The 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration (25-OHD) in maternal and cord blood of 192 mothers was determined at delivery from June to the end of November. Ninety-nine mothers had received a daily supplementation of 12.5 micrograms of vitamin D during pregnancy and this group had a significantly higher 25-OHD concentration both in maternal and in cord blood than in the corresponding non-supplemented group. A daily supplement of 2.5 micrograms of vitamin D was given to 63 of the mothers during lactation. Of these mothers 44 were still lactating after 6 months. The dietary vitamin D intake of 31 mothers was calculated. We found a significant correlation between the maternal serum 25-OHD concentration 16-18 weeks after delivery and the total vitamin D intake. The intake (5.5 micrograms/d, including supplementation) was lower than that recommended for lactating mothers which is 10 micrograms/d (Food and Nutrition Board, 1980).
Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA.
Epigenetic modifications, such as DNA methylation, due to in utero exposures may play a critical role in early programming for childhood and adult illness. Maternal smoking is a major risk factor for multiple adverse health outcomes in children, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear.
We investigated epigenome-wide methylation in cord blood of newborns in relation to maternal smoking during pregnancy.
We examined maternal plasma cotinine (an objective biomarker of smoking) measured during pregnancy in relation to DNA methylation at 473,844 CpG sites (CpGs) in 1,062 newborn cord blood samples from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip (450K).
We found differential DNA methylation at epigenome-wide statistical significance (p-value
Formation of lactic acid by the extracts from the healthy rabbit muscles was studied as affected by the sera of embryos, newborn rabbits and pregnant female rabbits. The blood sera and beta-globulin isolated from them are established to activate anaerobic glycolysis and inhibit the Pasteur reaction. It is shown that protein typical of normal growth, belonging to beta-globulins and circulating in blood of the embryos, newborn rabbits from the first to the fifteenth day of development is "responsible" for this phenomena. Correlation is found between the precipitation test for detecting this protein and its biological effect on glycolysis and the Pasteur reaction.
Human plasminogen isolated from the placenta serum fraction by means of affinity chromatography was activated by trypsin being in covalent bond with sepharose. The activation is studied as dependent on pH, temperature and the proenzyme-activator ratio in the presence of 25% glycerol as a stabilizing agent and without it. Utilization of the immobilized trypsin as a plasminogen activator makes it possible to transform completely the proenzyme to plasmin varying the plasminogen-trypsin ratio and time of activation when it is conducted under optimal conditions: in the presence of 25% glycerol at pH 7.0-7.1 and the temperature of 30 degrees C.
To examine whether the introduction of advanced diagnostic technology in maternity care has led to less variation in type of delivery between hospitals in Norway.
The Medical Birth Registry of Norway provided detailed medical information for 1.7 million deliveries from 1967 to 2005. Information about diagnostic technology was collected directly from the maternity units.
The data were analyzed using a two-level binary logistic model with Caesarean section as the outcome measure. Level one contained variables that characterized the health status of the mother and child. Hospitals are level two. A heterogeneous variance structure was specified for the hospital level, where the error variance was allowed to vary according to the following types of diagnostic technology: two-dimensional ultrasound, cardiotocography, ST waveform analysis, and fetal blood analyses.
There was a marked variation in Caesarean section rates between hospitals up to 1973. After this the variation diminished markedly. This was due to the introduction of ultrasound and cardiotocography.
Diagnostic technology reduced clinical uncertainty about the diagnosis of risk factors of the mother and child during delivery, and variation in type of delivery between hospitals was reduced accordingly. The results support the practice style hypothesis.
In Finland a nationwide screening programme for congenital hypothyroidism (CHT) has operated since 1980 with complete coverage. Among the total of 307,000 newborns screened, the incidence per 100,000 was 24.6 for thyroid dysgenesis and 4.0 for dyshormonogenesis. We conclude that, when screening is based on cord serum TSH, the false-positive results are caused mainly by difficult delivery. The most important factors associated with dyshormonogenesis were CHT in the family, origin from a geographic risk area, and origin of both mother and father from the same community. These reflect the autosomal recessive inheritance. The risk factors for dysgenesis were female gender, CHT in the family, birth in a geographic risk area, and birth during a risk period of the year.
The prospective cohort study design is ideal for examining diseases of public health importance, as its inherent temporal nature renders it advantageous for studying early life influences on health outcomes and research questions of aetiological significance. This paper will describe the development and characteristics of the All Our Babies (AOB) study, a prospective pregnancy cohort in Calgary, Alberta, Canada designed to examine determinants of maternal, infant, and child outcomes and identify barriers and facilitators in health care utilization.
Women were recruited from health care offices, communities, and through Calgary Laboratory Services before 25 weeks gestation from May 2008 to December 2010. Participants completed two questionnaires during pregnancy, a third at 4 months postpartum, and are currently being followed-up with questionnaires at 12, 24, and 36 months. Data was collected on pregnancy history, demographics, lifestyle, health care utilization, physical and mental health, parenting, and child developmental outcomes and milestones. In addition, biological/serological and genetic markers can be extracted from collected maternal and cord blood samples.
A total of 4011 pregnant women were eligible for recruitment into the AOB study. Of this, 3388 women completed at least one survey. The majority of participants were less than 35 years of age, Caucasian, Canadian born, married or in a common-law relationship, well-educated, and reported household incomes above the Calgary median. Women who discontinued after the first survey (n=123) were typically younger, non-Caucasian, foreign-born, had lower education and household income levels, were less likely to be married or in a common-law relationship, and had poor psychosocial health in early pregnancy. In general, AOB participants reflect the pregnant and parenting population at local and provincial levels, and perinatal indicators from the study are comparable to perinatal surveillance data.
The extensive and rich data collected in the AOB cohort provides the opportunity to answer complex questions about the relationships between biology, early experiences, and developmental outcomes. This cohort will contribute to the understanding of the biologic mechanisms and social/environmental pathways underlying associations between early and later life outcomes, gene-environment interactions, and developmental trajectories among children.
High amniotic fluid erythropoietin concentration reflects chronic fetal hypoxia. Our aim was to study amniotic fluid erythropoietin concentration in relation to neonatal outcome in pregnancies complicated by intrauterine growth restriction.
Retrospective case series.
Helsinki University Hospital, Finland.
A total of 66 singleton pregnancies complicated by intrauterine growth restriction.
Amniocentesis or amniotic fluid sampling at cesarean section was performed between 24 and 34 gestational weeks. Values of amniotic fluid erythropoietin were quantitated with immunochemiluminometric assay. Normal amniotic fluid erythropoietin was defined as 27 IU/L.
Adverse neonatal outcome.
Abnormal biophysical profile and reversed end-diastolic flow in umbilical artery were associated with abnormal amniotic fluid erythropoietin (p
The knowledge about fetal exposure to acrylamide/glycidamide from the maternal exposure through food is limited. Acrylamide, glycidamide, and ethylene oxide are electrophiles and form adducts with hemoglobin (Hb), which could be used for in vivo dose measurement. In this study, a method for analysis of Hb adducts by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, the adduct FIRE procedure, was applied to measurements of adducts from these compounds in maternal blood samples (n = 87) and umbilical cord blood samples (n = 219). The adduct levels from the three compounds, acrylamide, glycidamide, and ethylene oxide, were increased in tobacco smokers. Highly significant correlations were found between cord and maternal blood with regard to measured adduct levels of the three compounds. The mean cord/maternal hemoglobin adduct level ratios were 0.48 (range 0.27-0.86) for acrylamide, 0.38 (range 0.20-0.73) for glycidamide, and 0.43 (range 0.17-1.34) for ethylene oxide. In vitro studies with acrylamide and glycidamide showed a lower (0.38-0.48) rate of adduct formation with Hb in cord blood than with Hb in maternal blood, which is compatible with the structural differences in fetal and adult Hb. Together, these results indicate a similar life span of fetal and maternal erythrocytes. The results showed that the in vivo dose in fetal and maternal blood is about the same and that the placenta gives negligible protection of the fetus to exposure from the investigated compounds. A trend of higher levels of the measured adducts in cord blood with gestational age was observed, which may reflect the gestational age-related change of the cord blood Hb composition toward a higher content of adult Hb. The results suggest that the Hb adduct levels measured in cord blood reflect the exposure to the fetus during the third trimester. The evaluation of the new analytical method showed that it is suitable for monitoring of background exposures of the investigated electrophilic compounds in large population studies.