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Comparative analysis of genomes of tick-borne encephalitis virus strains isolated from mosquitoes and ticks.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature289600
Source
Vopr Virusol. 2017; 62(1):30-5
Publication Type
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Author
N M Pukhovskaya
Olga V Morozova
N B Belozerova
S V Bakhmetyeva
N P Vysochina
N I Zdanovskaya
L I Ivanov
Source
Vopr Virusol. 2017; 62(1):30-5
Language
English
Publication Type
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Keywords
Aedes - virology
Amino Acid Sequence
Animals
Animals, Newborn
Disease Vectors
Dogs
Encephalitis Viruses, Tick-Borne - classification - genetics - isolation & purification
Encephalitis, Tick-Borne - epidemiology - transmission - virology
Far East - epidemiology
Genome, Viral
Genotype
Humans
Ixodes - virology
Mice
Mice, Inbred ICR
Nucleic Acid Conformation
Phylogeny
RNA, Viral - chemistry - genetics - isolation & purification
Rodentia - virology
Sequence Alignment
Sequence Homology, Amino Acid
Siberia - epidemiology
Abstract
The tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) strain Lazo MP36 was isolated from the pool of mosquitoes Aedes vexans collected in Lazo region of Khabarovsk territory in August 2014. Phylogenetic analysis of the strain Lazo MP36 complete genome (GenBank accession number KT001073) revealed its correspondence to the TBEV Far Eastern subtype and differences from the following strains: 1) from ticks Ixodes persulcatus P. Schulze, 1930 [vaccine strain 205 (JX498939) and strains Khekhtzir 1230 (KF880805), Chichagovka (KP844724), Birobidzhan 1354 (KF880805) isolated in 2012-2013]; 2) from mosquitoes [strain Malyshevo (KJ744034) isolated in 1978 from Aedes vexans nipponii in Khabarovsk territory; strain Sakhalin 6-11 isolated from the pool of mosquitoes in 2011 (KF826916)]; 3) from human brain [vaccine strain Sofjin (JN229223), Glubinnoe/2004(DQ862460). Kavalerovo (DQ862460), Svetlogorie (DQ862460)]. The fusion peptide necessary for flavivirus entry to cells of the three TBEV strains isolated from mosquitoes (Lazo MP36, Malyshevo and Sakhalin 6-11) has the canonical structure 98-DRGWGNHCGLFGKGSI-113 for the tick-borne flaviviruses. Amino acid transition H104G typical for the mosquito-borne flaviviruses was not found. Structures of 5’- and 3’-untranslated (UTR) regions of the TBEV strains from mosquitoes were 85-98% homologous to the TBEV strains of all subtypes without recombination with mosquito-borne flaviviruses found in the Far East of Russia. Secondary structures of 5’- and 3'-UTR as well as cyclization sequences (CS) of types a and B are highly homologous for all TBEV isolates independently of the biological hosts and vectors. similarity of the genomes of the TBEV isolates from mosquitoes, ticks and patients as well as pathogenicity of the isolates for new-borne laboratory mice and tissue cultures might suggest a possible role of mosquitoes in the TBEV circulation in natural foci as an accidental or additional virus carrier.
PubMed ID
29323844 View in PubMed
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Comparative analysis of genomes of tick-borne encephalitis virus strains isolated from mosquitoes and ticks.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature289442
Source
Vopr Virusol. 2017; 62(1):30-5
Publication Type
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Author
N M Pukhovskaya
Olga V Morozova
N B Belozerova
S V Bakhmetyeva
N P Vysochina
N I Zdanovskaya
L I Ivanov
Source
Vopr Virusol. 2017; 62(1):30-5
Language
English
Publication Type
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Keywords
Aedes - virology
Amino Acid Sequence
Animals
Animals, Newborn
Disease Vectors
Dogs
Encephalitis Viruses, Tick-Borne - classification - genetics - isolation & purification
Encephalitis, Tick-Borne - epidemiology - transmission - virology
Far East - epidemiology
Genome, Viral
Genotype
Humans
Ixodes - virology
Mice
Mice, Inbred ICR
Nucleic Acid Conformation
Phylogeny
RNA, Viral - chemistry - genetics - isolation & purification
Rodentia - virology
Sequence Alignment
Sequence Homology, Amino Acid
Siberia - epidemiology
Abstract
The tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) strain Lazo MP36 was isolated from the pool of mosquitoes Aedes vexans collected in Lazo region of Khabarovsk territory in August 2014. Phylogenetic analysis of the strain Lazo MP36 complete genome (GenBank accession number KT001073) revealed its correspondence to the TBEV Far Eastern subtype and differences from the following strains: 1) from ticks Ixodes persulcatus P. Schulze, 1930 [vaccine strain 205 (JX498939) and strains Khekhtzir 1230 (KF880805), Chichagovka (KP844724), Birobidzhan 1354 (KF880805) isolated in 2012-2013]; 2) from mosquitoes [strain Malyshevo (KJ744034) isolated in 1978 from Aedes vexans nipponii in Khabarovsk territory; strain Sakhalin 6-11 isolated from the pool of mosquitoes in 2011 (KF826916)]; 3) from human brain [vaccine strain Sofjin (JN229223), Glubinnoe/2004(DQ862460). Kavalerovo (DQ862460), Svetlogorie (DQ862460)]. The fusion peptide necessary for flavivirus entry to cells of the three TBEV strains isolated from mosquitoes (Lazo MP36, Malyshevo and Sakhalin 6-11) has the canonical structure 98-DRGWGNHCGLFGKGSI-113 for the tick-borne flaviviruses. Amino acid transition H104G typical for the mosquito-borne flaviviruses was not found. Structures of 5’- and 3’-untranslated (UTR) regions of the TBEV strains from mosquitoes were 85-98% homologous to the TBEV strains of all subtypes without recombination with mosquito-borne flaviviruses found in the Far East of Russia. Secondary structures of 5’- and 3'-UTR as well as cyclization sequences (CS) of types a and B are highly homologous for all TBEV isolates independently of the biological hosts and vectors. similarity of the genomes of the TBEV isolates from mosquitoes, ticks and patients as well as pathogenicity of the isolates for new-borne laboratory mice and tissue cultures might suggest a possible role of mosquitoes in the TBEV circulation in natural foci as an accidental or additional virus carrier.
PubMed ID
29323844 View in PubMed
Less detail

Comparative genomics of Vibrio cholerae El Tor strains isolated at epidemic complications in Siberia and at the Far East.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature299206
Source
Infect Genet Evol. 2018 06; 60:80-88
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
06-2018
Author
Liliya V Mironova
Anna S Gladkikh
Anna S Ponomareva
Sergey I Feranchuk
Nikita ? Bochalgin
Evgenii A Basov
Zhanna Yu Khunkheeva
Sergey V Balakhonov
Author Affiliation
Irkutsk Antiplague Research Institute of Rospotrebnadzor, 78, Trillisser str., Irkutsk 664047, Russia.
Source
Infect Genet Evol. 2018 06; 60:80-88
Date
06-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Cholera - epidemiology - microbiology
DNA, Bacterial - analysis - genetics
Far East - epidemiology
Genomics
Humans
Phylogeny
Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide - genetics
Russia - epidemiology
Siberia - epidemiology
Vibrio cholerae O1 - classification - genetics
Abstract
The territory of Siberia and the Far East of Russia is classified as epidemically safe for cholera; however, in the 1970s and 1990s a number of infection importation cases and acute outbreaks associated with the cholera importation were reported. Here, we analyze genomes of four Vibrio cholerae El Tor strains isolated from humans during epidemic complications (imported cases, an outbreak) in the 1990s. The analyzed strains harbor the classical allele of the cholera toxin subunit B gene (ctxB1); thus, belong to genetically altered variants of the El Tor biotype. Analysis of the genomes revealed their high homology with the V. cholerae N16961 reference strain: 85-93 SNPs were identified in the core genome as compared to the reference. The determined features of SNPs in the CTX prophage made it possible to propose the presence of a new subtype - CTX-2a in two strains; the other two strains carried the prophage of CTX-3 type. Results of phylogenetic analysis based on SNP-typing demonstrated that two strains belonged to the second wave, and two - to the early third wave of cholera dissemination in the world. Phylogenetic reconstruction in combination with epidemiological data permitted to trace the origin of the strains and the way of their importation to the Russian Federation directly or through temporary cholera foci.
PubMed ID
29462719 View in PubMed
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Comparison of cancer stage distribution in the immigrant and host populations of Norway, 1990-2014.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature285521
Source
Int J Cancer. 2017 Jul 01;141(1):52-61
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-01-2017
Author
Håvard Thøgersen
Bjørn Møller
Trude Eid Robsahm
Stein Aaserud
Ronnie Babigumira
Inger Kristin Larsen
Source
Int J Cancer. 2017 Jul 01;141(1):52-61
Date
Jul-01-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Africa South of the Sahara - epidemiology
Aged
Asia - epidemiology
Asian Continental Ancestry Group
Breast Neoplasms - epidemiology - pathology
Cohort Studies
Emigrants and Immigrants
Epidemiological Monitoring
Far East - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Neoplasm Staging
Norway - epidemiology
Abstract
Cancer stage at diagnosis is the most important prognostic factor for survival. We conducted a nationwide, population-based cohort study to investigate cancer stage distribution in immigrants compared to the host population of Norway. All patients recorded in the Cancer Registry of Norway in 1990-2014 were included (17,709 immigrants and 431,936 Norwegians). Individual level sociodemographic data was obtained from Statistics Norway. Ordered logistic regression was used to estimate if immigrants were diagnosed with cancer at a more advanced stage than Norwegians. Seven cancer sites were analyzed (breast, cervix, colorectal, liver, lung and trachea, prostate and stomach). With exception of breast cancer, we did not observe a clear pattern of more advanced cancer stage distribution in immigrants compared to Norwegians. Odds ratios and corresponding 95% confidence intervals for being diagnosed with a more advanced stage of breast cancer for non-Western immigrant groups compared to Norwegians were: Eastern Europe: 1.41 (1.20-1.65), Middle East: 1.58 (1.19-2.10), sub-Saharan Africa: 1.44 (0.99-2.08), South Asia: 1.40 (1.07-1.83) and East Asia: 0.90 (0.72-1.13). Sub-analyses showed that late detection of breast cancer in young non-Western immigrants might be of particular concern. Young (
PubMed ID
28369751 View in PubMed
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The contribution of outdoor air pollution sources to premature mortality on a global scale.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature267018
Source
Nature. 2015 Sep 17;525(7569):367-71
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-17-2015
Author
J. Lelieveld
J S Evans
M. Fnais
D. Giannadaki
A. Pozzer
Source
Nature. 2015 Sep 17;525(7569):367-71
Date
Sep-17-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Agriculture - statistics & numerical data
Air Pollutants - adverse effects - poisoning
Air Pollution - adverse effects
Atmosphere - chemistry
Biomass
Child, Preschool
China - epidemiology
Cooking - statistics & numerical data
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects
Environmental monitoring
Europe - epidemiology
Far East - epidemiology
Fires - statistics & numerical data
Heating - statistics & numerical data
Humans
India - epidemiology
Infant
Internationality
Middle Aged
Mortality, Premature - trends
Ozone - adverse effects - analysis - poisoning
Particulate Matter - adverse effects - poisoning
Power Plants - statistics & numerical data
Rural Health - statistics & numerical data
Russia - epidemiology
United States - epidemiology
Urban Health - statistics & numerical data
Vehicle Emissions - poisoning
Abstract
Assessment of the global burden of disease is based on epidemiological cohort studies that connect premature mortality to a wide range of causes, including the long-term health impacts of ozone and fine particulate matter with a diameter smaller than 2.5 micrometres (PM2.5). It has proved difficult to quantify premature mortality related to air pollution, notably in regions where air quality is not monitored, and also because the toxicity of particles from various sources may vary. Here we use a global atmospheric chemistry model to investigate the link between premature mortality and seven emission source categories in urban and rural environments. In accord with the global burden of disease for 2010 (ref. 5), we calculate that outdoor air pollution, mostly by PM2.5, leads to 3.3 (95 per cent confidence interval 1.61-4.81) million premature deaths per year worldwide, predominantly in Asia. We primarily assume that all particles are equally toxic, but also include a sensitivity study that accounts for differential toxicity. We find that emissions from residential energy use such as heating and cooking, prevalent in India and China, have the largest impact on premature mortality globally, being even more dominant if carbonaceous particles are assumed to be most toxic. Whereas in much of the USA and in a few other countries emissions from traffic and power generation are important, in eastern USA, Europe, Russia and East Asia agricultural emissions make the largest relative contribution to PM2.5, with the estimate of overall health impact depending on assumptions regarding particle toxicity. Model projections based on a business-as-usual emission scenario indicate that the contribution of outdoor air pollution to premature mortality could double by 2050.
Notes
Comment In: Nature. 2015 Sep 17;525(7569):330-126381981
PubMed ID
26381985 View in PubMed
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[Epidemiology, clinical aspects and prevention of borderline conditions in the regions of Siberia and Far East]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature73697
Source
Zh Nevropatol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova. 1991;91(12):7-11
Publication Type
Article
Date
1991
Author
V Ia Semke
B S Polozhii
E D Krasik
O A Vasil'eva
G V Zalevskii
N A Kornetov
Source
Zh Nevropatol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova. 1991;91(12):7-11
Date
1991
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Borderline Personality Disorder - epidemiology - prevention & control - therapy
Community Mental Health Services - organization & administration
Comparative Study
English Abstract
Far East - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Male
Neurotic Disorders - epidemiology - prevention & control - therapy
Occupational Diseases - epidemiology - prevention & control - therapy
Occupational Health Services - organization & administration
Prevalence
Siberia - epidemiology
Abstract
The problem of borderline conditions in the population of Siberia and the Far East is analyzed from the standpoint of a comprehensive multidisciplinary approach. The authors established the indicators, close to the real ones, of the prevalence of borderline disorders, exceeding many times the formal statistic data. Evidence is given of the role of certain personality parameters (rigidity, anxiety) and biological factors (the status of the immune and hormonal systems) in the formation and course of borderline conditions. The clinical studies carried out over time made it possible to specify definite stages in the development of borderline pathology. 3 stages were delineated: initial disorders or reactions; neurotic or neurosis-like conditions; neurotic or pathological developments of the personality. The authors demonstrate imperfection of the existing systems of psychiatric aid in respect to patients with borderline disorders and provide evidence for the necessity of organizing psychiatric services outside dispensary aid. Novel organizational models (the center for borderline conditions, the center for mental health care at industrial enterprises, municipal psychohygienic consultation) developed by the authors are provided as prognosis. These structures made it possible to enhance the efficacy of prevention and treatment of borderline conditions.
PubMed ID
1666718 View in PubMed
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Evidence for an "epidemic" of myopia.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature6682
Source
Ann Acad Med Singapore. 2004 Jan;33(1):21-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2004
Author
D J J Park
N G Congdon
Author Affiliation
Johns Hopkins University Schools of Medicine, Baltimore, USA.
Source
Ann Acad Med Singapore. 2004 Jan;33(1):21-6
Date
Jan-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Far East - epidemiology
Humans
Inuits
Japan - epidemiology
Myopia - epidemiology - genetics
Prevalence
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
United States - epidemiology
Abstract
INTRODUCTION: It has been widely suggested that the prevalence of myopia is growing worldwide, and that the increases observed in East Asia, in particular, are sufficiently severe as to warrant the term "epidemic". Data in favour of a cohort effect in myopia prevalence are reviewed, with attention to significant shortcomings in the quality of available evidence. Additional factors contributing to myopia prevalence, including near work, genetics and socioeconomic status, are detailed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Medline search of articles regarding myopia prevalence, trends and mechanisms. RESULTS: Age-related changes in myopia prevalence (increase during childhood, and regression in the fifth and sixth decades) are discussed as an alternative explanation for cross-sectional patterns in myopia prevalence. There have only been a handful of studies that have examined the relative contribution of longitudinal changes in refraction over life and birth cohort differences on age-specific myopia prevalence as measured in cross-sectional studies. Available data suggest that both longitudinal changes and cohort effects may be present, and that their relative contribution may differ in different racial groups. CONCLUSIONS: In view of the relatively weak evidence in favour of a large cohort effect for myopia in East Asia, and the even greater lack of evidence for increased prevalence of secondary ocular pathology, there appears to be inadequate support for large-scale interventions to prevent or delay myopia at the present time.
Notes
Comment In: Ann Acad Med Singapore. 2004 Jul;33(4):541-3; author reply 543; discussion 54415344259
PubMed ID
15008557 View in PubMed
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Food and water security issues in Russia I: food security in the general population of the Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East, 2000-2011.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature105147
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2013;72:21848
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
Author
Alexey A Dudarev
Pavel R Alloyarov
Valery S Chupakhin
Eugenia V Dushkina
Yuliya N Sladkova
Vitaliy M Dorofeyev
Tatijana A Kolesnikova
Kirill B Fridman
Lena Maria Nilsson
Birgitta Evengård
Author Affiliation
Northwest Public Health Research Center, St. Petersburg, Russia.
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2013;72:21848
Date
2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Arctic Regions - epidemiology
Costs and Cost Analysis
Diet - economics - standards - statistics & numerical data
Far East - epidemiology
Food Contamination - analysis - statistics & numerical data
Food Microbiology - statistics & numerical data
Food Safety
Food Supply - economics - standards - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Malnutrition - economics - epidemiology - etiology
Nutrition Surveys
Nutritional Requirements - physiology
Russia - epidemiology
Siberia - epidemiology
Abstract
Problems related to food security in Russian Arctic (dietary imbalance, predominance of carbohydrates, shortage of milk products, vegetables and fruits, deficit of vitamins and microelements, chemical, infectious and parasitic food contamination) have been defined in the literature. But no standard protocol of food security assessment has been used in the majority of studies.
Our aim was to obtain food security indicators, identified within an Arctic collaboration, for selected regions of the Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East, and to compare food safety in these territories.
In 18 regions of the Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East, the following indicators of food security were analyzed: food costs, food consumption, and chemical and biological food contamination for the period 2000-2011.
Food costs in the regions are high, comprising 23-43% of household income. Only 4 out of 10 food groups (fish products, cereals, sugar, plant oil) are consumed in sufficient amounts. The consumption of milk products, eggs, vegetables, potatoes, fruits (and berries) is severely low in a majority of the selected regions. There are high levels of biological contamination of food in many regions. The biological and chemical contamination situation is alarming, especially in Chukotka. Only 7 food pollutants are under regular control; among pesticides, only DDT. Evenki AO and Magadan Oblast have reached peak values in food contaminants compared with other regions. Mercury in local fish has not been analyzed in the majority of the regions. In 3 regions, no monitoring of DDT occurs. Aflatoxins have not been analyzed in 5 regions. Nitrates had the highest percentage in excess of the hygienic threshold in all regions. Excesses of other pollutants in different regions were episodic and as a rule not high.
Improvement of the food supply and food accessibility in the regions of the Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East is of utmost importance. Both quantitative and qualitative control of chemical and biological contaminants in food is insufficient and demands radical enhancement aimed at improving food security.
Notes
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Cites: Int J Circumpolar Health. 2013;72. doi: 10.3402/ijch.v72i0.2153023940840
PubMed ID
24471055 View in PubMed
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Food and water security issues in Russia III: food- and waterborne diseases in the Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East, 2000-2011.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature105572
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2013;72:21856
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
Author
Alexey A Dudarev
Vitaliy M Dorofeyev
Eugenia V Dushkina
Pavel R Alloyarov
Valery S Chupakhin
Yuliya N Sladkova
Tatjana A Kolesnikova
Kirill B Fridman
Lena Maria Nilsson
Birgitta Evengard
Author Affiliation
Northwest Public Health Research Center, St. Petersburg, Russia.
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2013;72:21856
Date
2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Arctic Regions - epidemiology
Far East - epidemiology
Food Contamination
Foodborne Diseases - epidemiology - etiology
Humans
Incidence
Russia - epidemiology
Sanitation - standards - statistics & numerical data
Sewage - adverse effects
Siberia - epidemiology
Water Microbiology
Water Pollution - adverse effects - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
The food- and waterborne disease situation in Russia requires special attention. Poor quality of centralized water supplies and sewage systems, biological and chemical contamination of drinking water, as well as contamination of food products, promote widespread infectious diseases, significantly exceeding nationwide rates in the population living in the two-thirds of Russian northern territories.
The general aim was to assess the levels of food- and waterborne diseases in selected regions of Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East (for the period 2000-2011), and to compare disease levels among regions and with national levels in Russia.
This study is the first comparative assessment of the morbidity in these fields of the population of 18 selected regions of Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East, using official statistical sources. The incidences of infectious and parasitic food- and waterborne diseases among the general population (including indigenous peoples) have been analyzed in selected regions (per 100,000 of population, averaged for 2000-2011).
Among compulsory registered infectious and parasitic diseases, there were high rates and widespread incidences in selected regions of shigellosis, yersiniosis, hepatitis A, tularaemia, giardiasis, enterobiasis, ascariasis, diphyllobothriasis, opistorchiasis, echinococcosis and trichinellosis.
Incidences of infectious and parasitic food- and waterborne diseases in the general population of selected regions of the Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East (2000-2011) are alarmingly high. Parallel solutions must be on the agenda, including improvement of sanitary conditions of cities and settlements in the regions, modernization of the water supply and of the sewage system. Provision and monitoring of the quality of the drinking water, a reform of the general healthcare system and the epidemiological surveillance (including gender-divided statistics), enhancement of laboratory diagnostics and the introduction of preventive actions are urgently needed.
Notes
Cites: Int J Circumpolar Health. 2013;72. doi: 10.3402/ijch.v72i0.2153023940840
Cites: Gig Sanit. 2002 Jan-Feb;(1):6611899884
PubMed ID
24350064 View in PubMed
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Global overview of injecting drug use and HIV infection among injecting drug users.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature7186
Source
AIDS. 2004 Nov 19;18(17):2295-303
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-19-2004
Author
Carmen Aceijas
Gerry V Stimson
Matthew Hickman
Tim Rhodes
Author Affiliation
Centre for Research on Drugs and Health Behaviour (CRDHB), Department of Primary Care and Social Medicine, Imperial College, London, UK. c.aceijas@imperial.ac.uk
Source
AIDS. 2004 Nov 19;18(17):2295-303
Date
Nov-19-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Africa - epidemiology
Asia, Central - epidemiology
Asia, Southeastern - epidemiology
Data Collection
Europe - epidemiology
Far East - epidemiology
HIV Infections - complications - epidemiology
Humans
Latin America - epidemiology
Middle Aged
Middle East - epidemiology
Prevalence
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Seroepidemiologic Studies
Substance Abuse, Intravenous - complications - epidemiology
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To provide global estimates of the prevalence of injecting drug use (IDU) and HIV prevalence among IDU, in particular to provide estimates for developing and transitional countries. METHODS: Collation and review of existing estimates of IDU prevalence and HIV prevalence from published and unpublished documents for the period 1998-2003. The strength of evidence for the information was assessed based on the source and type of study. RESULTS: Estimates of IDU prevalence were available for 130 countries. The number of IDU worldwide was estimated as approximately 13.2 million. Over ten million (78%) live in developing and transitional countries (Eastern Europe and Central Asia, 3.1 million; South and South-east Asia, 3.3 million; East-Asia and Pacific, 2.3 million). Estimates of HIV prevalence were available for 78 countries. HIV prevalence among IDU of over 20% was reported for at least one site in 25 countries and territories: Belarus, Estonia, Kazakhstan, Russia, Ukraine, Italy, Netherlands, Portugal, Serbia and Montenegro, Spain, Libya, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Thailand, Viet Nam, China, Argentina, Brazil, Uruguay, Puerto Rico, USA and Canada. CONCLUSIONS: These findings update previous assessments of the number of countries with IDU and HIV-infected IDU, and the previous quantitative global estimates of the prevalence of IDU. However, gaps remain in the information and the strength of the evidence often was weak.
PubMed ID
15577542 View in PubMed
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22 records – page 1 of 3.