AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Dietary fatty acids may affect insulin sensitivity. Adipose tissue fatty acid composition partly reflects long-term dietary intake, but data from large studies regarding relationships with insulin sensitivity are lacking. We aimed to determine the association between adipose tissue fatty acids and insulin sensitivity in elderly Swedish men. METHODS: In a cross-sectional analysis of the community-based Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men (n = 795, mean age 71 years), adipose tissue biopsies were obtained and fatty acid composition was determined by gas-liquid chromatography. Insulin sensitivity was measured directly by a euglycaemic clamp. RESULTS: Palmitic acid (16:0), the major saturated fatty acid (SFA) in the diet and in adipose tissue, was negatively correlated with insulin sensitivity (r = -0.14), as were 16:1 n-7 (r = -0.15), 20:3 n-6 (r = -0.31), 20:4 n-6 (r = -0.38), 22:4 n-6 (r = -0.37) and 22:5 n-3 (r = -0.24; p
The LiVicordia study was set up to investigate possible causes for coronary heart disease mortality in middle-aged Lithuanian men being four times higher than in Swedish men. In a previous part of this study we found lower total and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol in the Lithuanian men in spite of them having a higher fat intake than in the Swedish men. Their LDL was also more susceptible to oxidation in vitro than was that of the Swedish men. Fat quality can influence LDL oxidation. In order to obtain data on long-term fat quality intake we measured the fatty acid composition of abdominal wall adipose tissue by gas chromatography in men aged 50 years from Vilnius, Lithuania (n=50) and Linköping, Sweden (n=50). Men from Vilnius had a significantly higher percentage of adipose tissue long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (20:4n6, 20:5n3, 22:5n5, 22:6n3) and lower percentage of saturated fatty acids, especially myristic acid (14:0), 3.4+/-0.7 versus 4.6+/-0.8, p
The major polyunsaturated fatty acids in adipose tissue objectively reflect long-term dietary intake, and may provide more reliable information than would self-reported intake. Whether adipose tissue fatty acids predict cardiovascular and all-cause mortality needs investigation.
To investigate associations between adipose tissue fatty acids and cardiovascular and overall mortality in a cohort of elderly men.
We hypothesized that polyunsaturated fatty acids reflecting dietary intake, are inversely associated with cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. In the Swedish cohort study Uppsala Longitudinal Cohort of Adult Men, buttock fatty acid composition was analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography in 1992 to 1993 and 2008. The study participants were followed during 11?311 person-years, between 1991 and 2011 (median follow-up, 14.8 years). In this community-based study that took place from 1970 to 1973, all men born in 1920 to 1924 in Uppsala, Sweden, were invited and 2322 (82%) were included (at age 50 years). At the reinvestigation at age 71 years, 1221 (73%) of the 1681 invited men participated. Adipose tissue biopsy specimens were taken in a subsample of 853 men. There was no loss to follow-up.
Adipose tissue proportions of 4 polyunsaturated fatty acids that were considered to mainly reflect dietary intake (linoleic acid, 18:2n-6; a-linolenic acid, 18:3n-3; eicosapentaenoic acid, 20:5n-3; and docosahexaenoic acid, 22:6n-3) comprised primary analyses, and all other available fatty acids were secondary analyses.
Hazard ratios (HRs) for cardiovascular and all-cause mortality using Cox proportional hazards regression analyses, performed in 2015.
Among the 853 Swedish men, there were 605 deaths, of which 251 were cardiovascular deaths. After adjusting for risk factors, none of the 4 primary fatty acids were associated with cardiovascular mortality (HR, 0.92-1.05 for each standard deviation increase; P?=?.27). Linoleic acid was inversely associated with all-cause mortality (HR,?0.90; 95% CI, 0.82-0.98; P?=?.02) and directly associated with intake (P?
The levels of the long chain polyunsaturated n-6 and n-3 fatty acids (PUFA) were studied in colostrum and mature milk of 29 atopic and 29 nonatopic mothers and related to sensitization in their babies during the first 12 mo of life. The levels of alpha-linolenic acid (LNA) were lower (0.96 versus 1.23 weight percentage, p
Male Wistar rats were fed a standard diet or diets supplemented with 10% butter, 10% corn oil, or 10% cod liver oil from the age of 2 mo. At 7 and 24 mo of age, the fatty acid composition of total phospholipids was determined in ventricular crude sarcolemma preparations; binding capacity and affinity (1/Kd) of [3H]dihydroalprenolol and [3H]nitrendipine binding were also determined. The arachidonic acid level was significantly higher at 24 mo than at 7 mo of age in the membrane phospholipids in rats fed no extra fat, but in rats fed fat-supplemented diets, age had no effect. Affinity of Ca2+ channels for [3H]nitrendipine decreased significantly in all dietary groups between 7 and 24 mo of age, whereas the affinity of beta 1-receptors for [3H]dihydroalprenolol increased in corn oil-fed rats. Density of beta 1-receptors decreased significantly in corn oil- and butter-fed rats and rats fed no extra fat between 7 and 24 mo of age, whereas the density of Ca2+ channels decreased significantly in corn oil-fed rats. We conclude that the antagonist binding properties of Ca2+ channels and beta 1-adrenergic receptors in rat hearts may change with age depending on the dietary fat.
Food specimens have been collected, by means of the double-portion technique, from Greenland Eskimo hunters and their wives, in all seven persons, on seven consecutive days. Their food was found to contain more protein and less carbohydrates than average Danish food and an almost equal amount of fat. Compared with Danish food, the fatty acid pattern of the consumed lipids--essentially of mammalian marine origin--showed a higher content of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (especially C20:5) and lower contents of linoleic and linolenic acids. However, the sum of the polyunsaturated fatty acids was smaller than in Danish food. Using Keys' formula, describing the serum cholesterol level as a function of the nutritional fatty acids, the essentially lower serum choelsterol level found in Greenland Eskimos was not explained by our findings. It is suggested instead to be a special metabolic effect of the long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids from marine mammals. There might be a similar effect on the plasma triglyceride and very low density lipoprotein concentrations, explaining the much lower plasma concentrations of these components in Eskimos than in Western populations. Our findings might have an essential bearing on the difference in morbidity from coronary atherosclerotic disease between these populations.
We studied the copepod Limnocalanus macrurus for seasonal variation in the composition of fatty acids, wax esters and sterols in large boreal lakes, where it occurs as a glacial-relict. Vast wax ester reserves of Limnocalanus were accumulated in a period of only two months, and comprised mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and saturated fatty alcohols. In winter, the mobilization of wax esters was selective, and the proportion of long-chain polyunsaturated wax esters declined first. PUFA accounted for >50% of all fatty acids throughout the year reaching up to ca. 65% during late summer and fall. Long-chain PUFA 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 together comprised 17-40% of all fatty acids. The rarely reported C24 and C26 very-long-chain PUFA (VLC-PUFA) comprised 6.2 ± 3.4 % of all fatty acids in August and 2.1 ± 1.7% in September. The VLC-PUFA are presumably synthesized by Limnocalanus from shorter chain-length precursors because they were not found in the potential food sources. We hypothesize that these VLC-PUFA help Limnocalanus to maximize lipid reserves when food is abundant. Sterol content of Limnocalanus, consisting ca. 90% of cholesterol, did not show great seasonal variation. As a lipid-rich copepod with high abundance of PUFA, Limnocalanus is excellent quality food for fish. The VLC-PUFA were also detected in planktivorous fish, suggesting that these compounds can be used as a trophic marker indicating feeding on Limnocalanus.
The purpose of this paper is to describe the dynamics of n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in major phospholipids of heart muscle. The profile of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids was examined in rats in relation to various risk factors of coronary heart disease such as stress (catecholamines), ageing and dietary fat. The level of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids in cardiac phospholipids was also examined in relation to coronary heart disease and sudden cardiac death in man. Severe stress caused great changes in the fatty acid profile of phospholipids. Corresponding changes were observed during adaptation to neonatal stress. Rats fed diets containing cod liver oil, butter or corn oil showed different fatty acid composition of individual phospholipids in sarcolemma. Repeated epinephrine administration induced similar changes in the three dietary groups despite large differences in initial levels of individual n-3 and n-6 fatty acids. Fatal ventricular fibrillation in rats and sudden cardiac death in man were accompanied by a high ratio of 20:4 n-6/22:6 n-3. The balance between n-6 and n-3 fatty acids in cellular phospholipids seem to play an important role in sudden cardiac death.
Seventy-two Simmental bulls, weighing 489 kg initially and approximately 15 months old, were divided into four groups to determine the effects of feeding intensity and time on feed on intramuscular fatty acid (FA) composition. Two groups of 18 bulls each were extensively (E) or intensively (I) fed on maize silage and concentrates with a daily gain of 943 g (E) or 1371 g (I). Half of each group were slaughtered after 100 days (S) or 138 days (L) on feed. In addition to carcass fatness parameters, intramuscular FA composition was also measured. Only small differences in the sum of saturated FA (SFA) percentages were found with 47.7 and 47.5% FA methyl esters (FAME) for SE and LE, respectively, and 48.7% FAME for each of SI and LI. Monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) significantly increased with longer, and higher feeding intensity to 44.2% FAME (LI), whereas the other groups had similar contents of 41.9, 42.2 and 42.0% FAME (SE, LE and SI respectively). Polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) decreased with higher feeding intensity to 8.39% (SI) and 6.71% (LI) FAME (p