The authors demonstrated relationship between alimentation dependent diseases among adult population of the Republic and nutritional traits of the population, defined major directions of program to optimize nutrition of the population.
This study is grounded in a phenomenological lifeworld perspective. It aims at providing rich descriptions of lived experience of the process of losing weight after obesity surgery. Two women participated in in-depth interviews four times each during the first postoperative year. Based on the women's experiences, a meaning structure--the ambivalence of losing weight after obesity surgery--was identified across the women's processes of change. This consisted of five core themes: movement and activity--freedom but new demands and old restraints; eating habits and digestion--the complexity of change; appearance--smaller, but looser; social relations--stability and change; and being oneself--vulnerability and self-assurance. These core themes changed over time in terms of dominance. The experience of ambivalence is discussed according to a phenomenological perspective of the body as lived experience.
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Cites: Ann Intern Med. 2005 Apr 5;142(7):547-5915809466
Cites: J Health Soc Behav. 2005 Sep;46(3):244-5916259147
The aim of this study was to investigate admittance rates and doctors workload during Christmas. In addition, we examined if admittance data supports the common notions that overeating during Christmas results in increased rate of admittances for abdominal problems and that there is an increase in admittance of the elderly at the end of Christmas (i.e. "granny dumping").
A retrospective study analyzing data from the database of the hospital units of Sydvestjysk Sygehus was performed. Data covered admittance in the months spanning from November through January in 1994-2010. Data from Christmas was compared with data from adjacent months.
During Christmas more patients with abdominal complaints were admitted to the hospital (p
The mechanisms through which genes influence body weight are not well understood, but appetite has been implicated as one mediating pathway. Here we use data from two independent population-based Finnish cohorts (4632 adults aged 25-74 years from the DILGOM study and 1231 twin individuals aged 21-26 years from the FinnTwin12 study) to investigate whether two appetitive traits mediate the associations between known obesity-related genetic variants and adiposity. The results from structural equation modelling indicate that the effects of a polygenic risk score (90 obesity-related loci) on measured body mass index and waist circumference are partly mediated through higher levels of uncontrolled eating (ßindirect = 0.030-0.032, P
Cites: Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 Dec;90(6):1483-819828706
Cites: J Nutr. 2010 Apr;140(4):831-420181787
Cites: Int J Epidemiol. 2010 Apr;39(2):504-1819959603
Consuming a diet lower in total fat is important for the prevention of many chronic diseases. Individual and population-based programs targeting this behavior must be theoretically grounded and consider the context within which dietary behavior change may be attempted. To identify the factors differentiating stage of readiness to follow a low-fat diet, a sample (N=1216) of adults was surveyed using 4 different staging algorithms to assess stages of change and associated social-cognitive variables (pros, cons, and temptation). Approximately 75% of the sample occupied the Action/Maintenance stages for all staging algorithms. In general, pros increased and cons decreased with higher stage occupation. Temptation decreased from the early pre-action to the action stages for the different staging algorithms. When developing programs to decrease dietary-fat intake, social-cognitive variables associated with stage transition for behaviors related to consuming a low-fat diet may have relevance to researchers and clinicians.
The Northern Finland Birth Cohort program (NFBC) is the epidemiological and longitudinal prospective general population research program, which was established to promote health and wellbeing of the population in northern Finland. The aim of present study, as a part of the NFBC program, was to analyze the blood levels of arsenic (B-As), cadmium (B-Cd), lead (B-Pb), total mercury (B-Hg) and selenium (B-Se); to compare these levels with threshold limits; to study sociodemographic factors; and to correlate these levels with calcium and haemoglobin. The study was comprised of 249 NFBC subjects, of which 123 were female and 126 were male (ages 31.1???0.3 and 31.1???0.4, respectively). All participants were asked to complete a questionnaire regarding diet and living habits. The geometric means (? SD) of B-As were 0.49???2.80??g/l and 0.44???2.72??g/l; B-Cd were 0.18???4.02??g/l and 0.12???3.21??g/l; B-Pb were 17.0???1.8??g/l and 9.06???2.20??g/l; B-Hg were 2.18???2.02??g/l and 1.85???1.78??g/l; and B-Se were 106.0???1.3 and 94.3???1.3??g/l in males and females, respectively. Among the subjects in the present analysis, 23?% of males and 17.1?% of females had B-As levels above the ATSDR normal human levels of B-As in unexposed individuals (1.0??g/l). The B-Pb geometric mean (12.44??g/l) was approximately one eighth the CDC toxicological cut-off point of 100??g/l. Twenty-one individuals (8.4?%) exceeded a B-Hg level of 5.8??g/l. Fifty-eight females (47?%) had a B-Hg higher than 2.0??g/l, the German Federal Environmental Agency cut-off point for women (18-69?years) who consume fish at least three times/month; therefore, their babies could be at risk of adverse effects during development.
Diet is a major modifiable lifestyle factor that may affect the components of the metabolic syndrome. We aimed to investigate the association between relative proportions of macronutrients and the components of the metabolic syndrome in a population of individuals with type 1 diabetes. In all, 791 individuals without nephropathy, with plausible energy intake and known metabolic syndrome status, taking part in the Finnish Diabetic Nephropathy Study were included in the analyses. Dietary data were collected with a diet record. The association between the relative macronutrient intake and the outcome variables were analysed using multivariable nutrient density substitution models. The relative proportions of dietary macronutrients or fatty acids were not associated with the presence of the metabolic syndrome. In men, however, favouring carbohydrates over fats was associated with lower odds of the waist component, whereas favouring either carbohydrates or fats over proteins was associated with lower odds of the blood pressure component of the metabolic syndrome. In women, substituting carbohydrates for fats was associated with lower HDL-cholesterol concentration. Substituting carbohydrates or fats for alcohol or protein was, in men, associated with lower systolic blood pressure. To conclude, the relative distribution of macronutrients may have some relevance for the metabolic syndrome.
Previous studies have suggested that a high intake of sugar-sweetened beverages is positively associated with the risk of a coronary event. However, a few studies have examined the association between sucrose (the most common extrinsic sugar in Sweden) and incident coronary events. The objective of the present study was to examine the associations between sucrose intake and coronary event risk and to determine whether these associations are specific to certain subgroups of the population (i.e. according to physical activity, obesity status, educational level, alcohol consumption, smoking habits, intake of fat and intake of fruits and vegetables). We performed a prospective analysis on 26 190 individuals (62 % women) free from diabetes and without a history of CVD from the Swedish population-based Malmö Diet and Cancer cohort. Over an average of 17 years of follow-up (457 131 person-years), 2493 incident cases of coronary events were identified. Sucrose intake was obtained from an interview-based diet history method, including 7-d records of prepared meals and cold beverages and a 168-item diet questionnaire covering other foods. Participants who consumed >15 % of their energy intake (E%) from sucrose showed a 37 (95 % CI 13, 66) % increased risk of a coronary event compared with the lowest sucrose consumers (
Association of apolipoprotein E (APOE) e4 allele with peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) bone traits at the distal and shaft sites of the radius and tibia was evaluated in the Young Finns Cohort (n=1777). We also analyzed the interactions of the APOE promoter polymorphisms (-219G/T rs405509 and +113G/C rs440446) and bone traits within the APOE e3/e3 genotype (n=1025 and n=1013, respectively), and investigated the gene-environment interactions on bone traits with longitudinal saturated fatty acids (SAFA) intake. Differences between the e4 allele carriers and noncarriers were modest and mostly nonsignificant. Within the APOE promoter -219G/T polymorphism, cortical strength index (CSI) and compressive bone strength index (BSI) at the distal radius (linear, P=0.003 and P=0.05, respectively) and tibia (linear, P=0.01 and P=0.03, respectively), and CSI at the tibial shaft (linear, P=0.04) decreased towards the -219T/T genotype in women. In men, total cross-sectional areas at the radial site and stress-strain index (SSI) at the radial shaft (linear, P=0.03 and P=0.04 and P=0.05, respectively) increased, and conversely cortical bone density and CSI at the radial shaft (linear, P=0.005 and P=0.05, respectively) and CSI at the tibial shaft (linear, P=0.03) decreased towards the -219T/T genotype. In the highest SAFA tertile, women with the -219T/T genotype had the smallest total area and SSI at the radial shaft (P=0.01 and P=0.02, respectively). Subjects with the APOE +113C/C genotype shared similar bone traits as subjects with the APOE -219T/T genotype. In conclusion, APOE genotypes -219T/T and +113C/C could be genetic markers for cortical bone strength. Furthermore, high longitudinal SAFA intake seems to be more detrimental to bone in women with the -219T/T and +133C/C genotypes than others.
Long-chain n-3 PUFA from fish and exercise capacity are associated with CVD risk. Fish, especially large and old predatory fish, may contain Hg, which may attenuate the inverse association of long-chain n-3 PUFA with CVD. However, the associations of long-chain n-3 PUFA or Hg exposure with exercise capacity are not well known. We aimed to evaluate the associations of serum long-chain n-3 PUFA EPA, docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) and DHA and hair Hg with exercise cardiac power (ECP, a ratio of VO2max:maximal systolic blood pressure (SBP) during an exercise test), a measure for exercise capacity. For this, data from the population-based Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study were analysed cross-sectionally in order to determine the associations between serum long-chain n-3 PUFA, hair Hg and ECP in 1672 men without CVD, aged 42-60 years. After multivariate adjustments, serum total long-chain n-3 PUFA concentration was associated with higher ECP and VO2max (P trend across quartiles=0·04 and P trend=0·02, respectively), but not with maximal SBP (P trend=0·69). Associations were generally similar when EPA, DPA and DHA were evaluated individually. Hair Hg was not associated with ECP, VO2max or maximal SBP. However, the associations of total long-chain n-3 PUFA (P interaction=0·03) and EPA (P interaction=0·02) with higher VO2max were stronger among men with lower hair Hg. Higher serum long-chain n-3 PUFA concentration, mainly a marker for fish consumption in this study population, was associated with higher ECP and VO2max in middle-aged men from eastern Finland.