F.F.Erisman Federal Research Center for Hygiene is a leading hygienic scientific centre of the Federal Service for Supervision in the Field of Consumer Rights Protection and Human Well-Being widely known in this country and abroad. The history of FRCH can be arbitrarily divided into the following three periods: prerevolutionary (1891-1917), Soviet (1917-1991), and modern (1991-the present time). The first period is the time of life and work of Fyedor Fyedorovich Erisman, professor of Moscow University and the founder of scientific hygiene in Russia. The second period is characterized by realization of F.F.Erisman's ideas based on achievements in biology, natural and experimental studies. The third period is associated with the name of professor A.I. Potapov, member of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences. His authority, scientific experience, and organizational work made it possible to come out with credit of a most difficult situation in Russian science. Scientific, historical and staff-related issues are considered.
A journey has been made through Norwegian literature of the last century for the purpose of presenting to the readers of this journal what is to be found of literature describing doctors. The purpose was also to find literary interpretations of the historical evolution of the doctor's role. A characteristic common to all the doctors in the study is that they all suffer from various personal problems such as neuroses, drug abuse, overindulgence in alcohol, family problems, loneliness, maltreatment of children, suicide or murder. A closer study of the description of six local doctors shows small changes in work structure and social relations during the century, but more popular behaviour is found in the portrayal of more modern characters. Good and rich portraits of doctors in Norwegian literature are rare. Those that are found have been created to describe personal or social problems rather than to tell especially what it is like to be a doctor.
The similarity between psychotic symptoms and aspects of mystical experiences is well known. It has long been recognized that there are similarities between mystical and spiritual and psychotic experiences. The content of an experience alone usually does not determine whether an individual is psychotic. The Russian composer Scriabin (1872-1915) was among the most famous artists of his time. Scriabin infused his music with mysticism, evolving a modernistic idiom through which he created a musical counterpart to the Symbolist literature of that period. In this paper, we discuss the question that arises from perusing Scriabin's life is whether the composer was a mystic genius or whether he suffered from affective psychopathology with psychotic features.
The great Russian poet Aleksandr Pushkin (1799-1837) died 46 hours after being wounded by a pistol shot in a duel. The bullet penetrated the right pelvic bone, continued through the lower abdomen, and crushed the right part of the sacral bone. Biographical events leading to the duel are presented in the article, which also reviews articles in Russian medical journals describing the extent of the trauma and discussing the treatment possibilities at the time of the duel as well as present-day treatment. It is concluded that death was caused by peritonitis and that only modern extensive abdominal and orthopaedic surgery combined with antibiotic treatment could have saved the poet's life.
The data on Dostoevsky's epilepsy are ambiguous and often contradictory. It prompted consideration of certain genetic aspects of the writer 's pedigree for the clarification of this issue. The phenomenon of Dostoevsky's genius was for the first time contemplated from the standpoint of the contribution of genetic factors to his creative work. It was shown that Dostoevsky's ancestry can not be a source of hereditary predisposition to epilepsy. The available data question the genuine nature of his disease. Characteristic of Dostoevsky's ancestry is the wide occurrence of "creativeness" genes. Their cumulation together with a number of other factors verified in the writer can account for the phenomenon of his genius.