It has been hypothesized that visceral fat releases free fatty acids and adipokines and thereby exposes the liver to fat accumulation. The authors aimed to evaluate current epidemiologic evidence for an association between abdominal fat and liver fat content. Clinical and epidemiologic studies with data on abdominal fat and liver fat content were reviewed. Studies using waist circumference to estimate abdominal fat mass suggested a direct association between abdominal fat and liver fat content. Studies using imaging methods suggested a direct association between intraabdominal fat and liver fat content, but not between subcutaneous abdominal fat and liver fat content. In conclusion, clinical and epidemiologic studies of abdominal fat and liver fat content suggest a direct association between abdominal fat and liver fat content which is probably accounted for by visceral fat. However, results from the included studies do not allow strong conclusions regarding the temporal sequence of events. Future longitudinal studies are recommended to obtain additional information on associations and mechanisms. Both abdominal fat depots and other body compartments of interest should be included to further investigate the association between specific fat depots and liver fat content. Biomarkers may provide insight into underlying mechanisms.
BACKGROUND: Cross-sectional studies have reported a lower prevalence of abdominal obese persons among frequent drinkers than among nonfrequent drinkers. OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that drinking frequency is associated with subsequent changes in waist circumference. DESIGN: Data come from a prospective cohort study conducted in 1993-1997 (baseline) and 1999-2002 (follow-up) and included 43 543 men and women. Baseline information on alcohol drinking frequency was related to 1) change in waist circumference by linear regression and 2) major gain and major loss in waist circumference (defined as waist change in the lowest or highest quintile of waist changes) by polytomous logistic regression, also taking into account amount of alcohol intake. RESULTS: Drinking frequency was inversely associated with changes in waist circumference in women and was unassociated with changes in waist circumference in men. Drinking frequency was unassociated with major waist loss but was inversely associated with major waist gain: odds ratios among men were 0.97 (95% CI: 0.73, 1.28), 0.95 (95% CI: 0.81, 1.12), 0.88 (95% CI: 0.77, 0.99), 0.82 (95% CI: 0.71, -0.95), and 0.79 (95% CI: 0.69, 0.9) for never drinking, drinking on 1, 2-4, 5-6, and 7 d/wk, respectively, compared with men who drank alcohol on
Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 5 (IGFBP5) binds to IGF and thus modulates IGF signaling pathway. We have shown earlier that the IGFBP5 gene was downregulated in the adipose tissue after 12-week carbohydrate diet with low insulinemic response.
The aim was to examine the putative contribution of genetic variation of the IGFBP5 gene to the characteristics of metabolic syndrome and incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study (DPS).
DPS is a longitudinal study where 522 subjects with impaired glucose tolerance were randomized to either lifestyle intervention group or control group. DNA was available from 507 subjects (mean body mass index (BMI) 31.2+/-4.5 kg/m(2), age 55+/-7 years). The eight single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were selected from HapMap database and genotyped by Taqman allelic discrimination protocol. The main results were confirmed in a larger cross-sectional study population (METSIM). In addition, the gene expression of IGFBP5 was studied in two previously published study populations (FUNGENUT and GENOBIN) of 124 subjects with insulin resistance (BMI 32.2+/-3.5 kg/m(2), age 57.7+/-7.4 years).
Three out of eight IGFBP5 markers (rs9341234, rs3276 and rs11575134) were significantly associated with circulating adiponectin concentrations in men. Furthermore, mRNA expression studies of subcutaneous adipose tissue showed that mRNA concentrations of IGFBP5 correlated with adiponectin concentrations in all subjects and in women. None of the IGFBP5 SNPs were associated with T2DM.
Our findings show that IGFBP5 has a gender-specific association with adiponectin, which may modulate the development of metabolic syndrome.
We studied bred and unbred female reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) during 12 wk of winter when ambient temperatures were low and nitrogen (N) demand for fetal growth is highest in pregnant females. Animals were fed a complete pelleted diet ad lib. that contained 2.54% N in dry matter that was 80% +/- 2% (X +/- SD) digestible. Female reindeer lost 64% +/- 14% of body fat but gained 34% +/- 11% of lean mass from 10 wk prepartum to parturition. These changes were equivalent to average balances of -14.14 +/- 2.35 MJ d(-1) and 10 +/- 3 g N d(-1). Blood cells, serum, and urine declined in (15)N/(14)N in late winter as body protein was gained from the diet. Blood cells of newborn calves were more enriched in (15)N and (13)C than that of their mothers, indicating the deposition of fetal protein from maternal stores. To quantify pathways of N flow in reindeer, N balance was measured by confining animals to cages for 10 d at 4 wk from parturition. N balance was inversely related to (15)N/(14)N in urea-N but not related to (15)N/(14)N of blood cells, creatinine, and feces. The proportion of urea-N derived from body protein increased above 0.46 as N balance fell below -200 mg N kg(-0.75) d(-1). Proportions of urea-N from body protein were -0.01 +/- 0.21 in pregnant females before and after caging and were consistent with average body protein gain in winter. Storage of protein allows reindeer and caribou to tolerate diets that are low in N without impairing fetal development.
In Sweden, previous favourable trends in blood cholesterol levels have recently levelled off or even increased in some age groups since 2003, potentially reflecting changing fashions and attitudes towards dietary saturated fatty acids (SFA). We aimed to examine the potential effect of different SFA intake on future coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality in 2025.
We compared the effect on future CHD mortality of two different scenarios for fat intake a) daily SFA intake decreasing to 10 energy percent (E%), and b) daily SFA intake rising to 20 E%. We assumed that there would be moderate improvements in smoking (5%), salt intake (1g/day) and physical inactivity (5% decrease) to continue recent, positive trends.
In the baseline scenario which assumed that recent mortality declines continue, approximately 5,975 CHD deaths might occur in year 2025. Anticipated improvements in smoking, dietary salt intake and physical activity, would result in some 380 (-6.4%) fewer deaths (235 in men and 145 in women). In combination with a mean SFA daily intake of 10 E%, a total of 810 (-14%) fewer deaths would occur in 2025 (535 in men and 275 in women). If the overall consumption of SFA rose to 20 E%, the expected mortality decline would be wiped out and approximately 20 (0.3%) additional deaths might occur.
CHD mortality may increase as a result of unfavourable trends in diets rich in saturated fats resulting in increases in blood cholesterol levels. These could cancel out the favourable trends in salt intake, smoking and physical activity.
Sodium selenate has been supplemented to all agricultural fertilizers used in Finland since 1984. We followed the changes in selenium, cadmium, zinc and copper content in Finnish human milk between the years 1987 and 1993-1995. A total of 257 milk samples was collected, four weeks after delivery, in two areas: In Helsinki, an urban area, and in Kuopio, a rural area, where elevated copper concentrations have been found in the bedrock. Direct atomic absorption spectrophotometric methods without digestion were used for the analyses. The dependence of trace element content on study time, living area, smoking habits, fish eating frequency, and parity of mothers was studied by analysis of covariance. Inter-element correlations and correlations with mothers' age and fat content in milk were studied by partial correlation. Significant increases were observed in mean selenium (16.4 microg/l and 18.9 microg/l, p