A low frequency of ischaemic heart diseases in Eskimos has been related to polyunsaturated fatty acids. We therefore studied fatty acid patterns associated with coronary artery disease (CAD) for a possible relationship between fatty acid profile and CAD diagnosis in Mediterranean patients. The gas chromatography method was used to analyze the membranes of patients' erythrocytes. The patients without coronary stenosis were used as controls. Patients with CAD showed increased percentages of saturated fatty acids (35.8 vs. 34.2%, P
The levels of the long chain polyunsaturated n-6 and n-3 fatty acids (PUFA) were studied in colostrum and mature milk of 29 atopic and 29 nonatopic mothers and related to sensitization in their babies during the first 12 mo of life. The levels of alpha-linolenic acid (LNA) were lower (0.96 versus 1.23 weight percentage, p
The objectives of this study were to examine protein and amino acid composition, lipid and fatty acid composition, along with a range of essential minerals in common Norwegian seaweed species representing the red (Palmaria palmata and Vertebrata lanosa), green (Cladophora rupestris, Enteromorpha intestinalis and Ulva lactuca) and brown (Alaria esculenta, Laminaria digitata, Laminaria hyperborea, Fucus vesiculosus and Pelvetia canaliculata) classes and assess their potential as alternatives to cereals in food and feed. As macroalgae accumulate heavy metals, arsenic, cadmium and mercury were also analyzed.
Proteins ranged from 34 to 123?g?kg(-1) dry weight (DW) and the essential amino acid levels may cover both human and salmonid requirements. Lipids were low (6-58?g?kg(-1) DW), but the red algae had high relative content of long-chained omega-3 fatty acids (32-34 % of the fatty acids). Iodine contents were particularly high in the Laminaria species. Of the heavy metals only arsenic levels may be of concern.
In total, the red alga P. palmata was regarded as the best alternative to cereals in food and feed. For several of the other species, single-component extraction for the ingredients market may be better than using the whole product.
The typical dietary supply of total fat, fatty acids, starch, sugars, polyols and dietary fibre in Sweden was assessed from analyses of market baskets (MB) purchased in 2005 and 2010. MB were based on food balance sheets, with each basket comprising about 130 foods, which represented more than 90% of annual dietary supply. Foods were divided into ten to twelve categories. In 2010, total fat contributed 34% of energy (E%), SFA 14.3 E%, MUFA 12.8 E%, PUFA 4.6 E%, n-6 fatty acids 3.6 E%, n-3 fatty acids 1.0 E% and trans-fatty acids (TFA) 0.5 E%. Glycaemic carbohydrates contributed 47 E%, monosaccharides 9 E%, sucrose 11 E%, disaccharides 15 E% and total sugars 24 E%. Added sugars contributed about 15 E%. Dietary fibre content was about 1.7 g/MJ in the 2010 MB. Compared with the 2005 MB, the dietary supply of TFA and dietary fibre was lower, otherwise differences were small. The present MB survey shows that the content of SFA and added sugars was higher than the current Nordic Nutrition Recommendations, while the content of PUFA and especially dietary fibre was lower. TFA levels decreased and dietary supply was well below the recommendations of the WHO. These results emphasise a focus on quality and food sources of fat and carbohydrates, limiting foods rich in SFA and added sugars and replacing them with foods rich in dietary fibre and cis-unsaturated fatty acids.
A diet high in fatty fish, bilberries and wholegrain products improves markers of endothelial function and inflammation in individuals with impaired glucose metabolism in a randomised controlled trial: the Sysdimet study.
Department of Clinical Nutrition/Food and Health Research Centre, Institute of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio Campus, P.O. Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio, Finland. Vanessa.Laaksonen@uef.fi
Low-grade inflammation and endothelial dysfunction may play a role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We evaluated whether a diet high in fatty fish, bilberries and wholegrain products (Healthy Diet) improves biomarkers reflecting inflammation and endothelial dysfunction in individuals with impaired glucose metabolism.
We recruited individuals with impaired glucose metabolism and features of the metabolic syndrome into a 12 week, parallel design, dietary intervention trial conducted at the Department of Clinical Nutrition, University of Eastern Finland (Kuopio, Finland). Randomisation was performed by matching according to sex and medians of age, BMI and fasting plasma glucose of the study population at screening. The primary endpoint in the present study was the change in plasma inflammatory markers and the measurements were performed blinded to group assignment. High-sensitivity (hs) C-reactive protein (CRP) and E-selectin responses were also analysed separately in participants not using statins (n?=?76).
Altogether, 131 individuals were assigned to either the Healthy Diet (n?=?44), a whole-grain-enriched diet (WGED) (n?=?42) or a control (n?=?45) diet, and 104 participants (mean?±?SD: age 59?±?7 years; BMI 31.1?±?3.5 kg/m(2)) who had completed the study, were analysed (Healthy Diet n?=?36, WGED n?=?34 and control diet n?=?34). Plasma E-selectin decreased only in the Healthy Diet group. This occurred in all group participants (p?
The study was designed to investigate the fatty acid composition in longissimus dorsi (LD) and semimembranosus muscles (SM) and subcutaneous tissue of hybrid (1/4 Lithuanian indigenous wattle, 1/4 wild boar and 1/2 Yorkshire or 1/2 Landrace) pigs. The SM showed a tendency to have lower contents of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and higher contents of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) than the LD muscle. No statistically significant differences were observed between the muscles in lipid quality indices, i.e., atherogenic (AI) and thrombogenix (TI) indices and the ratio of hypocholesterolemic and hypercholesterolemic fatty acids (h/H). In the SM, the content of PUFA from Yorkshire-sired hybrids was relatively 47.8% higher, including C18:2n-6, C20:4n-6 and DPA (C22:5n-3) that were higher, respectively, by 44.3%, 86.6% and 51.6% in comparison with those from Landrace-sired hybrids. The gilts had a lower content of MUFA, including C18:1 and C20:1n-9 fatty acids in the LD muscle and tended to have a higher content of PUFA in the SM compared to the barrows. Neither the terminal breed in crossing, nor the gender had any significant effects on the proportions of total saturated, MUFA and PUFA in the subcutaneous tissue.
BACKGROUND: Atopic dermatitis has been related to a disturbed metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). OBJECTIVE: We tested whether the PUFA composition of breast milk differs significantly between mothers with atopic dermatitis, mothers with other types of atopy, and nonatopic mothers. We also investigated whether differences in diet can explain possible observed differences. DESIGN: Mothers with current or previous asthma (n = 396) were divided into 3 groups according to history of atopic dermatitis and allergic rhinitis. Breast-milk samples were collected from 314 women approximately 3 wk after delivery. The habitual diet of the women was assessed with food-frequency questionnaires in the 25th week of gestation (n = 207). Breast-milk samples and simultaneous dietary data from 14 nonatopic mothers were used for comparison. RESULTS: Compared with the milk of nonatopic mothers, that of atopic mothers had significantly higher concentrations of 22:5n-6 and lower concentrations of 20:5n-3; moreover, 20:4n-6/20:5n-3, 22:5n-6/22:6n-3, and long-chain n-3 PUFA/18:3n-3 were shifted toward n-6 PUFA and 18:3n-3 in nonatopic and atopic mothers, respectively. No differences in breast-milk PUFA composition were evident between the subject groups. The diets of the groups differed only slightly with respect to protein intake. However, the PUFA composition of the breast milk was associated with diet and time of milk sampling, and the above difference in milk PUFAs disappeared when those factors were taken into account. CONCLUSION: Our data do not support the possibility that the fatty acid composition of breast milk is affected by atopic dermatitis or atopy in general, because most differences in breast-milk PUFA composition appear to be explained by the diet.
Due to its high content of lignans, alpha-linolenic acid and fiber, flaxseed may reduce cardiovascular disease risk in humans. The present study evaluated the effect of flaxseed on markers of cardiovascular disease risk in healthy menopausal women.
One hundred ninety-nine women were randomly assigned to consume 40 g daily of flaxseed or wheat germ placebo for 12 mo. Fatty acids, apolipoproteins A-1 and B, lipoprotein(a), low-density lipoprotein particle size, fibrinogen, C-reactive protein, insulin, and glucose were measured at baseline and at 12 mo.
In total 179 women were available for the intention-to-treat analysis. Flaxseed increased plasma alpha-linolenic (P
The lipid and small metabolite profiles from intact muscles of Arctic char were investigated using (1)H high-resolution magic angle spinning ((1)H HR-MAS) NMR spectroscopy. Not only the total n-3 fatty acid content but also the eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) contents of the muscle were obtained from the (1)H HR-MAS NMR spectra without pretreatment of the tissue or lipophilic extraction. A number of small metabolites could also be observed, where creatine/phosphocreatine, anserine and taurine were the most abundant. Thus, the use of (1)H HR-MAS NMR led to simplified analysis techniques that can give direct information on the nutritional value of the fish.
Minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) blubber is rich in organohalogen contaminants, mercury, and n-3 fatty acids. In the present study we show that a daily intake of 50-200 g of minke whale blubber causes an impairment of the nonspecific and specific cellular immune system in the West Greenland sledge dog (Canis familiaris). Immune reactions were measured by mitogen (PHA, Con A) and antigen (KLH) intradermal testing, and as the study used exposure levels similar to those of Inuits and polar bears (Ursus maritimus), it is reasonable to infer that Inuits and polar bears suffer from similar decreased resistance to diseases. It is speculated that food sources are depleted by thinning sea ice due to climate change and that more research should assess the forecasted rise in additive immunopathy effects in polar bears. Additionally, our study suggests that the fatty acid composition may be of importance when investigating combined immunotoxic effects of contaminated food resources in future Inuit and polar bear studies.