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Bacterial precursors and unsaturated long-chain fatty acids are biomarkers of North-Atlantic deep-sea demosponges.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature311726
Source
PLoS One. 2021; 16(1):e0241095
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
2021
Author
Anna de Kluijver
Klaas G J Nierop
Teresa M Morganti
Martijn C Bart
Beate M Slaby
Ulrike Hanz
Jasper M de Goeij
Furu Mienis
Jack J Middelburg
Author Affiliation
Department of Earth Sciences, Faculty of Geosciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands.
Source
PLoS One. 2021; 16(1):e0241095
Date
2021
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Animals
Aquatic Organisms - classification - metabolism - microbiology
Fatty Acids, Unsaturated - metabolism
Geodia - metabolism
Porifera - microbiology
Abstract
Sponges produce distinct fatty acids (FAs) that (potentially) can be used as chemotaxonomic and ecological biomarkers to study endosymbiont-host interactions and the functional ecology of sponges. Here, we present FA profiles of five common habitat-building deep-sea sponges (class Demospongiae, order Tetractinellida), which are classified as high microbial abundance (HMA) species. Geodia hentscheli, G. parva, G. atlantica, G. barretti, and Stelletta rhaphidiophora were collected from boreal and Arctic sponge grounds in the North-Atlantic Ocean. Bacterial FAs dominated in all five species and particularly isomeric mixtures of mid-chain branched FAs (MBFAs, 8- and 9-Me-C16:0 and 10- and 11-Me-C18:0) were found in high abundance (together = 20% of total FAs) aside more common bacterial markers. In addition, the sponges produced long-chain linear, mid- and a(i)-branched unsaturated FAs (LCFAs) with a chain length of 24?28 C atoms and had predominantly the typical ?5,9 unsaturation, although the ?9,19 and (yet undescribed) ?11,21 unsaturations were also identified. G. parva and S. rhaphidiophora each produced distinct LCFAs, while G. atlantica, G. barretti, and G. hentscheli produced similar LCFAs, but in different ratios. The different bacterial precursors varied in carbon isotopic composition (d13C), with MBFAs being more enriched compared to other bacterial (linear and a(i)-branched) FAs. We propose biosynthetic pathways for different LCFAs from their bacterial precursors, that are consistent with small isotopic differences found in LCFAs. Indeed, FA profiles of deep-sea sponges can serve as chemotaxonomic markers and support the concept that sponges acquire building blocks from their endosymbiotic bacteria.
PubMed ID
33503057 View in PubMed
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Beneficial effect(s) of n-3 fatty acids in cardiovascular diseases: but, why and how?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature3153
Source
Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2000 Dec;63(6):351-62
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2000
Author
U N Das
Author Affiliation
EFA Sciences LLC, 1420 Providence Highway, Norwood, MA 02062, USA. undurti@hotmail.com
Source
Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2000 Dec;63(6):351-62
Date
Dec-2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acetylcholine - physiology
Animals
Arrhythmia - epidemiology - prevention & control
Brain - physiopathology
Cardiovascular Diseases - diet therapy - epidemiology - prevention & control
Cell Adhesion Molecules - biosynthesis - genetics
Cell Division - drug effects
Clinical Trials
Cohort Studies
Cytokines - metabolism
Dietary Fats - administration & dosage - pharmacology - therapeutic use
Eicosanoids - metabolism
Endothelium, Vascular - drug effects - metabolism
Exercise
Fatty Acids, Omega-3 - administration & dosage - pharmacology - therapeutic use
Fatty Acids, Unsaturated - metabolism
Fish Oils - administration & dosage - pharmacology - therapeutic use
Gene Expression Regulation - drug effects
Greenland - epidemiology
Heart - drug effects
Hemostasis - drug effects
Humans
Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System - drug effects - physiopathology
Inflammation - drug therapy - metabolism - prevention & control
Inuits
Japan - epidemiology
Lipid Metabolism
Models, Biological
Myocardium - metabolism
Oxidation-Reduction
Oxidative Stress
Parasympathetic Nervous System - drug effects
Pituitary-Adrenal System - drug effects - physiopathology
Rats
Sodium Channels - drug effects
Vagus Nerve - physiopathology
Abstract
Low rates of coronary heart disease was found in Greenland Eskimos and Japanese who are exposed to a diet rich in fish oil. Suggested mechanisms for this cardio-protective effect focused on the effects of n-3 fatty acids on eicosanoid metabolism, inflammation, beta oxidation, endothelial dysfunction, cytokine growth factors, and gene expression of adhesion molecules; But, none of these mechanisms could adequately explain the beneficial actions of n-3 fatty acids. One attractive suggestion is a direct cardiac effect of n-3 fatty acids on arrhythmogenesis. N-3 fatty acids can modify Na+ channels by directly binding to the channel proteins and thus, prevent ischemia-induced ventricular fibrillation and sudden cardiac death. Though this is an attractive explanation, there could be other actions as well. N-3 fatty acids can inhibit the synthesis and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factoralpha (TNFalpha) and interleukin-1 (IL-1) and IL-2 that are released during the early course of ischemic heart disease. These cytokines decrease myocardial contractility and induce myocardial damage, enhance the production of free radicals, which can also suppress myocardial function. Further, n-3 fatty acids can increase parasympathetic tone leading to an increase in heart rate variability and thus, protect the myocardium against ventricular arrhythmias. Increased parasympathetic tone and acetylcholine, the principle vagal neurotransmitter, significantly attenuate the release of TNF, IL-1beta, IL-6 and IL-18. Exercise enhances parasympathetic tone, and the production of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 which may explain the beneficial action of exercise in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes mellitus. TNFalpha has neurotoxic actions, where as n-3 fatty acids are potent neuroprotectors and brain is rich in these fatty acids. Based on this, it is suggested that the principle mechanism of cardioprotective and neuroprotective action(s) of n-3 fatty acids can be due to the suppression of TNFalpha and IL synthesis and release, modulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal anti-inflammatory responses, and an increase in acetylcholine release, the vagal neurotransmitter. Thus, there appears to be a close interaction between the central nervous system, endocrine organs, cytokines, exercise, and dietary n-3 fatty acids. This may explain why these fatty acids could be of benefit in the management of conditions such as septicemia and septic shock, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, inflammatory bowel diseases, diabetes mellitus, essential hypertension and atherosclerosis.
Notes
Erratum In: Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2001 Jan;64(1):74
PubMed ID
11133172 View in PubMed
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Commentary on the workshop statement. Essentiality of and recommended dietary intakes for Omega-6 and Omega-3 fatty acids.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature197240
Source
Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2000 Sep;63(3):139-44
Publication Type
Article
Conference/Meeting Material
Date
Sep-2000

Comparison of fatty acid composition in major lipid classes of the dominant benthic invertebrates of the Yenisei river.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature51605
Source
Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2003 Jan;134(1):111-22
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2003
Author
N N Sushchik
M I Gladyshev
A V Moskvichova
O N Makhutova
G S Kalachova
Author Affiliation
Institute of Biophysics of Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Science, Akademgorodok, Krasnoyarsk 660036, Russia. labehe@ibp.ru
Source
Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2003 Jan;134(1):111-22
Date
Jan-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Analysis of Variance
Animals
Diptera
Fatty Acids - metabolism
Fatty Acids, Unsaturated - metabolism
Insects - embryology
Larva - metabolism
Lipid Metabolism
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Russia
Time Factors
Triglycerides - metabolism
Abstract
The composition and content of fatty acids (FAs) in total lipids, triacylglycerols (TAG) and polar lipids (PL) in dominant groups of benthic invertebrates: gammarids (Gammaridae, Amphipoda), chironomid larvae (Chironomidae, Diptera), caddisfly larvae (Trichoptera) and mayfly larvae (Ephemeroptera) were studied in the Yenisei river. For the first time data on the FA composition of species belonging to Trichoptera (Insecta) are presented. The groups of aquatic insect larvae and gammarids weakly differed in total content of essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Hence, the strong invasion of gammarids which occurred in the last decades in the Yenisei river should not result in a decrease in potential yield of essential PUFA in the ecosystem and corresponding decrease in food resource quality for fish in respect to PUFA content. Significant differences in biomarker FAs in TAG were found which correlated to specific food sources. Different levels of long-chain PUFA in PL of the invertebrates are discussed in relation to the genetic ability of particular taxa to form these FAs.
PubMed ID
12524039 View in PubMed
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Comparison of lipid composition of milk from half-Danish Jersey cows and United States Jersey cows.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature64614
Source
J Dairy Sci. 1995 Mar;78(3):655-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-1995
Author
J. Bitman
D L Wood
R H Miller
J C Wilk
E D Moore
Author Affiliation
Milk Secretion and Mastitis Laboratory, Agriculture Research Service, USDA, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA.
Source
J Dairy Sci. 1995 Mar;78(3):655-8
Date
Mar-1995
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Breeding
Cattle - metabolism
Comparative Study
Denmark
Fatty Acids, Unsaturated - metabolism
Female
Lactation
Lipid Metabolism
Male
Milk - metabolism
Parity
United States
Abstract
We studied differences in lipid composition of milk from Jersey cows with US sires and from Jersey cows with Danish sires. Milk samples were obtained on DHIA test day from 32 cows with Danish sires and 32 herdmates with US sires in two herds. The Jerseys with US sires were paired with those with Danish sires by parity and stage of lactation. Mean percentage of milk fat was 5.7%, for Jerseys with Danish sires and 4.8% for Jerseys with US sires. Total fat per day was the same (.91 kg) for both groups. Detailed analysis of milk lipids indicated that lipid composition of milk was similar for cows with US sires and those with Danish sires. However, milk from Jerseys with Danish sires contained more free cholesterol than milk from Jerseys with US sires, 17.5 versus 14.3 +/- .6 mg/dl. The proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids was greater for milk from Jerseys with US sires than for milk from Jerseys with Danish sires (2.3 vs. 2.1%). Although lipid composition of milk from both groups was generally similar, the milk of Jersey cows with Danish sires had higher concentrations of free cholesterol and lower proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids, both of which are possible negative factors for health of consumers.
PubMed ID
7782521 View in PubMed
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Effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on coronary heart disease.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature55445
Source
Bibl Nutr Dieta. 1989;(43):1-12
Publication Type
Article
Date
1989
Author
Gudbjarnason S
Benediktsdóttir VE
Skúladóttir G
Author Affiliation
Science Institute, University of Iceland, Reykjavik.
Source
Bibl Nutr Dieta. 1989;(43):1-12
Date
1989
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Coronary Disease - metabolism
Fatty Acids, Unsaturated - metabolism
Fish Oils - metabolism
Humans
Myocardium - metabolism
Phospholipids - metabolism
Rats
Abstract
The purpose of this paper is to discuss the role of n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in coronary heart disease (CHD). The level of n-6 and n-3 fatty acids in plasma and cardiac phospholipids was examined in relation to CHD in man. The fatty acid profile of cardiac phospholipids was also examined in relation to various risk factors of CHD, such as the composition of dietary fat, aging and stress. Life expectancy in Iceland is higher than in other Nordic countries, and the cardiovascular diseases mortality is lower in Iceland in the older age groups. There is a positive correlation between the level of arachidonic acid (AA) in plasma phospholipids (PL) in the normal population and cardiovascular disease mortality in Nordic countries. The level of AA in plasma PL is significantly higher in patients with CHD than in normal subjects. Dietary intake of fish or fish oil lowers cellular levels of AA and favorably influences eicosanoid metabolism in platelets and leukocytes. The roles of n-6 and n-3 fatty acids in heart muscle are less well understood. Rats fed diets containing either 10% butter, corn oil or cod liver oil showed markedly different fatty acid composition of individual phospholipids in sarcolemma. Dietary cod liver oil lowered the AA level in sarcolemmal phosphatidyl choline (PC) and phosphatidyl ethanolamine (PE) by 50% compared to butter or corn oil fed rats, replacing AA with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Adaptation to moderate to severe stress induced by repeated administration of catecholamines for 15 days resulted in marked but reversible alterations in the fatty acid profile of cardiac phospholipids. During severe stress the level of AA increased by 50% in PC replacing linoleic acid (LA), whereas in PE the DHA increased markedly replacing LA. Aging was accompanied by similar alterations in cardiac phospholipids, increased levels of AA in PC and increased DHA in PE. The incidence of ventricular fibrillation (VF) and sudden cardiac death induced by isoproterenol in adult rats fed different dietary fat was lowest in rats fed cod liver oil, with a low ratio of AA/DHA in cardiac phospholipids. Mortality due to VF was highest in rats fed corn oil with the highest ratio of AA/DHA. Sudden cardiac death in man was frequently associated with a higher ratio of AA/DHA than observed in people of the same age who died in accidents. The balance between n-6 and n-3 fatty acids in cellular phospholipids seems to play an important role in stress tolerance and survival.
PubMed ID
2730548 View in PubMed
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Evidence for novel genetic loci associated with metabolic traits in Yup'ik people.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature108300
Source
Am J Hum Biol. 2013 Sep-Oct;25(5):673-80
Publication Type
Article
Author
Stella Aslibekyan
Laura Kelly Vaughan
Howard W Wiener
Dominick J Lemas
Yann C Klimentidis
Peter J Havel
Kimber L Stanhope
Diane M O'brien
Scarlett E Hopkins
Bert B Boyer
Hemant K Tiwari
Author Affiliation
Department of Epidemiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, 35294.
Source
Am J Hum Biol. 2013 Sep-Oct;25(5):673-80
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Alaska
Blood Chemical Analysis
Fatty Acids, Omega-3 - metabolism
Fatty Acids, Unsaturated - metabolism
Female
Genetic Linkage
Genome-Wide Association Study
Humans
Linear Models
Male
Nitrogen Isotopes - blood
Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
Abstract
To identify genomic regions associated with fasting plasma lipid profiles, insulin, glucose, and glycosylated hemoglobin in a Yup'ik study population, and to evaluate whether the observed associations between genetic factors and metabolic traits were modified by dietary intake of marine derived omega-3 polyunsaturated acids (n-3 PUFA).
A genome-wide linkage scan was conducted among 982 participants of the Center for Alaska Native Health Research study. n-3 PUFA intake was estimated using the nitrogen stable isotope ratio (d(15) N) of erythrocytes. All genotyped SNPs located within genomic regions with LOD scores?>?2 were subsequently tested for individual SNP associations with metabolic traits using linear models that account for familial correlation as well as age, sex, community group, and n-3 PUFA intake. Separate linear models were fit to evaluate interactions between the genotype of interest and n-3 PUFA intake.
We identified several chromosomal regions linked to serum apolipoprotein A2, high density lipoprotein-, low density lipoprotein-, and total cholesterol, insulin, and glycosylated hemoglobin. Genetic variants found to be associated with total cholesterol mapped to a region containing previously validated lipid loci on chromosome 19, and additional novel peaks of biological interest were identified at 11q12.2-11q13.2. We did not observe any significant interactions between n-3 PUFA intake, genotypes, and metabolic traits.
We have completed a whole genome linkage scan for metabolic traits in Native Alaskans, confirming previously identified loci, and offering preliminary evidence of novel loci implicated in chronic disease pathogenesis in this population.
Notes
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PubMed ID
23907821 View in PubMed
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Evidence of prostaglandin I3 formation in vivo from dietary eicosapentaenoic acid.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature4960
Source
Nutr Rev. 1984 Sep;42(9):317-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-1984

Fatty Acid Composition of Yakut Horse Tissues.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature305438
Source
Dokl Biochem Biophys. 2020 May; 492(1):105-107
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
May-2020
Author
K A Petrov
O N Makhutova
M I Gladyshev
Author Affiliation
Institute for Biological Problems of Cryolithozone, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Yakutsk, Russia.
Source
Dokl Biochem Biophys. 2020 May; 492(1):105-107
Date
May-2020
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Animals
Fatty Acids - analysis - metabolism
Fatty Acids, Omega-3 - metabolism
Fatty Acids, Unsaturated - metabolism
Horses
Liver - metabolism
Meat - analysis
Muscles - metabolism
Subcutaneous Fat - metabolism
alpha-Linolenic Acid - metabolism
Abstract
We compared the composition and content of fatty acids (FAs) in the liver, muscles, and subcutaneous fat of Yakut horses inhabiting extreme environment in the Cryolithozone. Essential linoleic and alpha-linolenic acids, supplied to horses with their food, were accumulated in different tissues. Linoleic acid was accumulated in the liver but alpha-linolenic acid was accumulated in muscle and subcutaneous fat. Such a distribution indicates different roles of these fatty acids in the metabolism of horses. Yakut horse meat is a valuable dietary product owing to its fatty acid composition and content.
PubMed ID
32632583 View in PubMed
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Genes involved in the metabolism of poly-unsaturated fatty-acids (PUFA) and risk for Crohn's disease in children & young adults.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature138351
Source
PLoS One. 2010;5(12):e15672
Publication Type
Article
Date
2010
Author
Irina Costea
David R Mack
David Israel
Kenneth Morgan
Alfreda Krupoves
Ernest Seidman
Colette Deslandres
Philippe Lambrette
Guy Grimard
Emile Levy
Devendra K Amre
Author Affiliation
Public Health Agency of Canada, Montreal, Canada.
Source
PLoS One. 2010;5(12):e15672
Date
2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Canada
Case-Control Studies
Child
Child, Preschool
Crohn Disease - genetics - metabolism
Fatty Acids, Unsaturated - metabolism
Female
Genetic Variation
Haplotypes
Humans
Inflammation
Leukotriene B4 - metabolism
Male
Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
Abstract
Epidemiological evidence for the role of polyunsaturated fatty-acids (PUFA) in Crohn's disease (CD) is unclear, although the key metabolite leucotriene B4 (LTB(4)) is closely linked to the inflammatory process. We hypothesized that inherited variation in key PUFA metabolic enzymes may modify susceptibility for CD.
A case-control design was implemented at three pediatric gastroenterology clinics in Canada. Children =20 yrs diagnosed with CD and controls were recruited. 19 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across the ALOX5 (4) CYP4F3 (5) and CYP4F2 (10) genes, were genotyped. Associations between SNPs/haplotypes and CD were examined. A total of 431 cases and 507 controls were studied. The mean (±SD) age of the cases was 12.4 (±3.3) years. Most cases were male (56.4%), had ileo-colonic disease (L3±L4, 52.7%) and inflammatory behavior (B1±p, 87%) at diagnosis. One genotyped CYP4F3 SNP (rs2683037) not in Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium was excluded. No associations with the remaining 4 CYP4F3 SNPs with CD were evident. However haplotype analysis revealed associations with a two-marker haplotype (TG) (rs3794987 & rs1290617) (p?=?0.02; permuted p?=?0.08). CYP4F2 SNPs, rs3093158 (OR (recessive)?=?0.56, 95% CI?=?0.35-0.89; p?=?0.01), rs2074902 (OR (trend)?=?1.26, 95% CI?=?1.00-1.60; p?=?0.05), and rs2108622 (OR (recessive)?=?1.6, 95% CI?=?1.00-2.57; p?=?0.05) were significantly associated whereas rs1272 (OR (recessive)?=?0.58, 95% CI?=?0.30-1.13; p?=?0.10) showed suggestions for associations with CD. A haplotype comprising these 4 SNPs was significantly associated (p?=?0.007, permuted p?=?0.02) with CD. Associations with SNP rs3780901 in the ALOX5 gene were borderline non-significant (OR (dominant)?=?1.29, 95% CI?=?0.99-1.67; p?=?0.056). A haplotype comprising the 4 ALOX5 SNPs (TCAA, p?=?0.036) was associated with CD, but did not withstand corrections for multiple comparisons (permuted p?=?0.14).
Inherited variation in enzymes involved in the synthesis/metabolism of LTB(4) may be associated with CD. These findings implicate PUFA metabolism as a important pathway in the CD pathogenesis.
Notes
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PubMed ID
21187935 View in PubMed
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25 records – page 1 of 3.