Abyssivirga alkaniphila gen. nov., sp. nov., an alkane-degrading, anaerobic bacterium from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent system, and emended descriptions of Natranaerovirga pectinivora and Natranaerovirga hydrolytica.
A strictly anaerobic, mesophilic, syntrophic, alkane-degrading strain, L81T, was isolated from a biofilm sampled from a black smoker chimney at the Loki's Castle vent field. Cells were straight, rod-shaped, Gram-positive-staining and motile. Growth was observed at pH?6.2-9.5, 14-42?°C and 0.5-6?% (w/w) NaCl, with optima at pH?7.0-8.2, 37?°C and 3% (w/w) NaCl. Proteinaceous substrates, sugars, organic acids and hydrocarbons were utilized for growth. Thiosulfate was used as an external electron acceptor during growth on crude oil. Strain L81T was capable of syntrophic hydrocarbon degradation when co-cultured with a methanogenic archaeon, designated strain LG6, isolated from the same enrichment. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that strain L81T is affiliated with the family Lachnospiraceae, and is most closely related to the type strains of Natranaerovirga pectinivora (92?% sequence similarity) and Natranaerovirga hydrolytica (90%). The major cellular fatty acids of strain L81T were C15?:?0, anteiso-C15?:?0 and C16?:?0, and the profile was distinct from those of the species of the genus Natranaerovirga. The polar lipids were phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, three unidentified phospholipids, four unidentified glycolipids and two unidentified phosphoglycolipids. The G+C content of genomic DNA was determined to be 31.7?mol%. Based on our phenotypic, phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic results, strain L81T is considered to represent a novel species of a new genus of the family Lachnospiraceae, for which we propose the name Abyssivirga alkaniphila gen. nov., sp. nov. The type strain of Abyssivirga alkaniphila is L81T (=DSM 29592T=JCM 30920T). We also provide emended descriptions of Natranaerovirga pectinivora and Natranaerovirga hydrolytica.
The gut microbiota of honeybees (Apis) and bumblebees (Bombus) include the symbiotic bacterial genus Gilliamella. This genus shows a high degree of functional and genomic diversity and separates into distinct lineages. Gilliamella apicola wkB1T, which was isolated from Apis, was the first species to be described. Recently four new species, isolated from Bombus, were identified. In this paper, we compare several genomes/strains from previous studies spanning this diversity, which gives insight into the phylogenetic relationship among different Gilliamella species. We show that one lineage, isolated only from Apis, is different from other gilliamellas described, based on average nucleotide identity calculation (about 80?%) and phenotypic characterizations. We propose the new species name for this lineage: Gilliamella apis sp. nov. We present the characterization of the type strain NO3T (=DSM 105629T=LMG 30293T), a strain isolated from the Western honeybee Apis mellifera, which clusters within this lineage. Cells of strain NO3T grow best in a microaerophilic atmosphere with enhanced CO2 levels at 36?°C and pH 7.0-7.5. Cells also grow well in anaerobic conditions, but not in aerobic conditions. Cells are approximately 1?µm in length and rod-shaped, and the genomic G+C content is 34.7?mol%. Differential characteristics between strain NO3T and the different type strains of Gilliamella were revealed based on API kit tests and genomic content comparisons. The main respiratory quinone of strain NO3T was ubiquinone-8, and the predominant fatty acids were C18?:?1?7c/C18?:?1?6c, C16?:?0, consistent with the genus Gilliamella.
A Gram-reaction-negative, rod-shaped, yellow-pigmented, motile by gliding bacterial strain, designated RU-4-M-4(T), was isolated from intertidal sediment of Sakhalin Island in Russia. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain RU-4-M-4(T) was related to the genus Algibacter and had highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Algibacter pectinivorans KACC 14153(T) (97.2%). The major cellular fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0 3-OH, C15: 0 and iso-C15 : 1 G. The predominant menaquinone was MK-6. The polar lipid profile contained phosphatidylethanolamine, three unidentified aminolipids and two unidentified lipids. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain RU-4-M-4(T) was 36.4 mol%. Combined data from phenotypic, phylogenetic and DNA-DNA relatedness studies demonstrated that strain RU-4-M-4(T) is a representative of a novel species of the genus Algibacter , for which we propose the name Algibacter amylolyticus sp. nov. (type strain RU-4-M-4(T)?=LMG 28383(T)?=DSM 29199(T)).
A novel alkaliphilic spore-forming bacterium was isolated from the benthic sediments of the highly mineralized steppe Lake Khilganta (Transbaikal Region, Russia). Cells of the strain, designated ?-07-2T, were straight to slightly curved rods, Gram-stain-positive and motile. Strain ?-07-2T grew in the pH range from 7.0 to 10.7 (optimum pH 9.6-10.3). Growth was observed at 25-47?°C (optimum 30?°C) and at an NaCl concentration from 5 to 150?g l-1 with an optimum at 40?g l-1. Strain ?-07-2T was a chemo-organoheterotroph able to reduce amorphous ferric hydroxide, Fe(III) citrate and elemental sulfur in the presence of yeast extract as the electron donor. It used tryptone, peptone and trypticase with Fe(III) citrate as the electron acceptor. The predominant fatty acids in cell walls were C16:1?8, iso-C15:0, C14?:?0 3-OH and C16?:?0. The DNA G+C content was 32.6?mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain ?-07-2T was related most closely to members of the genus Alkaliphilus within the family Clostridiaceae. The closest relative was Alkaliphilus peptidifermentans Z-7036T (96.4?% similarity). On the basis of the genotypic, chemotaxonomic and phenotypic data, strain ?-07-2T represents a novel species in the genus Alkaliphilus, for which the name Alkaliphilus namsaraevii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is ?-07-2T (=VKM ?-2746?=DSM 26418?).
A strictly aerobic, Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped, motile by gliding and yellow-orange pigmented flavobacterium, designated strain 9Alg 151T, was isolated from the Pacific red alga Tichocarpus crinitus. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the novel strain fell into the genus Aquimarina of the family Flavobacteriaceae with a 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity range of 94.2-98.2?% to the recognized species of the genus. Strain 9Alg 151T grew in the presence of 0.5-5?%?NaCl and at 5-34?°C, and hydrolysed aesculin, agar, gelatin, starch, Tween 40, DNA and chitin. The predominant fatty acids were iso-C17?:?0 3-OH, iso-C15?:?0, iso-C15?:?1 G, iso-C15?:?0 3-OH, iso-C16?:?0, iso-C17?:?1?8c and summed feature 3. The polar lipid profile comprised phosphatidylethanolamine, three unidentified aminolipids and three unidentified lipids. The major respiratory quinone was MK-6. The genomic DNA G+C?content was 32.6?mol%. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence data, and chemotaxonomic and phenotypic characteristics, strain 9Alg 151T represents a novel species of the genus Aquimarina, for which the name Aquimarina algiphila sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 9Alg 151T (=KCTC 23622T=KMM 6462T).
Four bacterial strains, LFT 1.7T, LT2C 2.5, LT4C 2.8 and TM 4.6, were isolated from great scallop (Pecten maximus) larvae and tank seawater in a Norwegian hatchery and characterized by a polyphasic approach including determination of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and genomic traits. All were Gram-stain-negative, motile rods, oxidase- and catalase-positive and required sea salts for growth. Major fatty acids present were summed feature 3 (C16?:?1?7c/C16?:?1?6c), summed feature 8 (C18?:?1?7c or C18?:?1?6c), C16?:?0, C14?:?0, summed feature 2 (C14?:?0 3-OH/iso-C16?:?1 I), C12?:?0 3-OH and C12?:?0. Strain LFT 1.7T contained menaquinone MK-6 as the sole respiratory quinone. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that all strains formed a distinct lineage within the genus Arcobacter with a low similarity to known species (94.77-95.32?%). The DNA G+C content was 28.7?mol%. Results of in silico DNA-DNA hybridization and average nucleotide identity confirmed that the isolates constitute a novel species of Arcobacter, for which the name Arcobacter lekithochrous sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is LFT 1.7T (=CECT 8942T=DSM 100870T).
A novel nitrogen-fixing strain, designated BV-S(T), was isolated from a sulfur bacterial mat collected from a sulfide spring of the Stavropol Krai, North Caucasus, Russia. Strain BV-S(T) grew optimally at pH 7.5 and 37?C. According to the results of phylogenetic analysis, strain BV-S(T) belonged to the genus Azospirillum within the family Rhodospirillaceae of the class Alphaproteobacteria. Within the genus Azospirillum, strain BV-S(T) was most closely related to Azospirillum doebereinerae GSF71(T), A. picis IMMIB TAR-3(T) and A. lipoferum ATCC 29707(T) (97.7, 97.7 and 97.4?% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, respectively). DNA-DNA relatedness between strain BV-S(T) and A. doebereinerae DSM 13131(T), A. picis DSM 19922(T) and A. lipoferum ATCC 29707(T) was 38, 55 and 42?%, respectively. Similarities between nifH sequences of strain BV-S(T) and members of the genus Azospirillum ranged from 94.5 to 96.8?%. Chemotaxonomic characteristics (quinone Q-10, major fatty acid C(18?:?1)?7c and G+C content 67 mol%) were similar to those of members of the genus Azospirillum. In contrast to known Azospirillum species, strain BV-S(T) was capable of mixotrophic growth under microaerobic conditions with simultaneous utilization of organic substrates and thiosulfate as electron donors for energy conservation. Oxidation of sulfide was accompanied by deposits of sulfur globules within the cells. Based on these observations, strain BV-S(T) is considered as a representative of a novel species of the genus Azospirillum, for which the name Azospirillum thiophilum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is BV-S(T) (=DSM 21654(T) =VKM B-2513(T)).
A strain of filamentous sulfur bacteria was isolated from freshwater spring contaminated with residential and agricultural wastewater in Moscow region, Russia. According to the results of phylogenetic analysis, strain D-402T belonged to the genus Beggiatoa within the family Beggiatoaceae of the class Gammaproteobacteria. Within the genus Beggiatoa, strain D-402T was most closely related to Beggiatoa alba strains. Strain D-402T had a DNA G+C content 42.1 mol%. The DNA-DNA hybridization value between strain D-402T and Beggiatoa alba strain B15LD was 33?%. Predominant fatty acids were C18?:?1 (46.1 and 53.3?%), C16?:?0 (15.5 and 16.2?%) and C16?:?1 (32.9 and 25.4?%) for strains D-402T and B15LD, respectively. In contrast to known representatives of Beggiatoa, strain D-402T was capable of chemolithoautotrophic growth with sulfide and thiosulfate as electron donors. Oxidation of sulfide and thiosulfate was accompanied by deposition of sulfur globules within the cells. Strain D-402T was capable of heterotrophic growth. The strain was capable of using different organic compounds, sulfur compounds and hydrogen as electron donors. Based on these observations, strain D-402T is considered as a representative of a species Beggiatoa leptomitoformis sp. nov. of the genus Beggiatoa. The type strain is D-402T (=DSM 14946T=UNIQEM U 779T).
Two bacterial isolates from water of the alkaline brackish Lake Solenoe (Buryatia, Russia), 2C and 5CT, were characterized by using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. The strains were small, non-motile, Gram-stain-negative rods that formed small orange-red colonies on the surface of marine agar. Studies based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the strains were related closely to Belliella pelovolcani CC-SAL-25T (98.7?% sequence similarity). The G+C content of the DNA was 38-40?mol%. DNA-DNA hybridization values between strains 2C and 5CT and B. pelovolcani CC-SAL-25T were 56-58?mol%. A menaquinone with seven isoprene units (MK-7) was the major respiratory quinone. The fatty acid profiles were slightly different from that of B. pelovolcani CC-SAL-25T. The novel strains could be distinguished from the phylogenetically closest species B. pelovolcani CC-SAL-25T based on matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectra of whole cells and a range of physiological and biochemical characteristics. The data obtained suggest that strains 2C and 5CT represent a novel species of the genus Belliella, for which the name Belliella buryatensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 5CT (?=?VKM B-2724T?=?KCTC 32194T).
A novel, thermophilic filamentous anoxygenic phototrophic bacterium, strain isl-2T, was isolated from the Strokkur Geyser, Iceland. Strain isl-2T formed unbranched multicellular filaments with gliding motility. The cells formed no spores and stained Gram-negative. The existence of pili was described in a species of the genus Chloroflexus for the first time, to our knowledge. Optimal growth occurred at a pH range of 7.5-7.7 and at a temperature of 55??C. Strain isl-2T grew photoheterotrophically under anaerobic conditions in the light and chemoheterotrophically under aerobic conditions in the dark. The major cellular fatty acids were C18?:?1?9, C16?:?0, C18?:?0 and C18?:?0-OH. The major quinone was menaquinone-10. The photosynthetic pigments were bacteriochlorophylls c and a as well as ?- and ?-carotenes. The results of phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences placed strain isl-2T into the genus Chloroflexus of the phylum Chloroflexi with Chloroflexus aggregans DSM 9485T as the closest relative (97.0?% identity). The whole-genome sequence of isl-2T was determined. Average nucleotide identity values obtained for isl-2T in comparison to available genomic sequences of other strains of members of the genus Chloroflexus were 81.4?% or less and digital DNA-DNA hybridisation values 22.8?% or less. The results of additional phylogenetic analysis of the PufLM and BchG amino acid sequences supported the separate position of the isl-2T phylotype from the phylotypes of other members of the genus Chloroflexus. On the basis of physiological and phylogenetic data as well as genomic data, it was suggested that isl-2T represents a novel species within the genus Chloroflexus, with the proposed name Chloroflexus islandicus sp. nov. The type strain of the species is isl-2T (=VKM B-2978T,=DSM 29225T,=JCM 30533T).