Distal myopathies are a group of rare muscular dystrophies comprising more than 20 different genetic entities. The first distal myopathy in Finland, tibial muscular dystrophy, was identified more than 20 years ago. Muscle weakness predominantly affects the feet and hands, although variable weakness can be detected clinically and on muscle MRI in the proximal muscles in the later stages of the disease. Advanced molecular genetic techniques have enabled identification of several distinct distal myopathies in Finland. The clinical findings of different distal myopathies overlap, but there are also distinguishable differences that might help final genetic diagnostics.
This study aimed at examining how resurfacing and the first winter period after resurfacing affect the safety of main roads in Finland. The study consisted of three substudies. In the first substudy the changes of side friction and lock braking friction were measured on newly paved roads after resurfacing and after the first winter period. The effect of different resurfacing methods was also compared in the course of the study. All the 50 road sections in the study were resurfaced in summer 1991 and measured with the friction truck of the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT). Friction was found to be highly dependent on the type of resurfacing treatment. In general, the friction of surfaces with high coefficients after resurfacing decrease and the lowest frictions increase with time, locked braking friction values immediately after resurfacing can be undesirably low. The second substudy dealt with the effect of resurfacing on the vehicle speeds. The analysis was based on automatic speed and weather measurement in 1991 and 1992 on resurfaced roads, which were resurfaced in the summer 1991 and on a sample of comparison roads which had not been resurfaced. There is little change in speeds on the non-resurfaced roads during the study period, but there is some indication that resurfacing increases the average speeds, at least when the road is dry. Complete data were available for only one site, where the result was that average speeds on dry roads increased after resurfacing by 0.6 km/h and increased still more (by 0.5 km/h) after the first winter period. The third substudy analysed fatal and injury accidents reported to the police on the resurfaced and comparison roads one and two years before, the same year resurfacing was performed and one and two years after the resurfacing. The accident results were similar to the speed findings. The most likely effect is a risk increase immediately after resurfacing by somewhat less than 7% and of 3 to 7% of the first winter period. These results are, however, subject to large uncertainty because of the small number of accidents on the treatment roads.
Therapeutic results for cancer have gradually improved. The relative five-year survival rate of those affected with the disease already exceeds 65% in Finland. New cancer therapies play an indisputable role in the improvement of the prognosis. Besides therapy and its availability, many other causes may also have a considerable effect on the survival of affected persons, making comparison of regional survival rates unreliable as a measure of cancer treatment. The review deals with factors affecting the survival of persons having cancer and includes descriptions of some of the most recent cancer treatments and a discussion about the challenges of developing cancer therapies.
In this study, we sought to explore the temperature-dependent transition of patterns of reported chickenpox cases in the northern European countries of Denmark and Finland to help determine the potential relationship with epidemiological factors of the disease. We performed time-series analysis consisting of a spectral analysis based on the maximum entropy method in the frequency domain and the nonlinear least squares method in the time domain, using the following time-series data: monthly data of reported chickenpox cases and mean temperatures in the pre-vaccination era for Denmark and Finland. The results were compared with those reported for China and Japan in our previous studies.
Time-series data of chickenpox cases for both Denmark and Finland showed a peak each winter, resulting in a unimodal cycle. For investigating the origin of the unimodal cycle, we set the contribution ratio of the 1-year cycle, Q1, as the contribution of the amplitude of a 1-year cycle, to the entire amplitude of the time-series data. The Q1 values for both countries clearly showed a positive correlation with the annual mean temperature of each country. The mean temperature substantially influenced the incidence of chickenpox in both countries.
Cites: Trop Med Int Health. 1998 Nov;3(11):886-90 PMID 9855401
Cites: BMC Infect Dis. 2017 Aug 3;17 (1):538 PMID 28774264
Cites: BMC Infect Dis. 2015 Nov 03;15:495 PMID 26530702
Homicide is recognized as a global public health problem. Finland has the highest overall homicide rate of the Nordic countries in comparisons over short time periods. Using the 39-year time series of homicide incidents in Finland from 1957-95, we analyzed the trend in homicide rate. In addition, we explored for the first time over the time trend in the seasonal variation of homicide and compared seasonal statistics over eight successive time periods. The present study revealed that there has been steadily increasing trend in homicides in Finland since 1950s. At the same time, the seasonality of homicide has decreased markedly. The peaks in homicide rates occurred commonly during summer and the troughs during winter.