The present study aimed to explore the process in which impulsivity might influence soft drink consumption in adolescents, addressing potential mediating effects of perceived parental regulation regarding unhealthy eating. A cross-sectional survey was performed among 440 13-15-year-olds in Eastern Norway. The survey questionnaire included measures of impulsivity, six types of maternal and paternal regulation (as perceived by the adolescents), and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB). Parallel multiple-mediator analyses were performed to reveal potential mediating effects of perceived parental regulatory behaviors on the association between adolescent impulsivity and SSB consumption. Separate models were run for maternal and paternal regulation. Results from our model analyses (both maternal and paternal models) indicated that all the six measured parental regulatory behaviors jointly acted as mediators on the association between adolescent impulsivity and SSB consumption. However, only perceived maternal and paternal legitimacy of regulation showed a unique contribution to the mediated effect. This finding suggests that adolescents' perception of parental legitimate authority is of particular importance in explaining the relationship between impulsivity and unhealthy eating behaviors in adolescents. Future nutrition interventions targeting adolescents and their parents should take personal factors such as adolescents' level of impulsivity into account. Ultimately; what may be an appropriate approach to impulsive individuals and their parents may diverge from what may be an appropriate approach to less impulsive individuals and their parents.
This study is grounded in a phenomenological lifeworld perspective. It aims at providing rich descriptions of lived experience of the process of losing weight after obesity surgery. Two women participated in in-depth interviews four times each during the first postoperative year. Based on the women's experiences, a meaning structure--the ambivalence of losing weight after obesity surgery--was identified across the women's processes of change. This consisted of five core themes: movement and activity--freedom but new demands and old restraints; eating habits and digestion--the complexity of change; appearance--smaller, but looser; social relations--stability and change; and being oneself--vulnerability and self-assurance. These core themes changed over time in terms of dominance. The experience of ambivalence is discussed according to a phenomenological perspective of the body as lived experience.
Cites: Obes Surg. 2003 Oct;13(5):706-1314627464
Cites: Lancet. 2001 Aug 11;358(9280):483-811513933
Cites: Ann Intern Med. 2005 Apr 5;142(7):547-5915809466
Cites: J Health Soc Behav. 2005 Sep;46(3):244-5916259147
In many parts of the world the prevalence of a sedentary lifestyle in combination with high consumption of food has increased, which contributes to increased risk for becoming overweight. Our primary aim was, in an intervention, to examine the influence on health related quality of life (HRQoL) and mood in young normal weight subjects of both sexes, when adopting an obesity provoking behaviour by increasing the energy intake via fast food and simultaneously adopting a sedentary lifestyle. A secondary aim was to follow-up possible long-term effects on HRQoL and mood 6 and 12 months after this short-term intervention. In this prospective study, 18 healthy normal weight subjects (mean age 26±6.6 years), mainly university students were prescribed doubled energy intake, and maximum 5000 steps/day, during 4 weeks. An age and sex matched control group (n=18), who were asked to have unchanged eating habits and physical activity, was recruited. Before and after the intervention questionnaires including Short Form-36, Hospital Anxiety Depression scale, Center of Epidemiological Studies Depression scale, Sense of Coherence and Mastery scale were completed by the subjects in the intervention group and by the controls with 4 weeks interval. Six and 12 months after the intervention the subjects underwent the same procedure as at baseline and the controls completed the same questionnaires. During the intervention, subjects in the intervention group increased their bodyweight and developed markedly lower physical and mental health scores on Short Form-36 as well as depressive symptoms while no changes appeared in the controls. The increase of depressive symptoms was associated with increases of energy intake, body weight and body fat. When followed up, 6 and 12 months after the intervention, physical and mental health had returned completely to baseline values, despite somewhat increased body weight. In conclusion, adopting obesity provoking behaviour for 4 weeks decreases HRQoL and mood in young normal weight subjects. The effect is temporary and when followed up 6 and 12 months after the short-term intervention no remaining influence is found.
Anthropometry, body composition and body image were studied in 122 Swedish 8-16-y-old girls and their parents. The subjects participated in a 3-y prospective longitudinal study and were selected randomly after stratification for grades from those scoring in the upper vs. the lower thirds of the Children's Eating Attitudes Test (ChEAT) score distribution. The ChEAT was completed 6 mo before the present study together with a demographic and dieting questionnaire and a questionnaire for the estimation of body size. In total 43% (n = 52) admitted ever dieting ("Dieters") and 25% (n = 30) admitted that they were currently trying to lose weight. The anthropometric and body composition data indicated that ChEAT High-scorers and Dieters were somewhat fatter than Low-scorers and Non-dieters, although this pattern was not shown among the 8-y-olds or the 14-y-olds (High-scorers). The mothers of the ChEAT High-scorers were found to be somewhat fatter than the other mothers. A current vs. ideal body shape discrepancy was shown for both High-scorers and Dieters, with a larger discrepancy for the Dieters. All groups believed that their parents were aspiring for a leaner body.
Consuming a diet lower in total fat is important for the prevention of many chronic diseases. Individual and population-based programs targeting this behavior must be theoretically grounded and consider the context within which dietary behavior change may be attempted. To identify the factors differentiating stage of readiness to follow a low-fat diet, a sample (N=1216) of adults was surveyed using 4 different staging algorithms to assess stages of change and associated social-cognitive variables (pros, cons, and temptation). Approximately 75% of the sample occupied the Action/Maintenance stages for all staging algorithms. In general, pros increased and cons decreased with higher stage occupation. Temptation decreased from the early pre-action to the action stages for the different staging algorithms. When developing programs to decrease dietary-fat intake, social-cognitive variables associated with stage transition for behaviors related to consuming a low-fat diet may have relevance to researchers and clinicians.
Overt and covert control are novel constructs representing two different parental feeding practices with regard to the child's ability to detect them. Preliminary research indicates that covert control is linked to a healthier diet and lower child weight status. In this study, we report the first psychometric validation of the original measures of overt and covert control outside the UK in a large sample of parents of preschoolers.
Based on records from the population register, all mothers of 4-year-olds (n = 3007) from the third largest city in Sweden, Malmö, were contacted by mail. Out of those, 876 returned the measures of overt and covert control together with a background questionnaire and the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ). Test-retest data were obtained from 64% (n = 563) of these mothers. The mean age of the mothers was 35.6 years; their mean BMI was 24.1, 31.5% were overweight or obese. The children were on average 4.5 years old; 48% were girls, 12.8% were overweight or obese.
While the fit for the original 9-item 2-factor model was poor, shorter 8- and 6-item versions were supported by confirmatory factor analysis (CFI > 0.95, RMSEA
The aim of the present study was to test the properties of an instrument that assesses concerns about weight and eating without reference to dieting behavior. A short instrument, the Weight and Eating Concerns Inventory (WECI) was examined in a sample of 569 boys and 548 girls aged 11 to 15 years. Confirmatory factor analyses with LISREL showed a better fit with a version of the instrument that did not include a reference to dieting behavior, compared to a version that included such a reference. This was true for both boys and girls, irrespective of their age group. However, the results indicated that both versions should be used with caution for young boys. The internal consistency of the WECI (that is, the version without reference to dieting) was satisfactory, ranging from 0.78 to 0.86 for girls and from 0.68 to 0.73 for boys. The WECI correlated quite substantially with negative self-evaluations and depression for boys and girls in all the age groups assessed, suggesting that high scores on the WECI may indicate a problem that goes beyond worries or concerns, and should be taken seriously. In general, girls reported more of these concerns than boys, and the correlation between the WECI and dieting was stronger among girls compared to boys.
Associations between Parental Concerns about Preschoolers' Weight and Eating and Parental Feeding Practices: Results from Analyses of the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire, the Child Feeding Questionnaire, and the Lifestyle Behavior Checklist.
Insight into parents' perceptions of their children's eating behaviors is crucial for the development of successful childhood obesity programs. However, links between children's eating behaviors and parental feeding practices and concerns have yet to be established. This study aims to examine associations between parental perceptions of preschoolers' eating behaviors and parental feeding practices. First, it tests the original 8-factor structure of the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CEBQ). Second, it examines the associations with parental feeding practices, measured with the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ).
Questionnaires were sent to parents from 25 schools/preschools in Stockholm, Sweden and to parents starting a childhood obesity intervention. The CEBQ factor structure was tested with confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Associations between CEBQ subscales Food approach and Food avoidance and CFQ factors Restriction, Pressure to eat and Monitoring were examined with structural equation modelling (SEM), adjusting for child and parental characteristics, and parental confidence, measured with the Lifestyle Behavior Checklist (LBC). CFQ Concern for child weight and Perceived responsibility for child eating were used as mediators.
478 parents completed the questionnaires (children: 52% girls, mean age 5.5 years, 20% overweight/obese). A modified 8-factor structure showed an acceptable fit (TLI = 0.91, CFI = 0.92, RMSEA = 0.05 and SRMR = 0.06) after dropping one item and allowing three pairs of error terms to correlate. The SEM model demonstrated that Food approach had a weak direct effect on Restriction, but a moderate (? = 0.30) indirect effect via Concern, resulting in a substantial total effect (? = 0.37). Food avoidance had a strong positive effect on Pressure to eat (? = 0.71).
The CEBQ is a valid instrument for assessing parental perceptions of preschoolers' eating behaviors. Parental pressure to eat was strongly associated with children's food avoidance. Parental restriction, however, was more strongly associated with parents' concerns about their children's weights than with children's food approach. This suggests that childhood obesity interventions should address parents' perceptions of healthy weight alongside perceptions of healthy eating.
Cites: Appetite. 2013 Apr;63:77-8323291285
Cites: Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2013;10:2423414332
The increasing prevalence of obesity among youth has elicited calls for schools to become more active in promoting healthy weight. The present study examined associations between various aspects of school food environments (specifically the availability of snack- and beverage-vending machines and the presence of snack and beverage logos) and students' weight status, as well as potential influences of indices of diet and food behaviours.
A cross-sectional, self-administered web-based survey. A series of multinomial logistic regressions with generalized estimating equations (GEE) were constructed to examine associations between school environment variables (i.e. the reported presence of beverage- and snack-vending machines and logos) and self-reported weight- and diet-related behaviours.
Secondary schools in Alberta, Canada.
A total of 4936 students from grades 7 to 10.
The presence of beverage-vending machines in schools was associated with the weight status of students. The presence of snack-vending machines and logos was associated with students' frequency of consuming vended goods. The presence of snack-vending machines and logos was associated with the frequency of salty snack consumption.
The reported presence of snack- and beverage-vending machines and logos in schools is related to some indices of weight status, diet and meal behaviours but not to others. The present study supported the general hypothesis that the presence of vending machines in schools may affect students' weight through increased consumption of vended goods, but notes that the frequency of 'junk' food consumption does not seem to be related to the presence of vending machines, perhaps reflecting the ubiquity of these foods in the daily lives of students.
This study explores parents' and children's use of and response to direct or indirect behaviour regulation in a family context. Ten families with two children each were divided into two groups depending on the age of the children (6-7 and 10-11 years or 10-11 and 13-14 years). Video-recorded regulatory dinner talk was transcribed, coded and analysed with regard to directness or indirectness in relation to behavioural outcome. Dinner talk was predominantly direct, but younger children were addressed by direct regulators as two-thirds of all regulators, whereas the opposite was seen with older children. Though children also tended to be direct, younger children used three times as many direct regulators as older ones. Compliance appeared in two-thirds of all direct regulators, but almost one-half of all indirect regulators were not complied with. Differences between groups were furthermore distinguished by instances of compliance: those who were most non-compliant were the children in group 2.