phosphatidylcholine, and red cell phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine.
There was no difference in dietary fat intake between men and women. Total and saturated fat intakes exceeded the upper limits of the recommendations of the National Nutrition Council of Norway. Although polyunsaturated fat intake was close to the lower limit of the recommended level, the intake varied greatly among individuals, partly as a result of the use of supplementary fish oil. Moreover, the proportional fatty acid composition of plasma and red cell lipids was similar between men and women. Enrichment of docosahexaenoic acid in red cell phosphatidylethanolamine was found in fish oil users.
The results of the present study provide a snapshot of the current nutritional status of healthy Norwegian adults. Moreover, the detailed blood fatty acid composition of men and women whose habitual diet constitutes high long-chain polyunsaturated omega-3 fat as well as saturated fat could be used as reference value for population studies.
PubMed ID
23627906 View in PubMed
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54 records – page 1 of 6.