The Special Turku Coronary Risk Factor Intervention Project (STRIP) is a prospective infancy-onset randomized dietary intervention trial targeting dietary fat quality and cholesterol intake, and favoring consumption of vegetables, fruit, and whole-grains. Diet (food records) and circulating metabolites were studied at six time points between the ages of 9-19 years (n = 549-338). Dietary targets for this study were defined as (1) the ratio of saturated fat (SAFA) to monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids (MUFA + PUFA)
The activity budgets and daily activity rhythms of Varecia rubra were examined over an annual cycle according to season and reproductive stage. Given the relatively high reproductive costs and patchy food resources of this species, I predicted that V. rubra would 1) travel less and feed more during seasonal resource scarcity in an attempt to maintain energy balance, and 2) show sex differences in activity budgets due to differing reproductive investment. Contrary to the first prediction, V. rubra does not increase feeding time during seasonal food scarcity; rather, females feed for a consistent amount of time in every season, whereas males feed most during the resource-rich, hot dry season. The results are consistent with other predictions: V. rubra travels less in the resource-scarce cold rainy season, and there are some pronounced sex differences, with females feeding more and resting less than males in every season and in every reproductive stage except gestation. However, there are also some provocative similarities between the sexes when activity budgets are examined by reproductive stage. During gestation, female and male activity budgets do not differ and appear geared toward energy accumulation: both sexes feed and rest extensively and travel least during this stage. During lactation, activity budgets are geared toward high energy expenditure: both sexes travel most and in equal measure, and rest least, although it remains the case that females feed more and rest less than males. These similarities between female and male activity budgets appear related to cooperative infant care. The high energetic costs of reproduction in V. rubra females may require that they allot more time to feeding year round, and that their overall activity budget be more directly responsive to seasonal climate change, seasonal food distribution, and reproductive schedules.
Detecting lame cows is important in improving animal welfare. Automated tools are potentially useful to enable identification and monitoring of lame cows. The goals of this study were to evaluate the suitability of various physiological and behavioral parameters to automatically detect lameness in dairy cows housed in a cubicle barn. Lame cows suffering from a claw horn lesion (sole ulcer or white line disease) of one claw of the same hind limb (n=32; group L) and 10 nonlame healthy cows (group C) were included in this study. Lying and standing behavior at night by tridimensional accelerometers, weight distribution between hind limbs by the 4-scale weighing platform, feeding behavior at night by the nose band sensor, and heart activity by the Polar device (Polar Electro Oy, Kempele, Finland) were assessed. Either the entire data set or parts of the data collected over a 48-h period were used for statistical analysis, depending upon the parameter in question. The standing time at night over 12 h and the limb weight ratio (LWR) were significantly higher in group C as compared with group L, whereas the lying time at night over 12 h, the mean limb difference (?weight), and the standard deviation (SD) of the weight applied on the limb taking less weight were significantly lower in group C as compared with group L. No significant difference was noted between the groups for the parameters of heart activity and feeding behavior at night. The locomotion score of cows in group L was positively correlated with the lying time and ?weight, whereas it was negatively correlated with LWR and SD. The highest sensitivity (0.97) for lameness detection was found for the parameter SD [specificity of 0.80 and an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.84]. The highest specificity (0.90) for lameness detection was present for ?weight (sensitivity=0.78; AUC=0.88) and LWR (sensitivity=0.81; AUC=0.87). The model considering the data of SD together with lying time at night was the best predictor of cows being lame, accounting for 40% of the variation in the likelihood of a cow being lame (sensitivity=0.94; specificity=0.80; AUC=0.86). In conclusion, the data derived from the 4-scale-weighing platform, either alone or combined with the lying time at night over 12 h, represent the most valuable parameters for automated identification of lame cows suffering from a claw horn lesion of one individual hind limb.
Pacific Halibut (Hippoglossus stenolepis) support culturally and economically important fisheries in the Gulf of Alaska, though recent decreases in mean size-at-age have substantially reduced fishery yields, generating concerns among stakeholders and resource managers. Among the prevailing hypotheses for reduced size-at-age is intensified competition with Arrowtooth Flounder (Atheresthes stomias), a groundfish predator that exhibited nearly five-fold increases in biomass between the 1960s and mid-2010s. To assess the potential for competition between Pacific Halibut and Arrowtooth Flounder, we evaluated their degree of spatiotemporal and dietary overlap in the Gulf of Alaska using bottom trawl survey and food habits data provided by the Alaska Fisheries Science Center (NOAA; 1990 to 2017). We restricted analyses to fish measuring 30 to 69 cm fork length and used a delta modeling approach to quantify species-specific presence-absence and catch-per-unit-effort as a function of survey year, tow location, depth, and bottom temperature. We then calculated an index of spatial overlap across a uniform grid by multiplying standardized predictions of species' abundance. Dietary overlap was calculated across the same uniform grid using Schoener's similarity index. Finally, we assessed the relationship between spatial and dietary overlap as a measure of resource partitioning. We found increases in spatial overlap, moving from east to west in the Gulf of Alaska (eastern: 0.13 ± 0.20; central: 0.21 ± 0.11; western: 0.31 ± 0.13 SD). Dietary overlap was low throughout the study area (0.13 ± 0.20 SD). There was no correlation between spatial and dietary overlap, suggesting an absence of resource partitioning along the niche dimensions examined. This finding provides little indication that competition with Arrowtooth Flounder was responsible for changes in Pacific Halibut alHHsize-at-age in the Gulf of Alaska; however, it does not rule out competitive interactions that may have affected resource use prior to standardized data collection or at different spatiotemporal scales.
Processed foods and fatty, sugary snacking products, such as fizzy drinks and desserts, have become more popular, causing a desire to replace meals with snacks worldwide. High-sugar and fat-rich food components have been reported to be associated with increased level of dental caries as well as underweight and overweight. The aim of the present cross-sectional population-based study was to analyse the eating behaviours of young, healthy Finnish males in association with oral health and BMI, considering self-reported and residential background factors.
Finnish Defence Forces, Finland.
The used clinical data were gathered from 13 564 Finnish conscripts born in the beginning of the 1990s through clinical check-ups. In addition, about 8700 of the conscripts answered a computer-assisted questionnaire ('Oral Health of the Conscripts 2011' data) about their background information and health habits.
There was distinct variation in dietary patterns. Eating breakfast, regular physical exercise and daily tooth brushing all decreased the odds for restorative dental treatment need (decayed teeth), whereas smoking and drinking fizzy drinks for quenching thirst increased it. Eating breakfast and dinner were each associated with lower BMI, but smoking increased the odds for higher BMI (=25 kg/m2).
Regular, proper meals and especially eating breakfast decreased the odds for both dental caries and high BMI (=25 kg/m2).
The present series of studies was undertaken to investigate the hypothesis (von F. Steiniger, 1950, Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie, 7, 356-379; K. A. Stierhoff, & M. Lavin, 1982, Behavioral and Neural Biology, 34, 180-189) that rats poisoned after eating a novel food will mark that novel food in such a way as to dissuade naive conspecifics from ingesting it. Our results provided no evidence of aversive marking of a novel food by rats poisoned after ingesting it. We did, however, find evidence of attractive marking of feeding sites by rats exploiting those sites. This attractive marking rendered exploited feeding sites more attractive to naive conspecifics than other portions of an enclosure that rats had visited. The present findings are consistent with the results of a number of experiments conducted in our laboratory over the last decade indicating that rats directly communicate learned food preferences, but not learned food aversions.
Investigators first described the night-eating syndrome (NES), which consists of morning anorexia, evening hyperphagia, and insomnia, in 1955, but, to our knowledge, this syndrome has never been subjected to careful clinical study.
To characterize NES on the basis of behavioral characteristics and neuroendocrine data.
A behavioral observational study was conducted between January 1996 and June 1997 in a weight and eating disorders program at the University of Pennsylvania. A neuroendocrine study was conducted from May through August 1997 at the Clinical Research Center of the University Hospital, Tromso, Norway.
The behavioral study included 10 obese subjects who met criteria for NES and 10 matched control subjects. The neuroendocrine study included 12 night eaters and 21 control subjects. Behavioral study subjects were observed for 1 week on an outpatient basis, and neuroendocrine study subjects were observed during a 24-hour period in the hospital.
The behavioral study measured timing of energy intake, mood level, and sleep disturbances. The neuroendocrine study measured circadian levels of plasma melatonin, leptin, and cortisol.
In the behavioral study, compared with control subjects, night eaters had more eating episodes in the 24 hours (mean [SD], 9.3 [0.6] vs 4.2 [0.2]; P
Comment In: JAMA. 1999 Aug 18;282(7):689-9010517724
Growing multiculturalism in Sweden challenges health professionals to provide safe and culturally meaningful care. Differences between the health--disease explanatory models of lay persons and health professionals may lead to communication problems, which ultimately could affect health outcomes. The aim of this study was to explore beliefs about food and health during pregnancy and lactation. Increased knowledge and understanding among health professionals on such issues should facilitate culturally congruent nutrition counselling. Individual interviews were performed among first-generation Iranian female immigrants in the county of Stockholm. The interviews followed a set of predefined key questions. Content analysis of interview transcripts followed a grounded theory approach. Five major categories emerged, which referred to 'hot-cold' values, foetal attributes, satisfaction of cravings, survival of the mother, and quantity and quality of breast milk. 'Mother's diet provides strength that sustains life' emerged as the most relevant core concept. This study demonstrated maternal strength to be important for a successful pregnancy outcome and lactation. Displacement of food items caused by migration in combination with a strong adherence to Iranian health beliefs could potentially cause food choices with detrimental health effects.
Research suggests a role for both fat mass and muscle mass in appetite regulation, but the longitudinal relationships between them have not yet been examined in children. The present study therefore aimed to explore the prospective relationships between fat mass, muscle mass and the appetitive traits food responsiveness and satiety responsiveness in middle childhood.
Food responsiveness and satiety responsiveness were measured using the parent-reported Children's Eating Behavior Questionnaire in a representative sample of Norwegian 6?year olds, followed up at 8 and 10?years of age (n?=?807). Body composition was measured by bioelectrical impedance.
Applying a structural equation modeling framework we found that higher fat mass predicted greater increases in food responsiveness over time, whereas greater muscle mass predicted decreases in satiety responsiveness. This pattern was consistent both from ages 6 to 8 and from ages 8 to 10?years.
Our study is the first to reveal that fat mass and muscle mass predict distinct changes in different appetitive traits over time. Replication of findings in non-European populations are needed, as are studies of children in other age groups. Future studies should also aim to reveal the underlying mechanisms.
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