This study aims to make an account of the children born following transplantation of frozen-thawed ovarian tissue worldwide with specific focus on the perinatal outcome of the children. Furthermore, perinatal outcome of seven deliveries (nine children) from Denmark is reported.
PubMed was searched for papers of deliveries resulting from ovarian tissue cryopreservation (OTC). Seven women underwent OTC prior to chemotherapy. Four of these women still had low ovarian function and had tried to conceive. They therefore had tissue autotransplanted to augment their fertility. The other three women had developed premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) after the end of treatment.
Worldwide, approximately 95 children have been born or will be born in the near future from OTC, including these 9 new children. Information on the perinatal outcome was found on 40 children. The mean gestational age was 39 weeks and the mean birth weight was 3168 g of the singleton pregnancies, which is within internationally recognized normal standards. Furthermore, half the singletons resulted from natural conception and all twins resulted from in vitro fertilization treatment. All seven Danish women became pregnant within 1-3 years after transplantation. They gave birth to nine healthy children.
The data is reassuring and further suggests that cryopreservation of ovarian tissue is becoming an established fertility preservation method. The seven Danish women reported in this study were all in their early thirties when OTC was performed. Most other reported cases were in the women's twenties. This suggests that the follicular pool in the thirties is large enough and sufficient to sustain fertility.
OBJECTIVES: To explore the effect of recombinant, human GH on follicular development and oocyte retrieval after gonadotropin stimulation with the addition of GH or placebo to a standard IVF treatment regimen. Further, to investigate whether GH is a more effective adjuvant if the standard treatment regimen is preceded by GH injections. DESIGN: A randomized, double-blind, parallel, placebo-controlled study. SETTING: The IVF unit at university hospital. PATIENTS: Forty normally ovulating women, age 25 to 38 years, with infertility because of tubal factors and being classified as "poor responders" with at least two previously performed and failed IVF attempts. INTERVENTIONS: Human, recombinant GH (Genotropin, Kabi Pharmacia, Uppsala, Sweden) or placebo (0.1 IU/kg body weight per day) was given SC as pretreatment during down regulation with GnRH and during stimulation with hMG according to the randomized protocol. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Number of oocytes retrieved after stimulation, total amount of gonadotropin used, time required for stimulation, number of follicles developing, rate of fertilization, and cleavage in vitro. Further, the quality of embryos, development of the endometrium, rate of clinical pregnancy, and serum and follicular fluid (FF) concentrations of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1), and IGFBP-3 were estimated. RESULTS: The number of oocytes retrieved did not differ significantly between the groups, nor did the amount of hMG required for stimulation. The fertilization rate increased in patients who had received GH. Growth hormone caused a significant increase in serum and FF levels of IGF-I. An increase in serum IGFBP-3 could also be recorded in patients who had received GH. CONCLUSION: Although certain beneficial effects were noted in GH-treated patients, the overall results did not support GH as a clinically useful adjuvant treatment.
Oocyte donation has been associated to gestational diabetes, hypertensive disorders, placental abnormalities, preterm delivery and increased rate of caesarean delivery while simultaneously being characterized by high rates of primiparity, advanced maternal age and multiple gestation constituting the individual risk of mode of conception difficult to assess. This study aims to explore obstetrical outcomes among relatively young women with optimal health status conceiving singletons with donated versus autologous oocytes (via IVF and spontaneously).
National retrospective cohort case study involving 76 women conceiving with donated oocytes, 150 nulliparous women without infertility conceiving spontaneously and 63 women conceiving after non-donor IVF. Data on obstetric outcomes were retrieved from the National Birth Medical Register and the medical records of oocyte recipients from the treating University Hospitals of Sweden. Demographic and logistic regression analysis were performed to examine the association of mode of conception and obstetric outcomes.
Women conceiving with donated oocytes (OD) had a higher risk of hypertensive disorders [adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR) 2.84, 95% CI (1.04-7.81)], oligohydramnios [aOR 12.74, 95% CI (1.24-130.49)], postpartum hemorrhage [aOR 7.11, 95% CI (2.02-24.97)] and retained placenta [aOR 6.71, 95% CI (1.58-28.40)] when compared to women who conceived spontaneously, after adjusting for relevant covariates. Similar trends, though not statistically significant, were noted when comparing OD pregnant women to women who had undergone non-donor IVF. Caesarean delivery [aOR 2.95, 95% CI (1.52-5.71); aOR 5.20, 95% CI (2.21-12.22)] and induction of labor [aOR 3.00, 95% CI (1.39-6.44); aOR 2.80, 95% CI (1.10-7.08)] occurred more frequently in the OD group, compared to the group conceiving spontaneously and through IVF respectively. No differences in gestational length were noted between the groups. With regard to the indication of OD treatment, higher intervention was observed in women with diminished ovarian reserve but the risk for hypertensive disorders did not differ after adjustment.
The selection process of recipients for medically indicated oocyte donation treatment in Sweden seems to be effective in excluding women with severe comorbidities. Nevertheless, oocyte recipients-despite being relatively young and of optimal health status- need careful counseling preconceptionally and closer monitoring prenatally for the development of hypertensive disorders.
OBJECTIVE: To study the predictive value of initial low response (LR) in IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). DESIGN: Retrospective analysis. SETTING: Two Finnish fertility centers. PATIENT(S): A total of 3,846 IVF/ICSI cycles performed from 1994 to 2002. INTERVENTION(S): Consecutive cycles in the same subject were identified. The study groups consisted of subjects who had three treatment cycles and at least one LR cycle (n = 80). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Pregnancy rate (PR), total gonadotropin dose, and embryo quality. RESULT(S): Only 2.5% (2/80) of subjects had a LR in all three consecutive cycles. In 43 women an initial LR was followed by >/=1 normal response (NR) cycle, and in 35 women an initial NR was followed by >/=1 LR cycle. The PR/cycle was similarly low in women with an initial LR and an initial NR (10.1% vs. 16.2%). An increase in gonadotropin dose resulted in a higher number of oocytes in women with an initial LR (from 2.1 +/- 0.9 to 6.7 +/- 2.7) but the PR/cycle remained low, compared to the overall mean PR (27.2%). In cycles in which top quality embryos were transferred, subjects with an initial LR had a lower PR than women with an initial NR (17.8% vs. 41.2%). CONCLUSION(S): An initial LR is a predictor of poor outcome in subsequent cycles, even if ovarian response is improved by increasing the gonadotropin dose or a top quality embryo is replaced.
Multiple pregnancy is one of the most important and preventable complications of in vitro fertilization (IVF) and embryo transfer. The general clinical practice in many IVF clinics is to transfer four or five embryos to older women if available, since pregnancy rates are lower in women older than 35 years of age. However, it is not clear whether the risk for multiple pregnancy is also lower.
Our objective was to investigate whether transferring a higher number of embryos actually improves pregnancy outcome in older women, without increasing the risk for multiple pregnancy and to investigate other factors that may affect the occurrence of multiple pregnancy.
The setting was university-based IVF program at The Toronto Hospital.
The design was a retrospective case series.
The outcome of 1116 IVF cycles between January 1992 and December 1993 was investigated according to different age groups.
The main outcome measure was multiple pregnancies.
Seventy multiple pregnancies resulted from a total of 242 pregnancies. Overall pregnancy and multiple pregnancy rates were inversely correlated with age. However, when the data were adjusted for the number of embryos transferred, this trend disappeared. The result of multiple regression analysis showed that the multiple pregnancy rate was higher without improving the pregnancy rate when the number of embryos transferred exceeded three, regardless of the age of the patients, especially when more embryos were available than the number of transferred ones.
The number of embryos transferred should be limited to a maximum of three regardless of the age of patients, to reduce the high frequency of multiple gestations in an IVF program.
Cites: Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1966 Feb 15;94(4):490-65903669