Diabetes prevalence is associated with low socioeconomic status (SES), but less is known about the relationship between SES and diabetes incidence.
Data from eight cycles of the National Population Health Survey (1994/1995 through 2008/2009) are used. A sample of 5,547 women and 6,786 men aged 18 or older who did not have diabetes in 1994/1995 was followed to determine if household income and educational attainment were associated with increased risk of diagnosis of or death from diabetes by 2008/2009. Three proportional hazards models were applied for income and for education--for men, for women and for both sexes combined. Independent variables were measured at baseline (1994/1995). Diabetes diagnosis was assessed by self-report of diagnosis by a health professional. Diabetes death was based on ICD-10 codes E10-E14.
Among people aged 18 or older in 1994/1995 who were free of diabetes, 7.2% of men and 6.3% of women had developed or died from the disease by 2008/2009. Lower-income women were more likely to develop type 2 diabetes than were those in high-income households. This association was attenuated, but not eliminated, by ethno-cultural background and obesity/overweight. Associations with lower educational attainment in unadjusted models were almost completely mediated by demographic and behavioural variables.
Social gradients in diabetes incidence cannot be explained entirely by demographic and behavioural variables.
An analysis of the data from the 1981 census of Canada is presented concerning the aboriginal population aged 15 to 24, defined as including the Inuit, status Indian, non-status Indian, and Metis populations. Comparisons are made with the non-aboriginal population. Factors considered include geographic location, migration, family status, dependent children, educational status, labor force participation, unemployment, income, and industry.
This paper examines a number of demographic and sociocultural factors (e.g., age, marital status, family size, religion, religious assiduity, sex-role ideology) as predictors of women's attitudes toward abortion, using data from the Canadian Fertility Survey of 1984. The findings suggest that women's abortion attitudes are to a greater extent based on ideological positions. It appears that anti-abortion stance affects those women who are religious, presumably by increasing the relationship between their general sex-role ideological stances and abortion attitudes. Abortion attitudes also vary according to a woman's education, her size, and province/region of residence.
Household studies in the two recently concluded Swedish pertussis vaccine efficacy trials demonstrated that one monocomponent and one five-component candidate acellular pertussis vaccine had reasonably good protective efficacy against clinically typical pertussis after household exposure. Another recently concluded German household study, led from Mainz, also demonstrated reasonably good efficacy for a three-component acellular pertussis vaccine. The methods of case ascertainment and duration of follow-up had a marked influence on the efficacy estimates of another candidate two-component acellular pertussis vaccine. This vaccine and a U.S. licensed commercial whole-cell vaccine had very low efficacy against pertussis infection after household exposure. Differences in methodology preclude direct comparisons between the efficacy estimates obtained in various household studies.
The present study, which is part of a multipurpose study on alcohol use among women, focuses on the association between education, occupation, family structure and development of alcohol dependence or abuse in women. A total of 316 women were selected by stratified random sampling from all women in a defined part of Gothenburg, Sweden. In a face to face interview, questions were asked about occupation, education, family structure and other variables reflecting socioeconomic conditions and relations within the family. As outcome measures we used alcohol dependence and abuse (ADA), diagnosed in a clinical interview according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Third Edition-Revised (DSM-III-R). We found that never having been married, or having poor communication with the spouse, as well as having no children at home to take care of, were strongly associated with ADA in women. The role of social class depended on whether education or occupation was used as a measure. Our findings are compatible with the hypothesis that development of alcohol-related problems among women to a large extent is influenced by matters that relate to home and private life.
The 1984 Canada Health Act (CHA) is the major piece of Federal legislation that governs health care accessibility in the provinces and territories. According to the CHA, all provinces and territories in Canada must uphold five principles in order to receive federal funding for health care (universality, comprehensiveness, portability, public administration, and accessibility). In Canada, there are competing views among policy makers and consumers about how the CHA's principle of accessibility should be defined, interpreted and used in delivering health care. During the 1990s, the health care perceptions of Canadians and their health care behaviours were measured through both public opinion polls and Statistics Canada's National Population Health Survey (NPHS). The goal of this paper is to examine perceptions of accessibility in public opinion polls and actual accessibility as measured through the NPHS. Public opinion polls demonstrate that while Canadians want to preserve the principles of the CHA, a majority of Canadians are losing confidence in their health care system. In contrast, the results from the NPHS reveal that only 6% of Canadians aged 25 years and older have experienced accessibility problems. Among those who report access problems, the barriers to accessibility are linked to specific socio-economic, socio-demographic and health characteristics of individuals. We discuss these findings in the context of the current debates surrounding accessibility within the CHA and the Canadian health care system.
Reproductive technology has made a huge impact on society, exposing many long-standing, unresolved anomalies in our values and traditions. Access to medically assisted reproduction is particularly controversial, raising medical, legal and ethical issues. The 1980s saw increasing demands across several jurisdictions for clear legal rules, the hope being expressed in Canada that "the law may reflect the community's level of tolerance; but...also stretch or fashion it in the interests of a worthy goal." The Canadian Law Reform Commission recommended that, with regard to donor insemination, "protection for the traditional family should not be incorporated in legislation" and that "access should be limited only in terms of the cost and scarcity of resources", selection not being based on "family status, sexual orientation and so on". This paper attempts a comparative examination of UK legislation on reproductive technology in this light, with particular focus on the rationing of access to donor insemination.
Bacterial, nonnecrotizing cellulitis is a localized and often recurrent infection of the skin. The aim of this study was to identify the beta-hemolytic streptococci that cause acute nonnecrotizing cellulitis infection in Finland.
A case-control study of 90 patients hospitalized for acute cellulitis and 90 control subjects was conducted during the period of April 2004-March 2005. Bacterial swab samples were obtained from skin lesions or any abrasion or fissured toe web. Blood culture samples were taken for detection of bacteremia. The patients, their household members, and control subjects were assessed for pharyngeal carrier status. beta-Hemolytic streptococci and Staphylococcus aureus were isolated and identified, and group A and G streptococcal isolates were further analyzed by T serotyping and emm and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis typing.
beta-Hemolytic streptococci were isolated from 26 (29%) of 90 patients, 2 isolates of which were blood-culture positive for group G streptococci, and 24 patients had culture-positive skin lesions. Group G Streptococcus (Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis) was found most often and was isolated from 22% of patient samples of either skin lesions or blood, followed by group A Streptococcus, which was found in 7% of patients. Group G streptococci were also carried in the pharynx of 7% of patients and 13% of household members but was missing from control subjects. Several emm and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis types were present among the isolates. Six patients (7%) had recurrent infections during the study. In 2 patients, the group G streptococcal isolates recovered from skin lesions during 2 consecutive episodes had identical emm and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis types.
Group G streptococci, instead of group A streptococci, predominated in bacterial cellulitis. No clear predominance of a specific emm type was seen. The recurrent nature of cellulitis became evident during this study.