Abnormalities in lipid metabolism have been frequently observed in cancer and are associated with a poor prognosis. However, a detailed, longitudinal characterization of fatty acid status is lacking. This study aimed to assess plasma phospholipid fatty acids before chemotherapy, immediately after and 1 month following chemotherapy in a group of 50 patients newly diagnosed with lung cancer and explore factors which may contribute to aberrations in fatty acids. Their mean ± SD characteristics: age 64 ± 8.5 years, 75% advanced stage disease, body mass index 27.0 ± 5.4 kg/m², 6 month weight loss -4.6 ± 6.1%. Compared to patients with early stage disease, patients with advanced disease had abnormal fatty acid profiles including significantly lower (P
Adipose tissue fatty acids, it has been proposed, reflect dietary intake. Using data from a validation study preceding a prospective study on diet, cancer, and health in Denmark, we were able to compare fatty acid profiles in adipose tissue biopsies from 86 individuals (23 men and 63 women) aged 40-64 y and dietary intake of fatty acids (as percentage of total fat) assessed by two 7-d weighed-diet records or by a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Correlation coefficients (Pearson r) between fatty acid concentrations in adipose tissue biopsies (as percentage of total peak area) and dietary intake of fatty acid (percentage of total fat), determined from the diet records for men and women, respectively, were as follows: polyunsaturated fatty acids r = 0.74 and r = 0.46; n - 3 fatty acids of marine origin: eicosapentaenoic acid r = 0.15 and r = 0.61, and docosahexaenoic acid r = 0.47 and r = 0.57. Correlation coefficients obtained by using the food frequency questionnaire were slightly lower for most fatty acids.
The LiVicordia study was set up to investigate possible causes for coronary heart disease mortality in middle-aged Lithuanian men being four times higher than in Swedish men. In a previous part of this study we found lower total and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol in the Lithuanian men in spite of them having a higher fat intake than in the Swedish men. Their LDL was also more susceptible to oxidation in vitro than was that of the Swedish men. Fat quality can influence LDL oxidation. In order to obtain data on long-term fat quality intake we measured the fatty acid composition of abdominal wall adipose tissue by gas chromatography in men aged 50 years from Vilnius, Lithuania (n=50) and Linköping, Sweden (n=50). Men from Vilnius had a significantly higher percentage of adipose tissue long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (20:4n6, 20:5n3, 22:5n5, 22:6n3) and lower percentage of saturated fatty acids, especially myristic acid (14:0), 3.4+/-0.7 versus 4.6+/-0.8, p
In rheumatoid arthritis various pro-inflammatory metabolites of arachidonic acid (AA), such as leukotriene B4 (LTB4) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), contribute to tissue destruction and pain. In contrast to AA, which is an omega-6 fatty acid, the omega-3 fatty acids, after having been liberated from the cell membrane phospholipids, are further converted into the non- or anti-inflammatory eicosanoids LTB5 and PGI3. AA concentration is an important regulatory step in the synthesis of both prostanoids and leukotriens. Dietary supplementation with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has therefore been used to decrease the ratio of AA to EPA or DHA to obtain beneficial clinical effects. EPA and DHA are found in animal fat and are quite expensive compared to their precursor alpha-linolenic acid (alpha-LNA) found in flaxseed oil. We, therefore, performed a placebo-controlled trial with alpha-LNA in 22 patients with rheumatoid arthritis, using a linoleic acid preparation as a placebo. After a 3-month follow-up, the treatment group showed an increased bleeding time, but the clinical, subjective (global assessment, classification of functional status, joint score index, visual analogue scale, pain tenderness score) and laboratory parameters (haemoglobin, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein) did not show any statistical alterations. AA, EPA and DHA did not change either in spite of a significant increase in alpha-LNA in the treatment group. Thus, 3-month's supplementation with alpha-LNA did not prove to be beneficial in rheumatoid arthritis.
A low frequency of ischaemic heart diseases in Eskimos has been related to polyunsaturated fatty acids. We therefore studied fatty acid patterns associated with coronary artery disease (CAD) for a possible relationship between fatty acid profile and CAD diagnosis in Mediterranean patients. The gas chromatography method was used to analyze the membranes of patients' erythrocytes. The patients without coronary stenosis were used as controls. Patients with CAD showed increased percentages of saturated fatty acids (35.8 vs. 34.2%, P
We have carried out a fatty acid and carbohydrate compositional analysis of the protease-resistant core of paired helical filaments (prcPHF) isolated from six Alzheimer's diseased brains. Fatty acids, long-chain bases and monosaccharides were characterized by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) of fatty acid methyl esters, trimethylsilylated long-chain bases, peracetylated alditol acetates and trimethylsilyl methyl glycosides. Glucose and mannose were found to be the only carbohydrate components. Four of the six prcPHF samples contained only glucose while the remaining two samples contained between 30-40% mannose in addition to glucose. None of the samples were found to contain either hydroxylated fatty acids or long-chain bases. The average fatty acid profile of prcPHF was highest in stearic (C18:0) and palmitic acids (C16:0) with less than 10% unsaturated fatty acids. By comparing the carbohydrate and lipid composition of prcPHF to similar data for other brain glycolipids, it was determined that prcPHF is a unique glycolipid, distinct from cerebrosides, gangliosides or brain phospholipids. The fatty acid and carbohydrate composition of a glycolipid isolated from a population of normal brains according to the prcPHF protocol was found to be identical to that of prcPHF glycolipid. It is possible that subtle differences in structure or indigenous factors are responsible for the initiation of PHF formation in vivo.
A new infrared spectroscopic method suitable for determining total fatty alcohol and fatty acid ester concentrations in industrial oils has been developed. Oil samples were diluted with toluene (1:3 w/w), the toxicity and volatility of which are relatively low compared with more commonly used IR solvents, like carbon tetrachloride or carbon disulfide. Mixture standards were prepared from dodecanol, tetradecanol, octadecanol, methyl stearate and methyl palmitate. Some analytical and statistical tests were performed on the developed method. The recoveries and the repeatability of the method proved to be sufficient for the quantitative determination of fatty alcohol and fatty acid ester additives in industrial oils. Reproducibility testing in another laboratory also produced satisfactory results. The developed method also proved to be relatively quick and simple. This method was developed to satisfy industry's need to determine the concentrations of these oil additives, and it has already been applied successfully in machinery oil analysis.
The major polyunsaturated fatty acids in adipose tissue objectively reflect long-term dietary intake, and may provide more reliable information than would self-reported intake. Whether adipose tissue fatty acids predict cardiovascular and all-cause mortality needs investigation.
To investigate associations between adipose tissue fatty acids and cardiovascular and overall mortality in a cohort of elderly men.
We hypothesized that polyunsaturated fatty acids reflecting dietary intake, are inversely associated with cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. In the Swedish cohort study Uppsala Longitudinal Cohort of Adult Men, buttock fatty acid composition was analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography in 1992 to 1993 and 2008. The study participants were followed during 11?311 person-years, between 1991 and 2011 (median follow-up, 14.8 years). In this community-based study that took place from 1970 to 1973, all men born in 1920 to 1924 in Uppsala, Sweden, were invited and 2322 (82%) were included (at age 50 years). At the reinvestigation at age 71 years, 1221 (73%) of the 1681 invited men participated. Adipose tissue biopsy specimens were taken in a subsample of 853 men. There was no loss to follow-up.
Adipose tissue proportions of 4 polyunsaturated fatty acids that were considered to mainly reflect dietary intake (linoleic acid, 18:2n-6; a-linolenic acid, 18:3n-3; eicosapentaenoic acid, 20:5n-3; and docosahexaenoic acid, 22:6n-3) comprised primary analyses, and all other available fatty acids were secondary analyses.
Hazard ratios (HRs) for cardiovascular and all-cause mortality using Cox proportional hazards regression analyses, performed in 2015.
Among the 853 Swedish men, there were 605 deaths, of which 251 were cardiovascular deaths. After adjusting for risk factors, none of the 4 primary fatty acids were associated with cardiovascular mortality (HR, 0.92-1.05 for each standard deviation increase; P?=?.27). Linoleic acid was inversely associated with all-cause mortality (HR,?0.90; 95% CI, 0.82-0.98; P?=?.02) and directly associated with intake (P?
Men in Eastern Finland show a substantially higher rate of coronary heart disease (CHD) than men in the Western part of the country. To study possible differences in the biochemical composition and atherosclerotic involvement of coronary arteries between these two populations, we analyzed major lipid and non-lipid components of coronary arteries from 15- to 60-year-old Finnish men after accidental death. The material consisted of 59 age-matched pairs from East and West Finland, respectively, collected at successive autopsies during 1979-1983. The coronary arteries from East Finland contained significantly more esterified cholesterol and a higher percentage of oleate in cholesteryl esters. The findings were most conspicuous under the age of 40 years, and imply a higher degree of atherosclerosis together with an increased rate of intracellular cholesterol esterification in coronary arteries in Eastern as compared with Western Finland. The vessels from East Finland also tended to contain more free cholesterol and raised lesions, but the differences were not statistically significant. No major regional differences were seen in total phospholipids, phospholipid subfractions, DNA, calcium, collagen, total protein, or glycosaminoglycans.
The evidence regarding fatty acids and breast cancer risk is inconclusive. Adipose tissue fatty acids can be used as biomarkers of fatty acid intake and of endogenous fatty acid exposure. Fatty acids in adipose tissue are correlated owing to common dietary sources and shared metabolic pathways, which group fatty acids into naturally occurring patterns. We aimed to prospectively investigate associations between adipose tissue fatty acid patterns and long-term risk of total breast cancer and breast cancer subtypes characterised by oestrogen and progesterone receptor status (ER and PR).
This case-cohort study was based on data from the Danish cohort Diet, Cancer and Health. At baseline, a fat biopsy and information on lifestyle and reproductive factors were collected. From the 31 original fatty acids measured, patterns of fatty acids were identified using the treelet transform. During a median follow-up of 5.3 years, 474 breast cancer cases were identified. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals of risk of total breast cancer and of subtypes according to quintiles of factor score were determined by weighted Cox proportional hazards regression.
After adjustment for potential confounders, factor scores for the seven patterns identified by the treelet transform were not associated with risk of total breast cancer, nor with risk of ER+, ER-, PR+ or PR- tumours.
No clear associations between the patterns of fatty acids at baseline and long-term risk of total breast cancer or ER+, ER-, PR+ or PR- tumours were observed.