Fixed passive acoustic monitoring can be used for long-term recording of vocalizing cetaceans. Both presence monitoring and animal density estimation requires the call rates and sound source levels of vocalizations produced by single animals. In this study, blue whale calls were recorded using acoustic bio-logging systems in Skjálfandi Bay off Húsavík, Northeast Iceland, in June 2012. An accelerometer was attached to individual whales to monitor diving behavior. During 21?h recording two individuals, 8?h 45?min and 13?h 2?min, respectively, 105 and 104 lunge feeding events and four calls were recorded. All recorded calls were down-sweep calls ranging from 105 to 48?Hz. The sound duration was 1-2?s. The source level was estimated to be between 158 and 169?dB re 1µPa rms, assuming spherical sound propagation from the possible sound source location to the tag. The observed sound production rates and source levels of individual blue whales during feeding were extremely small compared with those observed previously in breeding grounds. The feeding whales were nearly acoustically invisible. The function of calls during feeding remains unknown.
The rate of obesity and associated risk factors in Canadian youth is increasing at an alarming rate. Nutrition plays an important role in weight maintenance. This study reports the effectiveness of Action Schools! BC---Healthy Eating, a school-based fruit and vegetable (FV) intervention, in effecting change in: 1) students' intake of FV, 2) students' knowledge, attitudes and perceptions regarding FV, and 3) students' willingness to try new FV.
Five schools that represented geographic, socio-economic and size variation were recruited as Action Schools! BC--Healthy Eating intervention schools. A second set of five schools were selected as matched healthy eating usual practice schools. Student outcomes were measured at baseline and at 12-week follow-up using self-report questionnaires. Classroom logs and progress reports were used to assess implementation dose and fidelity. The intervention included school-wide activities based on individualized Action Plans addressing goals across six Action Zones.
Significant differences were found between conditions over time while controlling for baseline levels. Fruit servings, FV servings, FV variety, and percent of FV tried from a fixed list increased in intervention schools. Teachers implemented a mean of 64% of requested classroom dose, and school Action Teams implemented activities across 80% of the whole-school model.
A whole-school framework can impact FV intake, but results were modest due to implementation issues. Further implementation and evaluation are necessary to fully understand the effectiveness of this initiative.
The activity budgets and daily activity rhythms of Varecia rubra were examined over an annual cycle according to season and reproductive stage. Given the relatively high reproductive costs and patchy food resources of this species, I predicted that V. rubra would 1) travel less and feed more during seasonal resource scarcity in an attempt to maintain energy balance, and 2) show sex differences in activity budgets due to differing reproductive investment. Contrary to the first prediction, V. rubra does not increase feeding time during seasonal food scarcity; rather, females feed for a consistent amount of time in every season, whereas males feed most during the resource-rich, hot dry season. The results are consistent with other predictions: V. rubra travels less in the resource-scarce cold rainy season, and there are some pronounced sex differences, with females feeding more and resting less than males in every season and in every reproductive stage except gestation. However, there are also some provocative similarities between the sexes when activity budgets are examined by reproductive stage. During gestation, female and male activity budgets do not differ and appear geared toward energy accumulation: both sexes feed and rest extensively and travel least during this stage. During lactation, activity budgets are geared toward high energy expenditure: both sexes travel most and in equal measure, and rest least, although it remains the case that females feed more and rest less than males. These similarities between female and male activity budgets appear related to cooperative infant care. The high energetic costs of reproduction in V. rubra females may require that they allot more time to feeding year round, and that their overall activity budget be more directly responsive to seasonal climate change, seasonal food distribution, and reproductive schedules.
The present study aimed to explore the process in which impulsivity might influence soft drink consumption in adolescents, addressing potential mediating effects of perceived parental regulation regarding unhealthy eating. A cross-sectional survey was performed among 440 13-15-year-olds in Eastern Norway. The survey questionnaire included measures of impulsivity, six types of maternal and paternal regulation (as perceived by the adolescents), and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB). Parallel multiple-mediator analyses were performed to reveal potential mediating effects of perceived parental regulatory behaviors on the association between adolescent impulsivity and SSB consumption. Separate models were run for maternal and paternal regulation. Results from our model analyses (both maternal and paternal models) indicated that all the six measured parental regulatory behaviors jointly acted as mediators on the association between adolescent impulsivity and SSB consumption. However, only perceived maternal and paternal legitimacy of regulation showed a unique contribution to the mediated effect. This finding suggests that adolescents' perception of parental legitimate authority is of particular importance in explaining the relationship between impulsivity and unhealthy eating behaviors in adolescents. Future nutrition interventions targeting adolescents and their parents should take personal factors such as adolescents' level of impulsivity into account. Ultimately; what may be an appropriate approach to impulsive individuals and their parents may diverge from what may be an appropriate approach to less impulsive individuals and their parents.
The Middle Palaeolithic site Salzgitter Lebenstedt (northern Germany), excavated in 1952, is well known because of its well-preserved faunal remains, dominated by adult reindeer (Rangifer tarandus). The archaeological assemblage accumulated in an arctic setting in an earlier part of the last (Weichsel) glacial (OIS5-3). The site is remarkable because of the presence of unique Middle Palaeolithic bone tools and the occurrence of the northernmost Neanderthal remains, but this paper focuses on an analysis of its reindeer assemblage. The results indicate autumn hunting of reindeer by Middle Palaeolithic hominids. After the hunt, carcasses were butchered and in subsequent marrow processing of the bones a selection against young and sub-adult animals occurred. Adults were clearly preferred, and from their bones, again, poorer marrow bones were neglected. This focus on primeness of resources has been documented in other domains of Neanderthal behaviour, but Salzgitter Lebenstedt is the best example yet known in terms of systematic and routinized processing of game. The Salzgitter Lebenstedt assemblage displays some remarkable similarities to the Late Glacial reindeer assemblages from the Ahrensburg tunnel valley sites. The subsequent review of the evidence on subsistence strategies from earlier periods of the European Palaeolithic shows that hunting of large mammals may have been a part of the behavioural repertoire of the Middle Pleistocene occupants of Europe from the earliest occupation onwards. At the same time, it is suggested that these early hunting strategies were incorporated in ways of moving through landscapes ("settlement systems") which were different from what we know from the middle parts of the Upper Palaeolithic onwards.
Aerobic fitness is associated with low cardiovascular disease risk: the impact of lifestyle on early risk factors for atherosclerosis in young healthy Swedish individuals - the Lifestyle, Biomarker, and Atherosclerosis study.
The progression of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and atherosclerosis is slow and develops over decades. In the cross-sectional Swedish Lifestyle, Biomarker, and Atherosclerosis study, 834 young, self-reported healthy adults aged 18.0-25.9 years have been studied to identify early risk factors for atherosclerosis.
The aims of this study were to 1) assess selected cardiometabolic biomarkers, carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) as a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis, and lifestyle-related indicators (food habits, handgrip strength, and oxygen uptake, VO2 max); 2) analyze the associations between cIMT and lifestyle factors; and 3) identify subjects at risk of CVD using a risk score and to compare the characteristics of subjects with and without risk of CVD.
Blood samples were taken in a fasting state, and food habits were reported through a questionnaire. cIMT was measured by ultrasound, and VO2 max was measured by ergometer bike test. The risk score was calculated according to Wildman.
cIMT (mean ± standard deviation) was 0.50±0.06 mm, and VO2 max values were 37.8±8.5 and 42.9±9.9 mL/kg/min, in women and men, respectively. No correlation was found between aerobic fitness expressed as VO2 max (mL/kg/min) and cIMT. Using Wildman's definition, 12% of the subjects were classified as being at risk of CVD, and 15% had homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. A total of 35% of women and 25% of men had lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol than recommended. Food habits did not differ between those at risk and those not at risk. However, aerobic fitness measured as VO2 max (mL/kg/min) differed; 47% of the subjects at risk had low aerobic fitness compared to 23% of the nonrisk subjects (P
Cites: Curr Sports Med Rep. 2014 Jul-Aug;13(4):253-925014391
The article describes the after-school (AS) snacking pattern of young Canadians and its relationship with the amount of energy consumed daily and at dinner.
We analyzed cross-sectional dietary data, measured by 24h recall, from 9,131 children and adolescents aged 4 to 18 years from the Canadian Community Health Survey, cycle 2.2 (2004). We evaluated AS snack intake; i.e., foods consumed Monday to Friday between 3:00 and 6:00 pm, excluding lunch and dinner. We also assessed the consumption frequency of AS snack items, the energy provided by AS snacks and total daily energy intake (TDEI) by age group and sex.
Approximately 63% of respondents consumed AS snacks. AS snacks provided on average 1212[95%CI,1157-1268] kJ (290[95%CI,276-303] kcal), representing 13[95%CI,12-13]% of TDEI. Youth who consumed AS snacks contributing 1-418 kJ (1-99 kcal) reported lower TDEI than those who consumed no snack. Among AS snack consumers, TDEI was higher in groups consuming the highest amount of energy from AS snacks. Fruits were among the most frequently consumed food categories. However, the largest energy contributors were mostly foods that may be energy-dense and nutrient-poor, such as cookies, sugar-sweetened beverages and sweets.
Considering that the majority of children and adolescents consumed AS snacks, that these snacks provided about 13% of their TDEI, and that the majority of the most frequently consumed snacks were generally energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods, the AS time period presents an opportunity to promote healthy eating in order to improve diet quality and potentially influence TDEI among Canadian children and adolescents.
The authors demonstrated relationship between alimentation dependent diseases among adult population of the Republic and nutritional traits of the population, defined major directions of program to optimize nutrition of the population.