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113 records – page 1 of 12.

2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) poisoning in Victor Yushchenko: identification and measurement of TCDD metabolites.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature95137
Source
Lancet. 2009 Oct 3;374(9696):1179-85
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-3-2009
Author
Sorg O.
Zennegg M.
Schmid P.
Fedosyuk R.
Valikhnovskyi R.
Gaide O.
Kniazevych V.
Saurat J-H
Author Affiliation
Dermato-Toxicology, Swiss Centre for Applied Human Toxicology, and Department of Dermatology, University Hospital, Geneva, Switzerland.
Source
Lancet. 2009 Oct 3;374(9696):1179-85
Date
Oct-3-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adipose Tissue - chemistry
Biopsy
Drug Residues - analysis - metabolism
Fatal Outcome
Feces - chemistry
Forensic Medicine - methods
Half-Life
Homicide
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Politics
Substance Abuse Detection - methods
Sweat - chemistry
Tetrachlorodibenzodioxin - analysis - chemistry - metabolism - poisoning
Time Factors
Ukraine
Abstract
BACKGROUND: 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) has a long half-life of 5-10 years in human beings as a result of its high lipophilicity, and little or no metabolism. We monitored TCDD, its form, distribution, and elimination in Victor Yushchenko after he presented with severe poisoning. METHODS: In late December, 2004, a patient presented with TCDD poisoning; the levels in his blood serum (108000 pg/g lipid weight) were more than 50 000-fold greater than those in the general population. We identified TCDD and its metabolites, and monitored their levels for 3 years using gas chromatography and high-resolution mass spectrometry in samples of blood serum, adipose tissue, faeces, skin, urine, and sweat, after they were extracted and cleaned with different organic solvents. FINDINGS: The amount of unmodified TCDD in the samples that were analysed accounted for about 60% of TCDD eliminated from the body during the same period. Two TCDD metabolites-2,3,7-trichloro-8-hydroxydibenzo-p-dioxin and 1,3,7,8-tetrachloro-2-hydroxydibenzo-p-dioxin-were identified in the faeces, blood serum, and urine. The faeces contained the highest concentration of TCDD metabolites, and were the main route of elimination. Altogether, the different routes of elimination of TCDD and its metabolites accounted for 98% of the loss of the toxin from the body. The half-life of TCDD in our patient was 15.4 months. INTERPRETATION: This case of poisoning with TCDD suggests that the design of methods for routine assessment of TCDD metabolites in human beings should be a main aim of TCDD research in the metabolomic era. FUNDING: University of Geneva Dermatology Fund, and Swiss Centre for Applied Human Toxicology.
Notes
Comment In: Lancet. 2009 Oct 3;374(9696):1131-219660808
PubMed ID
19660807 View in PubMed
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Absorption of polychlorinated biphenyls, dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans by breast-fed infants.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature59296
Source
Chemosphere. 1995 Jun;30(12):2297-306
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-1995
Author
P. Dahl
G. Lindström
K. Wiberg
C. Rappe
Author Affiliation
Institute of Environmental Chemistry, University of Umeå, Sweden.
Source
Chemosphere. 1995 Jun;30(12):2297-306
Date
Jun-1995
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Absorption
Benzofurans - metabolism
Body Burden
Breast Feeding
Comparative Study
Feces - chemistry
Female
Humans
Infant, Newborn
Mass Fragmentography
Milk, human - chemistry
Polychlorinated Biphenyls - metabolism
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk assessment
Tetrachlorodibenzodioxin - analogs & derivatives - metabolism
Abstract
The absorption of polychlorinated biphenyls, dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans was studied in four breast-fed infants. The absorption was measured by comparing the estimated total intake and the excretion in faeces, during 48 hours, at three different time points; 1, 2 and 3 months post parta. The levels of the analysed compounds in the human milk are typical for Sweden, i.e approximately 20 ppt toxic equivalents for the dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and for the polychlorinated biphenyls approximately 16 ppt toxic equivalents. For most of the congeners the absorption is found to be over 95%. Higher excretion is noticed for heptachlorinated and octachlorinated dioxins.
PubMed ID
7620852 View in PubMed
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Acute oil exposure reduces physiological process rates in Arctic phyto- and zooplankton.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature300168
Source
Ecotoxicology. 2019 Jan; 28(1):26-36
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Jan-2019
Author
Signe Lemcke
Johnna Holding
Eva Friis Møller
Jakob Thyrring
Kim Gustavson
Thomas Juul-Pedersen
Mikael K Sejr
Author Affiliation
Department of Bioscience, Arctic Research Centre, Aarhus University, 8000, Aarhus C, Denmark. signelemcke@gmail.com.
Source
Ecotoxicology. 2019 Jan; 28(1):26-36
Date
Jan-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Animals
Arctic Regions
Copepoda - drug effects - physiology
Feces - chemistry
Food chain
Petroleum Pollution - adverse effects
Photosynthesis - drug effects
Phytoplankton - drug effects - physiology
Water Pollutants, Chemical - adverse effects
Zooplankton - drug effects - physiology
Abstract
Arctic shipping and oil exploration are expected to increase, as sea ice extent is reduced. This enhances the risk for accidental oil spills throughout the Arctic, which emphasises the need to quantify potential consequences to the marine ecosystem and to evaluate risk and choose appropriate remediation methods. This study investigated the sensitivity of Arctic marine plankton to the water accommodated fraction (WAF) of heavy fuel oil. Arctic marine phytoplankton and copepods (Calanus finmarchicus) were exposed to three WAF concentrations corresponding to total hydrocarbon contents of 0.07?mg?l-1, 0.28?mg?l-1 and 0.55?mg?l-1. Additionally, the potential phototoxic effects of exposing the WAF to sunlight, including the UV spectrum, were tested. The study determined sub-lethal effects of WAF exposure on rates of key ecosystem processes: primary production of phytoplankton and grazing (faecal pellet production) of copepods. Both phytoplankton and copepods responded negatively to WAF exposure. Biomass specific primary production was reduced by 6, 52 and 73% and faecal pellet production by 18, 51 and 86% with increasing WAF concentrations compared to controls. The phototoxic effect reduced primary production in the two highest WAF concentration treatments by 71 and 91%, respectively. This experiment contributes to the limited knowledge of acute sub-lethal effects of potential oil spills to the Arctic pelagic food web.
PubMed ID
30460435 View in PubMed
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An anthroposophic lifestyle and intestinal microflora in infancy.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature31230
Source
Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2002 Dec;13(6):402-11
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2002
Author
Johan S Alm
Jackie Swartz
Bengt Björkstén
Lars Engstrand
Johan Engström
Inger Kühn
Gunnar Lilja
Roland Möllby
Elisabeth Norin
Göran Pershagen
Claudia Reinders
Karin Wreiber
Annika Scheynius
Author Affiliation
Sachs' Children's Clinic, Söder Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden. Johan.Alm@sos.ki.se
Source
Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2002 Dec;13(6):402-11
Date
Dec-2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Age Factors
Anthroposophy - psychology
Bacteria - isolation & purification
Child Welfare
Child, Preschool
Colony Count, Microbial
Comparative Study
Family Health
Feces - chemistry - microbiology
Female
Humans
Hypersensitivity, Immediate - diagnosis - microbiology - therapy
Infant
Infant Food - microbiology
Infant Welfare
Infant, Newborn
Intestines - microbiology
Life Style
Male
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Severity of Illness Index
Statistics
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
The intestinal flora is considered to have an impact on the development of the immune system. In the anthroposophic lifestyle, a diet comprising vegetables spontaneously fermented by lactobacilli, and a restrictive use of antibiotics, anti-pyretics and vaccinations, is typical. The aim of this study was to assess the gut flora in infants in relation to certain lifestyle characteristics associated with anthroposophy. Sixty-nine children
PubMed ID
12485315 View in PubMed
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Ancient mitochondrial DNA analysis reveals complexity of indigenous North American turkey domestication.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature145606
Source
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Feb 16;107(7):2807-12
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-16-2010
Author
Camilla F Speller
Brian M Kemp
Scott D Wyatt
Cara Monroe
William D Lipe
Ursula M Arndt
Dongya Y Yang
Author Affiliation
Ancient DNA Laboratory, Department of Archaeology, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC V5A 1S6, Canada.
Source
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Feb 16;107(7):2807-12
Date
Feb-16-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Animals, Domestic - genetics
Base Sequence
Bone and Bones - chemistry
Breeding - methods
Cluster analysis
DNA Primers - genetics
DNA, Mitochondrial - genetics
Demography
Feces - chemistry
Fossils
Founder Effect
Geography
Humans
Molecular Sequence Data
Phylogeny
Sequence Analysis, DNA
Southwestern United States
Species Specificity
Turkeys - genetics
Abstract
Although the cultural and nutritive importance of the turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) to precontact Native Americans and contemporary people worldwide is clear, little is known about the domestication of this bird compared to other domesticates. Mitochondrial DNA analysis of 149 turkey bones and 29 coprolites from 38 archaeological sites (200 BC-AD 1800) reveals a unique domesticated breed in the precontact Southwestern United States. Phylogeographic analyses indicate that this domestic breed originated from outside the region, but rules out the South Mexican domestic turkey (Meleagris gallopavo gallopavo) as a progenitor. A strong genetic bottleneck within the Southwest turkeys also reflects intensive human selection and breeding. This study points to at least two occurrences of turkey domestication in precontact North America and illuminates the intensity and sophistication of New World animal breeding practices.
Notes
Cites: Mol Ecol. 2002 Apr;11(4):643-5711972754
Cites: Bioinformatics. 2003 Aug 12;19(12):1572-412912839
Cites: Nat Rev Genet. 2003 Nov;4(11):900-1014634637
Cites: Brief Bioinform. 2004 Jun;5(2):150-6315260895
Cites: Am J Phys Anthropol. 2007 Apr;132(4):605-2117243155
Cites: Am J Phys Anthropol. 1998 Apr;105(4):539-439584894
Cites: Mol Biol Evol. 1999 Jan;16(1):37-4810331250
Cites: Trends Genet. 2006 Mar;22(3):139-5516458995
Cites: Nucleic Acids Res. 1994 Nov 11;22(22):4673-807984417
PubMed ID
20133614 View in PubMed
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Annual variability of heavy metal content in Svalbard reindeer faeces as a result of dietary preferences.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature298353
Source
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2018 Dec; 25(36):36693-36701
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Dec-2018
Author
Michal Hubert Wegrzyn
Paulina Wietrzyk
Sara Lehmann-Konera
Stanislaw Chmiel
Beata Cykowska-Marzencka
Zaneta Polkowska
Author Affiliation
Prof. Z. Czeppe Department of Polar Research and Documentation, Institute of Botany, Jagiellonian University, Gronostajowa 3, 30-387, Cracow, Poland.
Source
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2018 Dec; 25(36):36693-36701
Date
Dec-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Animals
Dietary Exposure - analysis
Environmental Monitoring - methods
Environmental Pollutants - analysis
Feces - chemistry
Metals, Heavy - analysis
Reindeer - metabolism
Seasons
Svalbard
Abstract
During both winter and summer, Svalbard reindeer selectively feed on different types of vegetation that are not only a source of nutritional value, but also a place of heavy metal accumulation. In the present study, the content of cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, lead, nickel, manganese, and zinc in reindeer excrement was measured. The main aims were to determine the seasonal content of several heavy metals in Svalbard reindeer faeces, and to compare their values in terms of dietary preferences during the year. Summer and winter reindeer excrement was gathered along a designated linear transect running through Bolterdalen and the vegetation described on 1 m2 plots. All of the analysed heavy metals were detected in the reindeer faeces and this fact seems to be connected with the incomplete content of these elements in an animal's tissue after forage digestion. Analysis showed differences between summer and winter excrement in terms of concentrations of cadmium, chromium, iron, and nickel, but no differences were found for the other four elements analysed (manganese, lead, zinc, and copper). However, concentrations of heavy metals in faeces are rather low in comparison with both the levels in the vegetation that may be grazed by reindeer and in reindeer tissue.
PubMed ID
30377969 View in PubMed
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Aspects of nitrogen and mineral nutrition in Icelandic reindeer, Rangifer tarandus.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature62069
Source
Comp Biochem Physiol Physiol. 1994 Sep;109(1):63-73
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-1994
Author
L A Chase
E H Studier
S. Thorisson
Author Affiliation
Department of Biology, University of Michigan-Flint 48502-2186.
Source
Comp Biochem Physiol Physiol. 1994 Sep;109(1):63-73
Date
Sep-1994
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animal Nutrition
Animals
Diet
Feces - chemistry
Female
Iceland
Iron
Lactation
Male
Minerals
Nitrogen
Plants, Edible - chemistry
Pregnancy
Reindeer - physiology
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Sex Characteristics
Abstract
Nitrogen and mineral (Fe, Mg, Na, K, and Ca) compositions of foodstuffs consumed by and dung produced by male, pregnant and lactating female adult Icelandic reindeer and calves were determined during May of 1992. Iron levels in foodstuffs are consistently above the reported toxicity level for similar-sized sheep (0.5 ppt) and may lead to iron toxicity when consumed by reindeer during periods of high lean body mass catabolism. Male and female reindeer meet nutrient requirements for all measured elements and nitrogen with the possible exception of calcium for males during antler growth.
PubMed ID
8076454 View in PubMed
Less detail

[Balance of iron and copper in cadets of military school during physical exercise and next-day rest at different times of the year].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature112660
Source
Voen Med Zh. 2013 Mar;334(3):36-40
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2013
Author
I P Zaitseva
V V Nasolodin
R A Beliakov
N P Arshinov
O N Zaitsev
S I Meshcheriakov
Source
Voen Med Zh. 2013 Mar;334(3):36-40
Date
Mar-2013
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Copper - administration & dosage - metabolism - urine
Diet Surveys
Exercise - physiology
Feces - chemistry
Humans
Iron - administration & dosage - metabolism - urine
Military Personnel
Rest - physiology
Russia
Seasons
Sports - physiology
Young Adult
Abstract
According to examination, with the help of emission spectrum analysis method, of 24 cadets-athletes of different specialization it was determined that during physical exercise in summer and in winter loss of ferrum and copper with excrements exceeded the intake if these microelements with food. The next day rise of impaction of microelements and decrease of excretion. But despite the positive balance of ferrum and copper, spend of these microelements during physical exercise wasn't compensated for the day of rest. That is why there is a possibility of microelement deficit.
PubMed ID
23808214 View in PubMed
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Body protein stores and isotopic indicators of N balance in female reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) during winter.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature82225
Source
Physiol Biochem Zool. 2006 May-Jun;79(3):628-44
Publication Type
Article
Author
Barboza Perry S
Parker Katherine L
Author Affiliation
Institute of Arctic Biology, Department of Biology and Wildlife, University of Alaska, Fairbanks, 99775-7000, USA. ffpsb@uaf.edu
Source
Physiol Biochem Zool. 2006 May-Jun;79(3):628-44
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alaska
Animals
Animals, Newborn
Body Weight - physiology
Eating - physiology
Feces - chemistry
Female
Nitrogen - blood - metabolism - urine
Postpartum Period - metabolism
Pregnancy
Proteins - metabolism
Regression Analysis
Reindeer - metabolism
Seasons
Subcutaneous Fat - metabolism - ultrasonography
Urea - blood - urine
Abstract
We studied bred and unbred female reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) during 12 wk of winter when ambient temperatures were low and nitrogen (N) demand for fetal growth is highest in pregnant females. Animals were fed a complete pelleted diet ad lib. that contained 2.54% N in dry matter that was 80% +/- 2% (X +/- SD) digestible. Female reindeer lost 64% +/- 14% of body fat but gained 34% +/- 11% of lean mass from 10 wk prepartum to parturition. These changes were equivalent to average balances of -14.14 +/- 2.35 MJ d(-1) and 10 +/- 3 g N d(-1). Blood cells, serum, and urine declined in (15)N/(14)N in late winter as body protein was gained from the diet. Blood cells of newborn calves were more enriched in (15)N and (13)C than that of their mothers, indicating the deposition of fetal protein from maternal stores. To quantify pathways of N flow in reindeer, N balance was measured by confining animals to cages for 10 d at 4 wk from parturition. N balance was inversely related to (15)N/(14)N in urea-N but not related to (15)N/(14)N of blood cells, creatinine, and feces. The proportion of urea-N derived from body protein increased above 0.46 as N balance fell below -200 mg N kg(-0.75) d(-1). Proportions of urea-N from body protein were -0.01 +/- 0.21 in pregnant females before and after caging and were consistent with average body protein gain in winter. Storage of protein allows reindeer and caribou to tolerate diets that are low in N without impairing fetal development.
PubMed ID
16691528 View in PubMed
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Botulism type E outbreak associated with eating a beached whale, Alaska.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature75490
Source
Emerg Infect Dis. 2004 Sep;10(9):1685-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2004
Author
Joseph B McLaughlin
Author Affiliation
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA. joe_mclaughlin@health.state.ak.us
Source
Emerg Infect Dis. 2004 Sep;10(9):1685-7
Date
Sep-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Alaska - epidemiology
Animals
Botulinum Toxins - analysis - blood
Botulism - diagnosis - epidemiology
Disease Outbreaks
Feces - chemistry
Female
Food Microbiology
Gastric Juice - chemistry
Humans
Inuits
Male
Meat - microbiology
Middle Aged
Whales - microbiology
Abstract
We report an outbreak of botulism that occurred in July 2002 in a group of 12 Alaskan Yu'pik Eskimos who ate blubber and skin from a beached beluga whale. Botulism death rates among Alaska Natives have declined in the last 20 years, yet incidence has increased.
PubMed ID
15498179 View in PubMed
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113 records – page 1 of 12.