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Anisakid nematode larvae in the liver of Atlantic cod Gadus morhua L. from West Greenland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature305314
Source
Parasitol Res. 2020 Oct; 119(10):3233-3241
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Oct-2020
Author
Natacha L Severin
Margaryta Yurchenko
Jonas S Sørensen
Shaozhi Zuo
Asma M Karami
Per W Kania
K Buchmann
Author Affiliation
Department of Veterinary and Animal Science, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Stigbøjlen 7, DK-1870, Frederiksberg C, Denmark.
Source
Parasitol Res. 2020 Oct; 119(10):3233-3241
Date
Oct-2020
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Animals
Anisakiasis - epidemiology
Anisakis - classification - genetics - isolation & purification
Atlantic Ocean - epidemiology
Cyclooxygenase 2 - genetics
DNA, Mitochondrial - genetics
Fish Diseases - parasitology
Gadus morhua - parasitology
Greenland - epidemiology
Larva
Liver - parasitology
Abstract
Anisakid nematode larvae occur frequently in the liver of Atlantic cod, but merely few infection data from cod in waters around Greenland exist. The present study reports the occurrence of third-stage anisakid larvae in the livers of 200 Atlantic cod caught on fishing grounds along the West coast of Greenland (fjord systems of Maniitsoq) in May, June, August and September 2017. Classical and molecular helminthological techniques were used to identify the nematodes. A total of 200 cod livers were examined, and 194 were infected with third-stage nematode larvae (overall prevalence of infection 97%) with a mean intensity of 10.3 (range between 1 and 44 parasites per fish). Prevalences recorded were 96% for Anisakis simplex (s.l.), 55% for Pseudoterranova decipiens (s.l.) and 8% for Contracaecum osculatum (s.l.). Sequencing the mtDNA cox2 from 8 out of 23 these latter larvae conferred these to C. osculatum sp. B. A clear seasonal variation was observed, with a rise in A. simplex (s.l.) and P. decipiens (s.l.) occurrence in June and August and a decline in September. The study may serve as a baseline for future investigations using the three anisakids as biological indicators in Greenland waters.
PubMed ID
32656658 View in PubMed
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Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) is a suitable host for Gyrodactylus salaris (Monogenea, Gyrodactylidae) in Norway.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature80131
Source
Parasitology. 2007 Feb;134(Pt 2):257-67
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2007
Author
Robertsen G.
Hansen H.
Bachmann L.
Bakke T A
Author Affiliation
Natural History Museum, Department of Zoology, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1172, N-0318 Oslo, Norway. grethe.robertsen@nhm.uio.no
Source
Parasitology. 2007 Feb;134(Pt 2):257-67
Date
Feb-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Base Sequence
DNA, Mitochondrial - genetics
Disease Reservoirs - veterinary
Ectoparasitic Infestations - parasitology - veterinary
Fish Diseases - parasitology
Haplotypes
Host-Parasite Relations
Molecular Sequence Data
Norway
Platyhelminths - anatomy & histology - growth & development
Trematode Infections - parasitology - veterinary
Trout
Abstract
Gyrodactylus specimens infecting both anadromous Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) from River Signaldalselva (northern Norway) and resident Arctic charr from Lake Pålsbufjorden (southern Norway) were identified as G. salaris using molecular markers and morphometrics. The infection in Pålsbufjorden represents the first record of a viable G. salaris population infecting a host in the wild in the absence of salmon (Salmo salar). G. salaris on charr from Signaldalselva and Pålsbufjorden bear different mitochondrial haplotypes. While parasites infecting charr in Signaldalselva carry the same mitochondrial haplotype as parasites from sympatric Atlantic salmon, G. salaris from charr in Pålsbufjorden bear a haplotype that has previously been found in parasites infecting rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and Atlantic salmon, and an IGS repeat arrangement that is very similar to those observed earlier in parasites infecting rainbow trout. Accordingly, the infection may result from 2 subsequent host-switches (from salmon via rainbow trout to charr). Morphometric analyses revealed significant differences between G. salaris infecting charr in the 2 localities, and between those on sympatric charr and salmon within Signaldalselva. These differences may reflect adaptations to a new host species, different environmental conditions, and/or inherited differences between the G. salaris strains. The discovery of G. salaris on populations of both anadromous and resident charr may have severe implications for Atlantic salmon stock-management as charr may represent a reservoir for infection of salmon.
PubMed ID
17054822 View in PubMed
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[BIODIVERSITY OF ACANTHOCEPHALANS (ACANTHOCEPHALA) IN FRESHWATER FISHES OF ASIATIC SUB-ARCTIC REGION].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature287872
Source
Parazitologiia. 2016 Jul-Aug;50(4):263-90
Publication Type
Article
Author
G I Atrashkevich
E I Mikhailova
O M Orlovskaya
V V Pospekhov
Source
Parazitologiia. 2016 Jul-Aug;50(4):263-90
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acanthocephala - classification - physiology
Animals
Arctic Regions
Biodiversity
Fish Diseases - parasitology
Fishes - parasitology
Helminthiasis
Siberia
Abstract
The analysis of taxonomical and ecological diversity of acanthocephalans in fishes of Asiatic sub-Arctic region freshwaters, summarizing changes in modern views on species composition, life cycles, and ecology of background groups of these parasites is given. A priority role of studies provided by O. N. Bauer and his scientific school in organization and development of these aspects of acanthocephalology is demonstrated. Special attention is paid to the assessment of acanthocephalan biodiversity of the genus Neoechinorhynchus, the background group of freshwater fish parasites of the Asiatic sub-Arctic region, and an original key for their species is given. The distribution of acanthocephalans of the genus Acanthocephalus in northeastern Asia is analyzed and prospective study of this parasite group, evolutionary associated with freshwater isopods of the genus Asellus as intermediate hosts, is outlined. The absence of documented evidences on intermediate hosts of other background parasites of freshwater fishes in the region, acanthocephalans of the genus Metechinorhynchus, is revealed. It is assumed that subsequent taxonomic revisions based both on morphological and molecular genetic studies are necessary for the reliable revealing of species composition in each genus of the background acanthocephalans from freshwater fishes of Northern Asia. Theoretical significance of the study of acanthocephalan life cycles and revealing their natural intermediate hosts for the reliable estimation of structural and functional organization of their host-parasite systems in different parts of the range is substantiated and the possibility of the distribution of taxonomic conclusions in new territories is analyzed. A brief annotated taxonomical list of freshwater acanthocephalans of the Asiatic sub-Arctic region is given.
PubMed ID
29211417 View in PubMed
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Catching the fish with the worm: a case study on eDNA detection of the monogenean parasite Gyrodactylus salaris and two of its hosts, Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature296590
Source
Parasit Vectors. 2018 Jun 04; 11(1):333
Publication Type
Evaluation Studies
Journal Article
Date
Jun-04-2018
Author
Johannes C Rusch
Haakon Hansen
David A Strand
Turhan Markussen
Sigurd Hytterød
Trude Vrålstad
Author Affiliation
Norwegian Veterinary Institute, P.O. Box 750, Sentrum, NO-0106, Oslo, Norway.
Source
Parasit Vectors. 2018 Jun 04; 11(1):333
Date
Jun-04-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Evaluation Studies
Journal Article
Keywords
Animals
Cestode Infections - parasitology - veterinary
DNA - genetics - isolation & purification
Fish Diseases - parasitology
Fisheries
Norway
Oncorhynchus mykiss - parasitology
Parasitology - methods
Platyhelminths - genetics - isolation & purification - physiology
Rivers - chemistry - parasitology
Salmo salar - parasitology
Abstract
Environmental DNA (eDNA) monitoring is growing increasingly popular in aquatic systems as a valuable complementary method to conventional monitoring. However, such tools have not yet been extensively applied for metazoan fish parasite monitoring. The fish ectoparasite Gyrodactylus salaris, introduced into Norway in 1975, has caused severe damage to Atlantic salmon populations and fisheries. Successful eradication of the parasite has been carried out in several river systems in Norway, and Atlantic salmon remain infected in only seven rivers, including three in the Drammen region. In this particular infection region, a prerequisite for treatment is to establish whether G. salaris is also present on rainbow trout upstream of the salmon migration barrier. Here, we developed and tested eDNA approaches to complement conventional surveillance methods.
Water samples (2 × 5 l) were filtered on-site through glass fibre filters from nine locations in the Drammen watercourse, and DNA was extracted with a CTAB protocol. We developed a qPCR assay for G. salaris targeting the nuclear ribosomal ITS1 region, and we implemented published assays targeting the mitochondrial cytochrome-b and NADH-regions for Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout, respectively. All assays were transferred successfully to droplet digital PCR (ddPCR).
All qPCR/ddPCR assays performed well both on tissue samples and on field samples, demonstrating the applicability of eDNA detection for G. salaris, rainbow trout and Atlantic salmon in natural water systems. With ddPCR we eliminated a low cross-amplification of Gyrodactylus derjavinoides observed using qPCR, thus increasing specificity and sensitivity substantially. Duplex ddPCR for G. salaris and Atlantic salmon was successfully implemented and can be used as a method in future surveillance programs. The presence of G. salaris eDNA in the infected River Lierelva was documented, while not elsewhere. Rainbow trout eDNA was only detected at localities where the positives could be attributed to eDNA release from upstream land-based rainbow trout farms. Electrofishing supported the absence of rainbow trout in all of the localities.
We provide a reliable field and laboratory protocol for eDNA detection of G. salaris, Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout, that can complement conventional surveillance programs and substantially reduce the sacrifice of live fish. We also show that ddPCR outperforms qPCR with respect to the specific detection of G. salaris.
PubMed ID
29866158 View in PubMed
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The cestode parasite Schistocephalus pungitii: castrator or nutrient thief of ninespine stickleback fish?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature287273
Source
Parasitology. 2017 May;144(6):834-840
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2017
Author
David C Heins
Source
Parasitology. 2017 May;144(6):834-840
Date
May-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alaska
Analysis of Variance
Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
Animals
Cestoda - pathogenicity
Cestode Infections - parasitology - physiopathology - veterinary
Female
Fish Diseases - parasitology - physiopathology
Host-Parasite Interactions
Lakes
Oviposition
Reproduction
Smegmamorpha - parasitology - physiology
Abstract
In this investigation, the host-parasite relationship of ninespine stickleback fish Pungitius pungitius and the cestode parasite Schistocephalus pungitii was studied using samples from Dog Bone Lake, Kenai Peninsula, Alaska, to test the hypothesis that S. pungitii is a castrator of ninespine stickleback. Infected, adult females of all sizes (ages) were capable of producing clutches of eggs. S. pungitii had a negative effect on the ability of host females to produce a clutch, which was related to increasing parasite:host mass ratio (parasite index, PI). Among infected females with egg clutches, both clutch size and egg size were reduced; and the reduction increased with greater PI. The results of this study are consistent with the hypothesis that S. pungitii causes host sterility as a result of simple nutrient theft and is not a true castrator as hypothesized in earlier reports. The degree of parasite-induced sterility appears to vary among populations of the ninespine stickleback, perhaps reflecting differences in resource availability. Populations of ninespine stickleback appear to show a greater reduction in host reproductive capacity with PI than populations of the threespine stickleback infected by Schistocephalus solidus, possibly owing, in part, to the length-adjusted somatic mass of the threespine stickleback being greater.
PubMed ID
28073385 View in PubMed
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Co-infection of Nucleospora cyclopteri (Microsporidia) and Kudoa islandica (Myxozoa) in farmed lumpfish, Cyclopterus lumpus L., in Norway: a case report.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature278712
Source
J Fish Dis. 2016 Apr;39(4):411-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2016
Author
M. Alarcón
E. Thoen
T T Poppe
G. Bornø
S N Mohammad
H. Hansen
Source
J Fish Dis. 2016 Apr;39(4):411-8
Date
Apr-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Apansporoblastina - classification - genetics - physiology
Ciliophora - physiology
Ciliophora Infections - pathology
Coinfection
Fish Diseases - parasitology - pathology
Fisheries
Gills - parasitology - pathology
Kidney - parasitology - pathology
Muscle, Skeletal - parasitology
Myxozoa - classification - genetics - physiology
Norway
Parasitic Diseases, Animal - parasitology - pathology
Perciformes - parasitology
RNA, Ribosomal, 18S - genetics
Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid
Abstract
This study describes a co-infection of Kudoa islandica (Myxozoa) and Nucleospora cyclopteri (Microsporida) in farmed lumpfish, Cyclopterus lumpus L., in Norway. Several other parasites (Cryptocotyle sp., protozoan ciliates and Gyrodactylus sp.) were also found in gills. In June 2013, the mortality in a farmed lumpfish population increased to 65%. Lumpfish showed erratic swimming behaviour and loss of weight. At necropsy, nodules in the kidney were the only visible lesions. Histologically, all fish showed severe changes with gill inflammation and necrosis in the spleen, kidney and liver. Haemorrhages and necrosis were observed in some hearts. Intracellular microsporidians associated with the lesions were detected in most organs using histological examination and Calcofluor White. Kudoa spores were diagnosed in the skeletal muscle, but no inflammatory response was associated with the presence of the plasmodia. Comparison of 18S ribosomal DNA sequences showed 100% similarity to Kudoa islandica and Nucleospora cyclopteri. Kudoa islandica and N. cyclopteri have previously been described associated with lesions in wild lumpfish in Iceland. In the present case, N. cyclopteri is believed to be the main cause of systemic pathology. This is the first description of K. islandica and N. cyclopteri causing pathology in farmed lumpfish in Norway.
PubMed ID
25865243 View in PubMed
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Common dace (Leuciscus leuciscus) - A new host of the myxozoan fish parasite, Myxobolus elegans (Cnidaria: Myxozoa) - Short communication.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature312237
Source
Acta Vet Hung. 2020 03; 68(1):34-36
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
03-2020
Author
Daria A Morozova
Vladimir N Voronin
Alexey V Katokhin
Author Affiliation
1Papanin Institute for Biology of Inland Waters, Russian Academy of Sciences, Yaroslavskaya oblast 109, Borok, 152742, Russia.
Source
Acta Vet Hung. 2020 03; 68(1):34-36
Date
03-2020
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Animals
Cyprinidae - parasitology
Fish Diseases - parasitology
Gills - parasitology
Host-Parasite Interactions
Myxobolus - classification - genetics - isolation & purification
Parasitic Diseases, Animal - parasitology
RNA, Ribosomal, 18S - analysis
Russia
Abstract
This paper reports the detection of the myxozoan species Myxobolus elegans Kashkovsky 1966 in common dace (Leuciscus leuciscus) that has not been previously listed as its host. The problem of differentiation of phenotypically similar Myxobolus species is addressed. During parasitological survey of common dace from the desalinated part of the Gulf of Finland at the city of Sestroretsk, Russia, numerous oval-shaped plasmodia, 0.2-0.4 mm in size, filled with Myxobolus spores were found on the gills. Pear-shaped myxospores were 15.4 (14.8-16.0) × 10.2 (9.6-10.9) µm in size with a rib on each valve. On the basis of spore morphology, the species appeared to be similar to M. elegans and Myxobolus hungaricus Jaczó, 1940. In order to identify the species, molecular genetic analysis was performed, and the species was identified on the basis of morphological characteristics and 18S rDNA data. The results obtained indicate that the Myxobolus species observed on the gills of dace is M. elegans. Thus, common dace is another valid host of M. elegans besides the type host, ide (Leuciscus idus).
PubMed ID
32384060 View in PubMed
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[Differences in the infestation rate of young cyprinid fishes (Cypriniformes) by metacercaria of Posthodiplostomum Cuticola (Digenea, Diplostomatidae) in river and lake systems of the Lake Chany basin (Western Siberia)].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature261047
Source
Parazitologiia. 2014 May-Jun;48(3):234-44
Publication Type
Article
Author
E N Iadrenkina
Source
Parazitologiia. 2014 May-Jun;48(3):234-44
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Cyprinidae - parasitology
Fish Diseases - parasitology
Lakes - parasitology
Metacercariae - physiology
Rivers - parasitology
Siberia
Trematoda - physiology
Trematode Infections - parasitology - veterinary
Abstract
A total of 12 fish species were studied for the invasion of P. cuticola (Nordmann, 1832) metacercariae in the Chany Lake estuaries, river and lake systems during different periods of water level. All infected individuals were represented by juveniles of the family Cyprinidae, except for adults of the dace Leuciscus leuciscus. (L.). Under an average water level (2010) the highest rate of fish invasion was revealed in the estuary zone, where the prevalence of infection (PI) constituted 37.5%, 13.4%, and 5.9% for the gudgeon Gobio gobio, the roach Rutilus rutilus (L.), and the dace L. leuciscus (L.), respectively. An infested carp Cyprinus carpio L. (Heckel) (PI - 13.5%) was recorded in the lower Kargat River, and the goldfish Carassius auratus (L.) (PI - 3.2%), in the lake system. Mean intensity of infection (MI) constituted 1.3, 1.4, 2.5, 2.6, and 1.0 in gudgeon, roach, dace, carp, and bream (Abramis brama L.), respectively. During dry season (2011) with high water salinity only two fish species were infected with P. cuticola metacercariae, the goldfish (PI - 7.9%) and the roach (PI - 1.5%). No correlation between PI and fish density was revealed. It is assumed that the high degree of water salinity is a limiting factor regulating the efficiency of cercariae transition from the first intermediate host (Planorbis planorbis (L.)) to the second one (Pisces, Cyprinidae).
PubMed ID
25693328 View in PubMed
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Diplostomum spathaceum metacercarial infection and colour change in salmonid fish.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature50636
Source
Parasitol Res. 2004 May;93(1):51-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2004
Author
P. Rintamäki-Kinnunen
A. Karvonen
P. Anttila
E T Valtonen
Author Affiliation
Department of Biology, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 3000, 90014 University of Oulu, Finland. paivi.rintamaki@oulu.fi
Source
Parasitol Res. 2004 May;93(1):51-5
Date
May-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Eye - parasitology
Fish Diseases - parasitology
Host-Parasite Relations
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Salmo salar - parasitology
Skin Pigmentation - physiology
Species Specificity
Trematoda - growth & development - isolation & purification - pathogenicity
Trematode Infections - parasitology - veterinary
Trout - parasitology
Abstract
Colour changes in two salmonid fish, the salmon (Salmo salar) and sea trout (S. trutta), were examined in relation to infection with the trematode Diplostomum spathaceum. This parasite had no effect on the rate of colour change in these fish, although species specific differences in colour adjustment times were observed. Increasing asymmetry in parasite numbers between the right and left eye, which could lead to the retention of vision in one eye, nevertheless tended to reduce the colour change time in salmon with moderate infection (P=0.08). This first experimental attempt to examine colour changes in fish in relation to eye fluke infections provides grounds for future investigations. The darker appearance of the heavily infected fish described in the literature suggests that a high parasite burden actually causes colour changes. We emphasise that detailed quantitative studies using fish with higher parasite loads, especially from the tail of the aggregated parasite distribution, are needed to describe these relationships in detail.
PubMed ID
15060824 View in PubMed
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[Dynamics of parasite communities in an age series of Arctic Cisco Coregonus migratorius (Georgi, 1775)].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature260553
Source
Izv Akad Nauk Ser Biol. 2013 Sep-Oct;(5):592-604
Publication Type
Article
Author
Zh N Dugarov
N M Pronin
Source
Izv Akad Nauk Ser Biol. 2013 Sep-Oct;(5):592-604
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Ecology
Fish Diseases - parasitology
Host-Parasite Interactions
Lakes
Salmonidae - parasitology
Abstract
Parasite communities of Arctic cisco from Chivyrkui Bay of Lake Baikal have been analyzed at levels of a host individual (infracommunity), a individual age group of a host-(assemblages of infracommunities), and a host population (component community). Significant positive correlations of parameters of species richness (number of parasite species, Margalef and Menhinick indices) with the age of Arctic cisco were recorded only at the level of parasite inffacommunities. The absence of linear positive correlations between the parameters of species richness and the age of Arctic cisco at the level of assemblages of parasite infracommunities were revealed for the first time for fish of Lake Baikal. The peculiarity of the dynamics of parasite communities of. Arctic cisco is determined by specific features of the host physiology and ecology, primarily by the age dynamics of the feeding spectrum.
PubMed ID
25510113 View in PubMed
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60 records – page 1 of 6.