This paper is an examination of the effectiveness of a programme (described in detail elsewhere) designed to admit whole families for short-term intensive assessment and treatment. The goals of this programme are to eliminate residential care for symptomatic children who are admitted with their families to this service, to decrease the length of stay of the symptomatic child in residential treatment, if this is required following admission of the whole family to this unit, and to provide these services at costs comparable to or less than that currently being spent with conventional residential treatment. Results stemming from a number of pre- and post-treatment measures indicate that one half of the children initially assessed and recommended for inpatient treatment had successfully avoided inpatient treatment for six months following admission of their family to this unit. For children recommended for residential care after admission of their families to the family unit, a reduction of approximately 35% of total time in residence occurred (when compared with a comparison group). A cost saving of over +12,000 per case was realized as a result of admission of the whole family when compared with residential treatment.
This article examines the effects of an Africentric youth and family rites of passage program on at-risk African American youths and their parents. Data were obtained from a three-year evaluation of a youth rites of passage demonstration project using therapeutic interventions based on Africentric principles. At-risk African American boys between ages 11.5 and 14.5 years with no history of substance abuse were referred from the criminal justice system, diversion programs, and local schools. The evaluation revealed that participating youths exhibited gains in self-esteem and accurate knowledge of the dangers of drug abuse. Although the differences were not statistically significant, parents demonstrated improvements in parenting skills, racial identity, cultural awareness, and community involvement. Evidence from interviews and focus groups suggests that the program's holistic, family-oriented, Africentric, strengths-based approach and indigenous staff contributed to its success.
This paper, following a brief historical note, reviews the literature on anorexia nervosa. It begins by describing the characteristics of the syndrome and then considers incidence, aetiology and treatment. The results of treatment are described and the paper concludes by attempting a prognosis for those who are diagnosed anorexic. The authors are eclectic in their literature survey and also present some experience collected in a hospital school. The paper is intended as a teaching synthesis for clinicians new to this area or for those seeking a brief introduction to the present 'state of the art' in theory and practice.
This paper reviews family transactional theories of incest and sexual abuse. Two main types of family are described: the chaotic family and the "endogamous" incestuous family. Some general features of incestuous and sexually abusive families are then discussed, after which some basic principles of clinical work with such families are considered.
In an evaluative study of brief family therapy, 279 families were administered a Family Satisfaction Questionnaire in their own homes, six months after treatment terminated. This questionnaire was designed to assess several aspects of the families' satisfaction with services received. The identified patient in all families was a child with academic and/or behavioral problems at school. A variety of outcome measures were also obtained both at treatment termination and at the six-month follow-up. Families were generally satisfied with the overall services received but expressed widely varying degrees of satisfaction with various aspects of treatment. Very little dissatisfaction was expressed regarding the availability of services (less than 7 per cent), but a sizeable proportion of families (45 per cent) did not feel that the services provided were comprehensive and adequate. Despite concerns regarding comprehensiveness and adequacy of the service, the majority of families were functioning well at the time of follow-up as assessed by a number of independent measures. Global satisfaction should not be regarded as the only index of treatment effectiveness, as many families who were dissatisfied experienced successful treatment outcomes.
To test the effectiveness of a two-to-three session family therapeutic conversation intervention (FAM-TCI) for primary and partner caregivers of children and adolescents in active cancer treatment on perceived family support and on expressive family functioning.
Quasiexperimental; one group pre- and post-test.
Inpatient cancer unit and a day treatment cancer unit at the Children's Hospital in Reykjavik, Iceland.
19 parent caregivers (10 primary, 9 partner) of children in active cancer medical treatment.
The caregivers completed baseline measure questionnaires and were offered the first sessions of the FAM-TCI. About four to eight weeks later, the second session was administered and then the caregivers were offered a third session, if needed, one week later. When the caregivers had finished all sessions, they answered the same set of questionnaires about one week later.
The FAM-TCI for primary and partner caregivers, family support, and expressive family functioning.
Primary caregivers perceived significantly higher family support after the intervention compared to before. Those caregivers also reported significantly higher expressive family functioning and significantly higher emotional communication after the intervention. Partner caregivers, however, reported significantly lower verbal communication after the FAM-TCI compared to before.
Shortening hospital stays in pediatric oncology populations has focused attention on effective short-term psychosocial interventions. The FAM-TCI is promising as an effective short-term intervention but requires additional testing.
The FAM-TCI strengthened pediatric oncology caregivers in their caregiving activities and was found to benefit primary caregivers regarding their perception of family support and expressive family functioning; therefore, the intervention might benefit future families of children and adolescents in active cancer treatment.
The FAM-TCI was brief, easy to provide, and well fitted. Pediatric oncology nurses can offer brief, beneficial interventions to families of children and adolescents with cancer who are in active treatment. Knowing that primary caregivers experienced support and information may result in more effective evidence-based family care.