In the present study, pure-tone audiometry was used in 687 Finnish school children, aged 6-15 years, to determine the prevalence of a 6 kHz acoustic dip and related factors among three age groups. Trained audiometricians tested air conduction thresholds in a sound-proof room. A total of 57 children (8.3%) had a clear-cut dip of at least 20 dB at 6 kHz. This dip was more pronounced in older children and in boys. A thorough case history was obtained by questionnaire, with logistic regression analysis showing that low birth weight (
The aim of the study was to identify heavy drinking trajectories from age 16 to 42 years and to examine their associations with health, social, employment and economic disadvantage in mid-adulthood.
Finnish cohort study's participants who were 16 years old in 1983 were followed up at age 22, 32 and 42 (n = 1334). Heavy drinking was assessed at every study phase and based on these measurements trajectories of heavy drinking were identified. The trajectory groups were then examined as predictors of disadvantage at age 42.
Five distinct heavy drinking trajectories were identified: moderate (35%), steady low (22%), decreasing (9%), increasing (11%) and steady high (23%). Frequencies of the trajectory groups differed by gender. Using the moderate trajectory as a reference category, women in the steady high trajectory had an increased risk of experiencing almost all disadvantages at age 42. In men, increasing and steady high groups had an increased risk for experiencing health and economic disadvantage.
Steady high female drinkers and steady high and increasing male drinkers had the highest risk for disadvantage in mid-adulthood. By identifying heavy drinking trajectories from adolescence to mid-adulthood we can better predict long-term consequences of heavy alcohol use and plan prevention and intervention programmes.
This three-wave 35-year prospective study used the Job Demands-Resources model and life course epidemiology to examine how life conditions in adolescence (1961-1963) through achieved educational level and working conditions in early adulthood (1985) may be indirectly related to job burnout 35 years later (1998). We used data (N = 511) from the Finnish Healthy Child study (1961-1963) to investigate the hypothesized relationships by employing structural equation modeling analyses. The results supported the hypothesized model in which both socioeconomic status and cognitive ability in adolescence (1961-1963) were positively associated with educational level (measured in 1985), which in turn was related to working conditions in early adulthood (1985). Furthermore, working conditions (1985) were associated with job burnout (1998) 13 years later. Moreover, adult education (1985) and skill variety (1985) mediated the associations between original socioeconomic status and cognitive ability, and burnout over a 35-year time period. The results suggest that socioeconomic, individual, and work-related resources may accumulate over the life course and may protect employees from job burnout.
To examine the relationship between part-time work and heavy drinking among Finnish adolescents.
The cross-sectional survey data (the School Health Promotion Survey, n = 47,568) were collected in classrooms in 2000.
Finnish lower-level secondary school students from the 8th and 9th grades, aged 14-16 years. The response rate was 82%.
Work intensity, work type and the frequency of heavy drinking obtained from self-administered questionnaires. The relationship between work and heavy drinking was studied using polychotomous logistic regression models.
Compared with non-workers, adolescents working more than 10 hours per week had an increased risk of heavy drinking, and also the frequency of heavy drinking was connected with this intensive working. When gender, grade level, parental education, the employment status of the parents, family structure, economic situation of the family, the degree of urbanisation, parental control, steady dating. GPA and disposable allowance were adjusted for, the odds of weekly drunkenness were almost three times the odds of not reporting drunkenness among intensive workers compared with non-workers. When adjusted for other factors, some typical children's jobs marginally decreased a likelihood of heavy drinking.
Work does seem not protect adolescents from heavy drinking. Although many relevant factors were controlled for the effect may, however, be mediated through factors not covered in the survey. Therefore, further clarification of the causal chains linking adolescent working and drinking is needed.
This study assessed whether adolescents' socioeconomic background, health and health behaviours are associated with later risk of poisoning hospitalization.
A prospective cohort of 54,169 Finns aged 14-18 years was followed for an average of 10.6 years. The end-point of the study was poisoning hospitalization, death or termination of follow-up in 2001. The relationships of socioeconomic background, health and health behaviour characteristics with poisoning hospitalization were studied with adjusted Cox's proportional hazard model.
We identified 443 persons (0.8%) with a diagnosed poisoning leading to hospital admission. The mean age at the time of the poisoning hospitalization was 22.7 years. The strongest risk factors for poisoning hospitalization in males were more than three stress symptoms weekly (HR 1.9), poor school success (HR 1.9) and not living with both of the parents in adolescence (HR 1.8). In females, the strongest risk factors were more than three stress symptoms weekly (HR 2.1), poor school success (HR 2.2) and recurring drunkenness as drinking style (HR 1.7).
Poor school performance, health and health-compromising behaviour adopted in adolescence are associated with a poisoning hospitalization risk in adulthood. Daily smoking and recurring drunkenness were strongly associated with a later poisoning hospitalization.
Injuries represent an important cause of mortality among young adults. Longitudinal studies on risk factors are scarce. We studied associations between adolescents' perceived health and health behaviour and injury death.
A prospective cohort of 57,407 Finns aged 14 to 18 years was followed for an average of 11.4 years. The end-point of study was injury death or termination of follow-up in 2001. The relationships of eight health and health behaviour characteristics with injury death were studied with adjusted Cox's proportional hazard model.
We identified 298 (0.5%) injury deaths, 232 (0.9%) in men and 66 (0.2%) in women. The mean age at death was 23.8 years. In the models adjusted for age, sex and socioeconomic background, the strongest risk factors for injury death were recurring drunkenness (HR 2.1; 95% CI: 1.4-3.1) and daily smoking (HR 1.7; 95% CI: 1.3-2.2). Poor health did not predict injury death. Unintentional and intentional injury deaths had similar health and health behavioural risk factors.
Health compromising behaviour adopted at adolescence has a clear impact on the risk of injury death in adulthood independent from socioeconomic background. On the other hand, poor health as such is not a significant predictor of injury death. Promotion of healthy lifestyle among adolescents as part of public health programmes would seem an appropriate way to contribute to adolescent injury prevention.
Cites: Matern Child Health J. 1997 Dec;1(4):217-2710728247
Cites: Lancet. 2007 Jun 16;369(9578):2001-917574092
International comparability of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure levels is difficult. This study assesses whether estimating children's exposure from information on adult smoking and exposure to ETS makes international comparisons more reliable.
The exposure among children was estimated using three different combinations (models) based on different sets of information on adult smoking, household composition or adult exposure to ETS at home in three cross-sectional nationally representative samples drawn from data sets from Estonia (n=2650), Finland (n=2829) and Latvia (n=5440) in the years 2002 and 2004. The first two models were based on adult smoking and the third also included ETS exposure.
The parental smoking rate was similar to the general smoking prevalence. ETS exposure in non-smoking parents ranged from 22% in Finland to 60% in Latvia. All models gave rather comparative ranges except in Latvia, where the proportion of children with exposure varied from 67% with the simplest model to 81% with the most complex one.
Adult exposure at home or adult smoking prevalence, preferably among people with children, could be used as a proxy for children's exposure to ETS. It is recommended that population questionnaires include detailed information on exposure and household composition.
To compare self-reported (SR) medication use and pharmacy data for major psychoactive medications and three classes of medications used for different indications, and to determine the socio-economic factors associated with the congruence.
Postal questionnaire data collected in 1997 were compared with the register of the Social Insurance Institution of Finland on the reimbursed prescriptions purchased during 1997. Altogether 7625 subjects were included in this study. Drugs were categorized according to the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) system.
Kappa values were 0.77, 0.68, 0.84, 0.92 and 0.55 for antipsychotics, antidepressants, antiepileptics, antidiabetics and beta-blocking agents, respectively. Prevalence-adjusted and bias-adjusted kappa values were almost perfect (0.98-1.00). Reliability of antipsychotics use was better for married subjects than for those who were not married; and of antidepressants use for highly educated and married subjects than for those who were less educated and were not married. Altogether 414 (5.4%) responders and 285 (7.1%) non-responders had used at least one of the selected medications.
Agreement between the SR and pharmacy data was moderate for psychoactive medication use. Even though data collected by postal questionnaire may underestimate the prevalence of medication use due to non-participation it can be assumed accurate enough for study purposes.
Verotoxigenic E. coli (VTEC) is the cause of severe gastrointestinal infection especially among infants. Between 10 and 20 cases are reported annually to the National Infectious Disease Register (NIDR) in Finland. The aim of this study was to identify explanatory variables for VTEC infections reported to the NIDR in Finland between 1997 and 2006. We applied a hurdle model, applicable for a dataset with an excess of zeros.
We enrolled 131 domestically acquired primary cases of VTEC between 1997 and 2006 from routine surveillance data. The isolated strains were characterized by virulence type, serogroup, phage type and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. By applying a two-part Bayesian hurdle model to infectious disease surveillance data, we were able to create a model in which the covariates were associated with the probability for occurrence of the cases in the logistic regression part and the magnitude of covariate changes in the Poisson regression part if cases do occur. The model also included spatial correlations between neighbouring municipalities.
The average annual incidence rate was 4.8 cases per million inhabitants based on the cases as reported to the NIDR. Of the 131 cases, 74 VTEC O157 and 58 non-O157 strains were isolated (one person had dual infections). The number of bulls per human population and the proportion of the population with a higher education were associated with an increased occurrence and incidence of human VTEC infections in 70 (17%) of 416 of Finnish municipalities. In addition, the proportion of fresh water per area, the proportion of cultivated land per area and the proportion of low income households with children were associated with increased incidence of VTEC infections.
With hurdle models we were able to distinguish between risk factors for the occurrence of the disease and the incidence of the disease for data characterised by an excess of zeros. The density of bulls and the proportion of the population with higher education were significant both for occurrence and incidence, while the proportion of fresh water, cultivated land, and the proportion of low income households with children were significant for the incidence of the disease.
An earlier comparative time series analysis of the connection between per capita alcohol consumption and suicide mortality reported, unexpectedly, a non-significant effect of alcohol on the suicide rate of Finnish men. However, the suicide rate of Finnish men is heterogeneous in regard to age groups. There is also indication that the connection between alcohol and suicides is stronger in younger than in older age groups. Time series data on per capita alcohol consumption and age-specific suicide mortality in 1950-91 were used to scrutinize the relationship. The results indicate that the suicide rate of Finnish men in age groups 15-34 years and 35-49 years is associated with per capita alcohol consumption, while no connection could be established between the suicide rates of men aged 50-69 years and 70+ years and either per capita alcohol consumption or a lagged consumption measure. Real income, divorce rate and unemployment rate were regarded as possible confounding variables.