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Source
Epidemiol Rev. 2007;29:77-87
Publication Type
Article
Date
2007
Author
M U Jakobsen
T. Berentzen
T I A Sørensen
K. Overvad
Author Affiliation
Institute of Preventive Medicine, Centre for Health And Society, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark. muj@dce.au.dk
Source
Epidemiol Rev. 2007;29:77-87
Date
2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Abdominal Fat - metabolism
Denmark
Fatty Liver - metabolism
Humans
Obesity - metabolism
Abstract
It has been hypothesized that visceral fat releases free fatty acids and adipokines and thereby exposes the liver to fat accumulation. The authors aimed to evaluate current epidemiologic evidence for an association between abdominal fat and liver fat content. Clinical and epidemiologic studies with data on abdominal fat and liver fat content were reviewed. Studies using waist circumference to estimate abdominal fat mass suggested a direct association between abdominal fat and liver fat content. Studies using imaging methods suggested a direct association between intraabdominal fat and liver fat content, but not between subcutaneous abdominal fat and liver fat content. In conclusion, clinical and epidemiologic studies of abdominal fat and liver fat content suggest a direct association between abdominal fat and liver fat content which is probably accounted for by visceral fat. However, results from the included studies do not allow strong conclusions regarding the temporal sequence of events. Future longitudinal studies are recommended to obtain additional information on associations and mechanisms. Both abdominal fat depots and other body compartments of interest should be included to further investigate the association between specific fat depots and liver fat content. Biomarkers may provide insight into underlying mechanisms.
PubMed ID
17478441 View in PubMed
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Alcohol drinking frequency in relation to subsequent changes in waist circumference.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature87026
Source
Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Apr;87(4):957-63
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2008
Author
Tolstrup Janne S
Halkjaer Jytte
Heitmann Berit L
Tjønneland Anne M
Overvad Kim
Sørensen Thorkild I A
Grønbaek Morten N
Author Affiliation
Center for Alcohol Research, National Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, Copenhagen, Denmark. jst@niph.dk
Source
Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Apr;87(4):957-63
Date
Apr-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Abdominal Fat - metabolism
Alcohol Drinking - adverse effects - metabolism
Body mass index
Body Size
Cohort Studies
Confidence Intervals
Cross-Sectional Studies
Denmark - epidemiology
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Logistic Models
Male
Middle Aged
Obesity - epidemiology - etiology
Odds Ratio
Prevalence
Prospective Studies
Questionnaires
Sex Factors
Statistics, nonparametric
Waist-Hip Ratio
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Cross-sectional studies have reported a lower prevalence of abdominal obese persons among frequent drinkers than among nonfrequent drinkers. OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that drinking frequency is associated with subsequent changes in waist circumference. DESIGN: Data come from a prospective cohort study conducted in 1993-1997 (baseline) and 1999-2002 (follow-up) and included 43 543 men and women. Baseline information on alcohol drinking frequency was related to 1) change in waist circumference by linear regression and 2) major gain and major loss in waist circumference (defined as waist change in the lowest or highest quintile of waist changes) by polytomous logistic regression, also taking into account amount of alcohol intake. RESULTS: Drinking frequency was inversely associated with changes in waist circumference in women and was unassociated with changes in waist circumference in men. Drinking frequency was unassociated with major waist loss but was inversely associated with major waist gain: odds ratios among men were 0.97 (95% CI: 0.73, 1.28), 0.95 (95% CI: 0.81, 1.12), 0.88 (95% CI: 0.77, 0.99), 0.82 (95% CI: 0.71, -0.95), and 0.79 (95% CI: 0.69, 0.9) for never drinking, drinking on 1, 2-4, 5-6, and 7 d/wk, respectively, compared with men who drank alcohol on
PubMed ID
18400719 View in PubMed
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Association of sequence variations in the gene encoding insulin-like growth factor binding protein 5 with adiponectin.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature154528
Source
Int J Obes (Lond). 2009 Jan;33(1):80-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2009
Author
P. Kallio
A-M Tolppanen
M. Kolehmainen
K. Poutanen
J. Lindström
J. Tuomilehto
T. Kuulasmaa
J. Kuusisto
L. Pulkkinen
M. Uusitupa
Author Affiliation
Department of Clinical Nutrition, Food and Health Research Centre, School of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, University of Kuopio, Kuopio, Finland. petteri.kallio@uku.fi
Source
Int J Obes (Lond). 2009 Jan;33(1):80-8
Date
Jan-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adiponectin - metabolism
Body mass index
Chi-Square Distribution
Cross-Sectional Studies
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 - epidemiology - metabolism
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Gene Frequency
Humans
Incidence
Insulin Resistance - genetics
Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 5 - genetics
Linkage Disequilibrium
Male
Metabolic Syndrome X - genetics - metabolism
Middle Aged
Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
Subcutaneous Fat - metabolism
Abstract
Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 5 (IGFBP5) binds to IGF and thus modulates IGF signaling pathway. We have shown earlier that the IGFBP5 gene was downregulated in the adipose tissue after 12-week carbohydrate diet with low insulinemic response.
The aim was to examine the putative contribution of genetic variation of the IGFBP5 gene to the characteristics of metabolic syndrome and incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study (DPS).
DPS is a longitudinal study where 522 subjects with impaired glucose tolerance were randomized to either lifestyle intervention group or control group. DNA was available from 507 subjects (mean body mass index (BMI) 31.2+/-4.5 kg/m(2), age 55+/-7 years). The eight single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were selected from HapMap database and genotyped by Taqman allelic discrimination protocol. The main results were confirmed in a larger cross-sectional study population (METSIM). In addition, the gene expression of IGFBP5 was studied in two previously published study populations (FUNGENUT and GENOBIN) of 124 subjects with insulin resistance (BMI 32.2+/-3.5 kg/m(2), age 57.7+/-7.4 years).
Three out of eight IGFBP5 markers (rs9341234, rs3276 and rs11575134) were significantly associated with circulating adiponectin concentrations in men. Furthermore, mRNA expression studies of subcutaneous adipose tissue showed that mRNA concentrations of IGFBP5 correlated with adiponectin concentrations in all subjects and in women. None of the IGFBP5 SNPs were associated with T2DM.
Our findings show that IGFBP5 has a gender-specific association with adiponectin, which may modulate the development of metabolic syndrome.
PubMed ID
18957933 View in PubMed
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Body protein stores and isotopic indicators of N balance in female reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) during winter.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature82225
Source
Physiol Biochem Zool. 2006 May-Jun;79(3):628-44
Publication Type
Article
Author
Barboza Perry S
Parker Katherine L
Author Affiliation
Institute of Arctic Biology, Department of Biology and Wildlife, University of Alaska, Fairbanks, 99775-7000, USA. ffpsb@uaf.edu
Source
Physiol Biochem Zool. 2006 May-Jun;79(3):628-44
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alaska
Animals
Animals, Newborn
Body Weight - physiology
Eating - physiology
Feces - chemistry
Female
Nitrogen - blood - metabolism - urine
Postpartum Period - metabolism
Pregnancy
Proteins - metabolism
Regression Analysis
Reindeer - metabolism
Seasons
Subcutaneous Fat - metabolism - ultrasonography
Urea - blood - urine
Abstract
We studied bred and unbred female reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) during 12 wk of winter when ambient temperatures were low and nitrogen (N) demand for fetal growth is highest in pregnant females. Animals were fed a complete pelleted diet ad lib. that contained 2.54% N in dry matter that was 80% +/- 2% (X +/- SD) digestible. Female reindeer lost 64% +/- 14% of body fat but gained 34% +/- 11% of lean mass from 10 wk prepartum to parturition. These changes were equivalent to average balances of -14.14 +/- 2.35 MJ d(-1) and 10 +/- 3 g N d(-1). Blood cells, serum, and urine declined in (15)N/(14)N in late winter as body protein was gained from the diet. Blood cells of newborn calves were more enriched in (15)N and (13)C than that of their mothers, indicating the deposition of fetal protein from maternal stores. To quantify pathways of N flow in reindeer, N balance was measured by confining animals to cages for 10 d at 4 wk from parturition. N balance was inversely related to (15)N/(14)N in urea-N but not related to (15)N/(14)N of blood cells, creatinine, and feces. The proportion of urea-N derived from body protein increased above 0.46 as N balance fell below -200 mg N kg(-0.75) d(-1). Proportions of urea-N from body protein were -0.01 +/- 0.21 in pregnant females before and after caging and were consistent with average body protein gain in winter. Storage of protein allows reindeer and caribou to tolerate diets that are low in N without impairing fetal development.
PubMed ID
16691528 View in PubMed
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Changes in Dietary Fat Intake and Projections for Coronary Heart Disease Mortality in Sweden: A Simulation Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature285263
Source
PLoS One. 2016;11(8):e0160474
Publication Type
Article
Date
2016
Author
Lena Björck
Annika Rosengren
Anna Winkvist
Simon Capewell
Martin Adiels
Piotr Bandosz
Julia Critchley
Kurt Boman
Maria Guzman-Castillo
Martin O'Flaherty
Ingegerd Johansson
Source
PLoS One. 2016;11(8):e0160474
Date
2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Cholesterol - blood
Coronary Disease - epidemiology - mortality - prevention & control
Dietary Fats - metabolism
Fatty Acids - metabolism
Feeding Behavior
Female
Humans
Life Style
Male
Middle Aged
Models, Theoretical
Mortality - trends
Risk factors
Smoking
Sodium Chloride, Dietary - metabolism
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
In Sweden, previous favourable trends in blood cholesterol levels have recently levelled off or even increased in some age groups since 2003, potentially reflecting changing fashions and attitudes towards dietary saturated fatty acids (SFA). We aimed to examine the potential effect of different SFA intake on future coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality in 2025.
We compared the effect on future CHD mortality of two different scenarios for fat intake a) daily SFA intake decreasing to 10 energy percent (E%), and b) daily SFA intake rising to 20 E%. We assumed that there would be moderate improvements in smoking (5%), salt intake (1g/day) and physical inactivity (5% decrease) to continue recent, positive trends.
In the baseline scenario which assumed that recent mortality declines continue, approximately 5,975 CHD deaths might occur in year 2025. Anticipated improvements in smoking, dietary salt intake and physical activity, would result in some 380 (-6.4%) fewer deaths (235 in men and 145 in women). In combination with a mean SFA daily intake of 10 E%, a total of 810 (-14%) fewer deaths would occur in 2025 (535 in men and 275 in women). If the overall consumption of SFA rose to 20 E%, the expected mortality decline would be wiped out and approximately 20 (0.3%) additional deaths might occur.
CHD mortality may increase as a result of unfavourable trends in diets rich in saturated fats resulting in increases in blood cholesterol levels. These could cancel out the favourable trends in salt intake, smoking and physical activity.
Notes
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PubMed ID
27490257 View in PubMed
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Changes in selenium, zinc, copper and cadmium contents in human milk during the time when selenium has been supplemented to fertilizers in Finland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature192905
Source
J Trace Elem Med Biol. 2001;15(1):11-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
2001
Author
M. Kantol
T. Vartiainen
Author Affiliation
Department of Chemistry, University of Kuopio, Finland. Marjatta.Kantola@uku.fi
Source
J Trace Elem Med Biol. 2001;15(1):11-7
Date
2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Age Factors
Cadmium - metabolism
Copper - metabolism
Evaluation Studies as Topic
Fats - metabolism
Female
Fertilizers
Finland
Food Contamination
Humans
Milk, Human - drug effects - metabolism
Selenium - pharmacokinetics - pharmacology
Soil Pollutants - pharmacology
Zinc - metabolism
Abstract
Sodium selenate has been supplemented to all agricultural fertilizers used in Finland since 1984. We followed the changes in selenium, cadmium, zinc and copper content in Finnish human milk between the years 1987 and 1993-1995. A total of 257 milk samples was collected, four weeks after delivery, in two areas: In Helsinki, an urban area, and in Kuopio, a rural area, where elevated copper concentrations have been found in the bedrock. Direct atomic absorption spectrophotometric methods without digestion were used for the analyses. The dependence of trace element content on study time, living area, smoking habits, fish eating frequency, and parity of mothers was studied by analysis of covariance. Inter-element correlations and correlations with mothers' age and fat content in milk were studied by partial correlation. Significant increases were observed in mean selenium (16.4 microg/l and 18.9 microg/l, p
PubMed ID
11603821 View in PubMed
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[Changes in the bioenergetic processes in the mitochondria and lipid metabolism in the rat liver during experimental hepatitis]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature57124
Source
Fiziol Zh. 1973 Jul-Aug;19(4):511-7
Publication Type
Article

Clinical and biochemical studies of the Eskimo. Progress report, December 1950.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature392
Source
Defence Research Board, Canada Dept. of National Defence, Ottawa. 20 pp.
Publication Type
Book/Book Chapter
Date
1951
Author
Brown, G.M.
Author Affiliation
Queen's University
Source
Defence Research Board, Canada Dept. of National Defence, Ottawa. 20 pp.
Date
1951
Language
English
Geographic Location
Canada
Publication Type
Book/Book Chapter
Physical Holding
Alaska Medical Library
Keywords
Igloolik
Coral Harbour
Cancer
Arteriosclerosis
Protein metabolism
Blood flow
Diet, general
Health status
Tuberculosis
Nutrition
Diet, traditional
Fat metabolism
Basal metabolic rate
Hepatomegaly
Notes
From: Fortuine, Robert et al. 1993. The Health of the Inuit of North America: A Bibliography from the Earliest Times through 1990. University of Alaska Anchorage. Citation number 1392.
Cited in: Fortuine, Robert. 1968. The Health of the Eskimos: a bibliography 1857-1967. Dartmouth College Libraries. Citation number 159.
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67 records – page 1 of 7.