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Characterization of ranaviruses isolated from lumpfish Cyclopterus lumpus L. in the North Atlantic area: proposal for a new ranavirus species (European North Atlantic Ranavirus).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature307427
Source
J Gen Virol. 2020 02; 101(2):198-207
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
02-2020
Author
Hannah E B Stagg
Sigríður Guðmundsdóttir
Niccolò Vendramin
Neil M Ruane
Heiða Sigurðardóttir
Debes H Christiansen
Argelia Cuenca
Petra E Petersen
Eann S Munro
Vsevolod L Popov
Kuttichantran Subramaniam
Kamonchai Imnoi
Thomas B Waltzek
Niels Jørgen Olesen
Author Affiliation
Marine Scotland Science, Aberdeen, Scotland, UK.
Source
J Gen Virol. 2020 02; 101(2):198-207
Date
02-2020
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Animals
Aquaculture
Capsid Proteins - genetics
Classification
Denmark
Europe
Fish Diseases - virology
Fishes - virology
Flatfishes - virology
Gadus morhua - virology
Genes, Viral
Genome, Viral
Ireland
Phylogeny
Ranavirus - classification - genetics - isolation & purification - ultrastructure
Viral Proteins - genetics
Abstract
The commercial production of lumpfish Cyclopterus lumpus L. is expanding with the increased demand for their use as cleaner fish, to control sea-lice numbers, at marine Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. aquaculture sites throughout Northern Europe. A new ranavirus has been isolated from lumpfish at multiple locations in the North Atlantic area. First isolated in 2014 in the Faroe Islands, the virus has subsequently been found in lumpfish from Iceland in 2015 and from Scotland and Ireland in 2016. The Icelandic lumpfish ranavirus has been characterized by immunofluorescent antibody test, optimal growth conditions and transmission electron microscopy. Partial sequences of the major capsid protein gene from 12 isolates showed 99.79-100% nt identity between the lumpfish ranaviruses. Complete genome sequencing from three of the isolates and phylogenetic analysis based on the concatenated 26 iridovirus core genes suggest these lumpfish ranavirus isolates form a distinct clade with ranaviruses from cod Gadus morhua L. and turbot Scophthalmus maximus L. isolated in Denmark in 1979 and 1999, respectively. These data suggest that these viruses should be grouped together as a new ranavirus species, European North Atlantic Ranavirus, which encompasses ranaviruses isolated from marine fishes in European North Atlantic waters.
PubMed ID
31904317 View in PubMed
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Development, Characterisation and Application of Monoclonal Antibodies for the Detection and Quantification of Infectious Salmon Anaemia Virus in Plasma Samples Using Luminex Bead Array Technology.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature284660
Source
PLoS One. 2016;11(7):e0159155
Publication Type
Article
Date
2016
Author
R. Hoare
K D Thompson
T. Herath
B. Collet
J E Bron
A. Adams
Source
PLoS One. 2016;11(7):e0159155
Date
2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Antibodies, Monoclonal - blood
Canada
Chile
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
Europe
Fish Diseases - virology
Isavirus - isolation & purification - pathogenicity
North America
Norway
Orthomyxoviridae Infections - blood - veterinary - virology
Salmo salar - blood - virology
Scotland
Abstract
Infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) is an orthomyxovirus that has had a significant economic impact on Atlantic salmon farming in Europe, North America and Chile. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were developed against Segment 3 (encoding the viral nucleoprotein, NP) of the virus. Six of the mAbs were shown to be specific to ISAV and recognised all isolates from Scotland, Norway and Canada. They reacted with ISAV in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), indirect fluorescent antibody technique (IFAT) and western blotting. They were also used to develop a novel detection method based on Luminex (Bio-Plex) bead-based flow cytometric technology for the detection of ISAV in the plasma of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) smolts experimentally infected with ISAV. Fish were challenged by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of virus at 50% Tissue Culture Infective Dose (TCID50) = 2.8 x106 per animal. Virus present in plasma of infected fish, collected at 0, 4, 8, 12, 16, 21 and 28 days post infection using a non-lethal sampling method (n = 12 at each time point), was quantified using the optimised Bio-Plex assay. The results obtained with this assay were compared with absolute quantification of the virus by RT-qPCR using SYBR Green I and TaqMan chemistries. The Bio-Plex assay developed using the NP mAbs appears to be a rapid, sensitive method for detecting and quantifying ISAV in small volumes of fish plasma and has the potential to be multiplexed for the detection of other fish pathogens (e.g. during co-infections). To our knowledge this is the first report of the use of Luminex (Bio-Plex) technology for the detection of a fish pathogen.
Notes
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PubMed ID
27434377 View in PubMed
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Emergence of a new rhabdovirus associated with mass mortalities in eelpout (Zoarces viviparous) in the Baltic Sea.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature282823
Source
J Fish Dis. 2017 Feb;40(2):219-229
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2017
Author
C. Axén
M. Hakhverdyan
T S Boutrup
E. Blomkvist
F. Ljunghager
A. Alfjorden
Å. Hagström
N J Olesen
M. Juremalm
M. Leijon
J-F Valarcher
Source
J Fish Dis. 2017 Feb;40(2):219-229
Date
Feb-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Central Nervous System - virology
Fish Diseases - virology
Genome, Viral
Perciformes
Phylogeny
Rhabdoviridae - genetics - physiology
Rhabdoviridae Infections - veterinary - virology
Sequence Analysis, RNA - veterinary
Sweden
Abstract
We report the first description of a new Rhabdoviridae tentatively named eelpout rhabdovirus (EpRV genus Perhabdovirus). This virus was associated with mass mortalities in eelpout (Zoarces viviparous, Linnaeus) along the Swedish Baltic Sea coast line in 2014. Diseased fish showed signs of central nervous system infection, and brain lesions were confirmed by histology. A cytopathogenic effect was observed in cell culture, but ELISAs for the epizootic piscine viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV), infectious pancreas necrosis virus (IPNV), infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) and spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) were negative. Further investigations by chloroform inactivation, indirect fluorescence antibody test and electron microscopy indicated the presence of a rhabdovirus. By deep sequencing of original tissue suspension and infected cell culture supernatant, the full viral genome was assembled and we confirmed the presence of a rhabdovirus with 59.5% nucleotide similarity to the closest relative Siniperca chuatsi rhabdovirus. The full-genome sequence of this new virus, eelpout rhabdovirus (EpRV), has been deposited in GenBank under accession number KR612230. An RT-PCR based on the L-gene sequence confirmed the presence of EpRV in sick/dead eelpout, but the virus was not found in control fish. Additional investigations to characterize the pathogenicity of EpRV are planned.
PubMed ID
27416895 View in PubMed
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Infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) mucosal infection in Atlantic salmon.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature274425
Source
Vet Res. 2015;46:120
Publication Type
Article
Date
2015
Author
Maria Aamelfot
Alastair McBeath
Debes H Christiansen
Iveta Matejusova
Knut Falk
Source
Vet Res. 2015;46:120
Date
2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Aquaculture
Fish Diseases - virology
Isavirus - physiology
Mucous Membrane - virology
Norway
Orthomyxoviridae Infections - veterinary - virology
Salmo salar
Virus Replication
Abstract
All viruses infecting fish must cross the surface mucosal barrier to successfully enter a host. Infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV), the causative agent of the economically important infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., has been shown to use the gills as its entry point. However, other entry ports have not been investigated despite the expression of virus receptors on the surface of epithelial cells in the skin, the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and the conjunctiva. Here we investigate the ISAV mucosal infection in Atlantic salmon after experimental immersion (bath) challenge and in farmed fish collected from a confirmed outbreak of ISA in Norway. We show for the first time evidence of early replication in several mucosal surfaces in addition to the gills, including the pectoral fin, skin and GI tract suggesting several potential entry points for the virus. Initially, the infection is localized and primarily infecting epithelial cells, however at later stages it becomes systemic, infecting the endothelial cells lining the circulatory system. Viruses of low and high virulence used in the challenge revealed possible variation in virus progression during infection at the mucosal surfaces.
Notes
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PubMed ID
26490835 View in PubMed
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Isolation and characterization of an atypical Siberian sturgeon herpesvirus strain in Russia: novel North American Acipenserid herpesvirus 2 strain in Europe?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature291907
Source
J Fish Dis. 2017 Oct; 40(10):1363-1372
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Oct-2017
Author
A Doszpoly
I M Kalabekov
R Breyta
I S Shchelkunov
Author Affiliation
Institute for Veterinary Medical Research, Centre for Agricultural Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest, Hungary.
Source
J Fish Dis. 2017 Oct; 40(10):1363-1372
Date
Oct-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Amino Acid Sequence
Animals
Aquaculture
Capsid Proteins - genetics
Fish Diseases - virology
Fishes
Herpesviridae Infections - veterinary - virology
Ictalurivirus - genetics - physiology
Russia
Sequence Alignment - veterinary
Abstract
Siberian sturgeon herpesvirus (SbSHV) was isolated in Russia for the first time in 2006. Nine SbSHV isolates were recovered from different fish hatcheries producing the same cytopathic effect in cell cultures, the same clinical signs and mortality kinetics in virus-infected fish and the same virus neutralization pattern and shared identical nucleotide sequences. In 2011, a new isolate was recovered from juvenile sturgeon, which caused completely different cytopathic effect. That isolate was not readily neutralized by Siberian sturgeon hyperimmune antisera, and its DNA was not recognized by the routine PCR developed for SbSHV detection. Molecular study of the novel isolate revealed that it was more closely related to North American Acipenserid herpesvirus 2 (AciHV-2) isolates from white sturgeon, while the genome sequences of the former SbSHV isolates showed high similarity to the AciHV-2 isolated from shortnose sturgeon. While clinical signs and mortality caused by the novel isolate in infected Siberian sturgeon were similar to those of the formerly described SbSHV isolates, the incubation period and mean time to death produced by the novel isolate were twice as long. The differences between the former isolates and the recent one suggest that a novel SbSHV strain emerged in Europe and the molecular findings imply its North American origin.
PubMed ID
28239935 View in PubMed
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Molecular characterisation of infectious pancreatic necrosis viruses isolated from farmed fish in Finland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature286680
Source
Arch Virol. 2017 Nov;162(11):3459-3471
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2017
Author
Riikka Holopainen
Anna Maria Eriksson-Kallio
Tuija Gadd
Source
Arch Virol. 2017 Nov;162(11):3459-3471
Date
Nov-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Aquaculture
Birnaviridae Infections - epidemiology - veterinary - virology
Finland - epidemiology
Fish Diseases - virology
Gene Expression Regulation, Viral
Genome, Viral
Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus - genetics
Phylogeny
Salmonidae
Viral Structural Proteins - genetics - metabolism
Abstract
Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) has been isolated annually since 1987 from salmonids without clinical signs at coastal fish farms in Finland. In the inland area, viral isolations were rare until 2012, when IPNV was detected at several freshwater fish farms. Between 2013 and 2015, the infection spread and IPNV was continuously isolated from several farms, both inland and on the coast. The aim of this study was to genetically characterise the IPNV isolates collected from Finnish coastal and inland fish farms over the last 15 years, and to detect genetic changes that may have occurred in the virus populations during the study period. The partial VP2 gene sequence from 88 isolates was analysed. In addition, a complete genomic coding sequence was obtained from 11 isolates. Based on the genetic analyses, Finnish IPNV isolates belong to three genogroups: 2, 5 and 6. The genetic properties of the isolates appear to vary between inland farms producing juveniles and food fish farms in the coastal region: the inland farms harboured genogroup 2 isolates, whereas at coastal farms, all three genogroups were detected. Little genetic variation was observed within the Finnish genogroup 2 and 5 isolates, whereas among the genogroup 6 isolates, two subgroups were detected. All isolates studied demonstrated amino acid patterns in the viral VP2 gene previously associated with avirulence. However, increased mortality was detected at some of the farms, indicating that more research is needed to clarify the relationship between the pathogenicity and genetic properties of IPNV isolates from different genogroups.
Notes
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PubMed ID
28795226 View in PubMed
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Multilocus sequence typing identifies epidemic clones of Flavobacterium psychrophilum in Nordic countries.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature265827
Source
Appl Environ Microbiol. 2014 May;80(9):2728-36
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2014
Author
Hanne Nilsen
Krister Sundell
Eric Duchaud
Pierre Nicolas
Inger Dalsgaard
Lone Madsen
Anna Aspán
Eva Jansson
Duncan J Colquhoun
Tom Wiklund
Source
Appl Environ Microbiol. 2014 May;80(9):2728-36
Date
May-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Fish Diseases - virology
Flavobacteriaceae Infections - veterinary - virology
Flavobacterium - classification - genetics - isolation & purification
Genetic Variation
Molecular Sequence Data
Multilocus Sequence Typing
Norway
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Phylogeny
Salmonidae
Abstract
Flavobacterium psychrophilum is the causative agent of bacterial cold water disease (BCWD), which affects a variety of freshwater-reared salmonid species. A large-scale study was performed to investigate the genetic diversity of F. psychrophilum in the four Nordic countries: Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden. Multilocus sequence typing of 560 geographically and temporally disparate F. psychrophilum isolates collected from various sources between 1983 and 2012 revealed 81 different sequence types (STs) belonging to 12 clonal complexes (CCs) and 30 singleton STs. The largest CC, CC-ST10, which represented almost exclusively isolates from rainbow trout and included the most predominant genotype, ST2, comprised 65% of all isolates examined. In Norway, with a shorter history (
Notes
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PubMed ID
24561585 View in PubMed
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Overview of infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) in Atlantic Canada and first report of an ISAV North American-HPR0 subtype.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature294333
Source
J Fish Dis. 2018 Mar; 41(3):421-430
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Mar-2018
Author
N Gagné
F LeBlanc
Author Affiliation
Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Gulf Fisheries Center, Moncton, NB, Canada.
Source
J Fish Dis. 2018 Mar; 41(3):421-430
Date
Mar-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Amino Acid Sequence
Animals
Canada
Fish Diseases - virology
Genotype
Isavirus - classification - genetics - physiology
Orthomyxoviridae Infections - veterinary - virology
Phylogeny
Phylogeography
Salmon
Sequence Alignment
Viral Proteins - chemistry - genetics - metabolism
Abstract
The infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) is an important viral disease of farmed Atlantic salmon that has caused considerable financial losses for salmon farmers around the world, including Atlantic Canada. It is listed as a notifiable disease by the World Organization for Animal Health, and to this day, culling of infected cages or farms remains the current practice in many countries to mitigate the spread of the virus. In Atlantic Canada, ISAV was first detected in 1996 and continues to be detected. While some outbreaks seemed to have arisen from isolated infections of unknown source, others were local clusters resulting from horizontal spread of infection. This study provides a description of the detected ISAV isolates in Atlantic Canada between 2012 and 2016, and explores the phylogenetic relatedness between these ISAV isolates. A key finding is the detection for the first time of a North American-HPR0 ISAV subtype, which was predicted to exist for many years. Through phylogenetic analysis, a scenario emerges with at least three separate incursions of ISAV in Atlantic Canada. An initial ISAV introduction follows a genotypic separation between North America and Europe which resulted in the NA and EU genotypes known today; this separation predates the salmon aquaculture industry. The second incursion of ISAV from Europe to North America led to a sublineage in Atlantic Canada consisting of EU-HPR? isolates detected in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, and the predominant form of ISAV-HPR0 (EU). Finally, we observed what could be the third and most recent incursion of ISAV in Newfoundland, in the form of an isolate highly similar to ISAV EU-HPR0 isolates found in the Faroe Islands and the one isolate from Norway.
PubMed ID
28782809 View in PubMed
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Pathogenicity of nodavirus strains from striped jack Pseudocaranx dentex and Atlantic halibut Hippoglossus hippoglossus, studied by waterborne challenge of yolk-sac larvae of both teleost species.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature50896
Source
Dis Aquat Organ. 1999 Nov 30;38(3):169-75
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-30-1999
Author
G K Totland
S. Grotmol
Y. Morita
T. Nishioka
T. Nakai
Author Affiliation
Department of Zoology, University of Bergen, Norway. geir.totland@zoo.uib.no
Source
Dis Aquat Organ. 1999 Nov 30;38(3):169-75
Date
Nov-30-1999
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Antibodies, Viral - chemistry
Antigens, Viral - chemistry - isolation & purification
Brain - virology
Comparative Study
Eye - virology
Fish Diseases - virology
Flatfishes
Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect - veterinary
Immunohistochemistry
Japan
Microscopy, Electron
Norway
RNA Virus Infections - veterinary - virology
RNA Viruses - genetics - isolation & purification - pathogenicity
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction - veterinary
Variation (Genetics) - genetics
Virulence
Yolk Sac - virology
Abstract
The present study shows that differences in pathogenicity exist among fish nodavirus strains. In challenge trials, a Japanese strain (SJ93Nag) was highly virulent to larvae of the striped jack Pseudocaranx dentex but replication was not detected in larvae of Atlantic halibut Hippoglossus hippoglossus at 6 degrees C. Conversely, a Norwegian nodavirus strain (AH95NorA) that was highly virulent to the Atlantic halibut larvae did not replicate in striped jack larvae at 20 degrees C. Occurrence of the disease viral encephalopathy and retinopathy (VER) and cumulative mortality were significantly different in the 2 species when challenged with the 2 nodavirus strains. The presence of nodavirus in nervous tissue was monitored by immunohistochemical methods. Our results support the view that the genetic diversity among nodavirus strains reflects the existence of different viral phenotypes which may be adapted to infect different host species and/or for replicating at different temperatures. Fish nodaviruses represent surveyable pathogens well suited for studying the relation between viral genotypic and phenotypic properties such as host specificity, temperature optima, neuroinvasiveness and neurovirulence.
PubMed ID
10686668 View in PubMed
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Prevalence and genotypes of infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) in returning wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) in northern Norway.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature310440
Source
J Fish Dis. 2019 08; 42(8):1217-1221
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
08-2019

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